A Protein Complex from Human Milk Enhances the Activity of Antibiotics and Drugs against Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
ABSTRACT: Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of human tuberculosis (TB), has surpassed HIV/AIDS as the leading cause of death from a single infectious agent. The increasing occurrence of drug-resistant strains has become a major challenge for health care systems and, in some cases, has rendered TB untreatable. However, the development of new TB drugs has been plagued with high failure rates and costs. Alternative strategies to increase the efficacy of current TB treatment regimens include host-directed therapies or agents that make M. tuberculosis more susceptible to existing TB drugs. In this study, we show that HAMLET, an α-lactalbumin-oleic acid complex derived from human milk, has bactericidal activity against M. tuberculosis HAMLET consists of a micellar oleic acid core surrounded by a shell of partially denatured α-lactalbumin molecules and unloads oleic acid into cells upon contact with lipid membranes. At sublethal concentrations, HAMLET potentiated a remarkably broad array of TB drugs and antibiotics against M. tuberculosis For example, the minimal inhibitory concentrations of rifampin, bedaquiline, delamanid, and clarithromycin were decreased by 8- to 16-fold. HAMLET also killed M. tuberculosis and enhanced the efficacy of TB drugs inside macrophages, a natural habitat of M. tuberculosis Previous studies showed that HAMLET is stable after oral delivery in mice and nontoxic in humans and that it is possible to package hydrophobic compounds in the oleic acid core of HAMLET to increase their solubility and metabolic stability. The potential of HAMLET and other liprotides as drug delivery and sensitization agents in TB chemotherapy is discussed here.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Delamanid, bedaquiline, and linezolid have recently been approved for the treatment of multidrug- and extensively drug-resistant (MDR and XDR, respectively) tuberculosis (TB). To use these drugs effectively, drug susceptibility tests, including rapid molecular techniques, are required for accurate diagnosis and treatment. Furthermore, mutation analyses are needed to assess the potential for resistance. We evaluated the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of these three anti-TB drugs for Korean MDR and XDR clinical strains and mutations in genes related to resistance to these drugs. METHODS:MICs were determined for delamanid, bedaquiline, and linezolid using a microdilution method. The PCR products of drug resistance-related genes from 420 clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains were sequenced and aligned to those of M. tuberculosis H37Rv. RESULTS:The overall MICs for delamanid, bedaquiline, and linezolid ranged from ?0.025 to >1.6 mg/L, ?0.0312 to >4 mg/L, and ?0.125 to 1 mg/L, respectively. Numerous mutations were found in drug-susceptible and -resistant strains. We did not detect specific mutations associated with resistance to bedaquiline and linezolid. However, the Gly81Ser and Gly81Asp mutations were associated with resistance to delamanid. CONCLUSIONS:We determined the MICs of three anti-TB drugs for Korean MDR and XDR strains and identified various mutations in resistance-related genes. Further studies are needed to determine the genetic mechanisms underlying resistance to these drugs.
Project description:Multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a serious form of tuberculosis (TB). There is no recognized effective treatment for MDR-TB, although there are a number of publications that have reported positive results for MDR-TB. We performed a network meta-analysis to assess the efficacy and acceptability of potential antitubercular drugs. We conducted a network meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials to compare the efficacy and acceptability of five antitubercular drugs, bedaquiline, delamanid, levofloxacin, metronidazole and moxifloxacin in the treatment of MDR-TB. We included eleven suitable trials from nine journal articles and six clinical trials from ClinicalTrials.gov, with data for 1472 participants. Bedaquiline (odds ratio [OR] 2.69, 95% CI 1.02-7.43), delamanid (OR 2.45, 95% CI 1.36-4.89) and moxifloxacin (OR 2.47, 95% CI 1.01, 7.31) were significantly more effective than placebo. For efficacy, the results indicated no statistical significance between each antitubercular drug. For acceptability, the results indicated no statistically significant difference between each compared intervention. There is insufficient evidence to suggest that any one of the five antitubercular drugs (bedaquiline, delamanid, levofloxacin, metronidazole and moxifloxacin) has superior efficacy compared to the others.
Project description:The new drugs delamanid and bedaquiline are increasingly used to treat multidrug-resistant (MDR-) and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB). As evidence is lacking, the World Health Organization recommends their use under specific conditions in adults, delamanid only being recommended in children ?6 years of age. No systematic review has yet evaluated the efficacy, safety and tolerability of the new drugs in children. A search of peer-reviewed, scientific evidence was performed, to evaluate the efficacy/effectiveness, safety, and tolerability of delamanid or bedaquiline-containing regimens in children with confirmed M/XDR-TB. We used PubMed and Embase to identify any relevant manuscripts in English until 31 December 2016, excluding editorials and reviews. Three out of 96 manuscripts retrieved satisfied the inclusion criteria, while 93 were excluded because dealing exclusively with adults (12: 4 on delamanid and 8 on bedaquiline), being recommendations or guidelines (8 manuscripts), reviews (17 papers) or other studies (56 papers). One of the studies retrieved reported evidence on 19 M/XDR-TB children, 16 of them treated under compassionate use with delamanid (13 achieving consistent bacteriological conversion) and 3 candidates for the drug. Two studies reported details on the first paediatric case treated (and cured) with a delamanid-containing regimen. Eight trials including children were also retrieved (clinicaltrials.gov). Although the methodology used in the study was rigorous, the results are limited by the paucity of the studies available in the literature on the use of new anti-TB drugs in children. In conclusion, more evidence is needed on the use of delamanid and bedaquiline in paediatric patients.
Project description:Background:Limited data exist on the use of bedaquiline and delamanid in adolescents with rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis (RR-TB). We describe RR-TB treatment of adolescents (10-19 years) with injectable-free regimens containing these drugs in Khayelitsha, South Africa. Methods:This retrospective study included adolescents initiating injectable-free RR-TB treatment regimens containing bedaquiline and/or delamanid from February 2015 to June 2018. We report adverse events (AEs) of interest, sputum culture conversion (SCC), and final end-of-treatment outcomes. Findings:Twenty-two patients were included; median age at treatment initiation was 17 years (interquartile range [IQR] 15-18), and six (27%) were HIV-positive (median CD4 count 191 cells/mm3 [IQR 157-204]). Eight (36%) patients had RR-TB with fluoroquinolone resistance; ten (45%), eight (36%), and four (18%) patients received regimens containing bedaquiline, delamanid, or the combination of bedaquiline and delamanid, respectively. The median durations of exposure to bedaquiline and delamanid were 5·6 (IQR 5·5-8·4) and 9·4 (IQR 5·9-14·4) months, respectively. There were 49 AEs of interest which occurred in 17 (77%) patients. Fourteen (64%) patients had pulmonary TB with positive sputum cultures at bedaquiline and/or delamanid initiation; among these SCC at month 6 was 79%. Final end-of-treatment outcomes for the 22 adolescent were: 17 (77%) successfully treated, two (9%) lost-to-follow-up, two (9%) treatment failed, and one (5%) died. Interpretation:This study found that injectable-free regimens containing bedaquiline and/or delamanid in a programmatic setting were effective and well tolerated in adolescents and should be routinely provided for RR-TB treatment in this age group as recommended by the World Health Organisation.
Project description:Treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is complex, lengthy, and involves a minimum of four drugs termed a background regimen (BR), that have not previously been prescribed or that have proven susceptible to patient sputum culture isolates. In recent years, promising new treatment options have emerged as add-on therapies to a BR. The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term costs and effectiveness of adding the novel or group 5 interventions bedaquiline, delamanid, and linezolid to a background regimen (BR) of drugs for the treatment of adult patients with pulmonary multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), within their marketing authorisations, from a German healthcare cost-effectiveness perspective.A cohort-based Markov model was developed to simulate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of bedaquiline plus BR, delamanid plus BR, or linezolid plus BR versus BR alone in the treatment of MDR-TB, over a 10-year time horizon. Effectiveness of treatment was evaluated in Quality-Adjusted Life-Years (QALYs) and Life-Years Gained (LYG), using inputs from clinical trials for bedaquiline and delamanid and from a German observational study for linezolid. Cost data were obtained from German Drug Directory costs (€/2015), published literature, and expert opinion. A 3% yearly discount rate was applied. Probabilistic and deterministic sensitivity analyses were conducted.The total discounted costs per-patient were €85,575 for bedaquiline plus BR, €81,079 for delamanid plus BR, and €80,460 for linezolid plus BR, compared with a cost of €60,962 for BR alone. The total discounted QALYs per-patient were 5.95 for bedaquiline plus BR, 5.36 for delamanid plus BR, and 3.91 for linezolid plus BR, compared with 3.68 for BR alone. All interventions were therefore associated with higher QALYs and higher costs than BR alone, with incremental costs per QALY gained of €22,238 for bedaquiline, €38,703 for delamanid, and €87,484 for linezolid, versus BR alone. In a fully incremental analysis, bedaquiline plus BR was the most cost-effective treatment option at thresholds greater than €22,000 per QALY gained. In probabilistic analyses, the probability that bedaquiline plus BR was the most cost-effective treatment strategy at a willingness-to-pay threshold of €30,000 was 54.5%, compared with 22.9% for BR alone, 18.2% for delamanid plus BR, and 4.4% for linezolid.In Germany, the addition of bedaquiline, delamanid, or linezolid to a BR would result in QALY gains over BR alone. Based on this analysis, bedaquiline is likely to be the most cost-effective intervention for the treatment of MDR-TB, when added to a BR regimen at thresholds greater than €22,000 per QALY.
Project description:New approaches to the treatment of multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) are badly needed. Not only is the success rate of current treatment regimens suboptimal but existing regimens require multiple drugs and lengthy courses and may lead to significant toxicities. The treatment landscape is beginning to shift, however, with the recent approvals of the new TB drugs bedaquiline and delamanid. Delamanid, a dihydro-imidazooxazole, has been shown to have excellent activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis in both in vitro and in murine TB models. It has also recently been reported to improve rates of sputum culture conversion in patients with multidrug-resistant TB when added to an optimized background regimen. Although generally well tolerated, delamanid has been associated with QT prolongation, which may be of particular clinical concern when paired with other TB drugs that may also have this effect, most notably the fluoroquinolones. Ongoing studies will help to clarify delamanid's role in the treatment of drug-resistant TB.
Project description:Although HAMLET (human α-lactalbumin made lethal to tumor cells), a complex formed by human α-lactalbumin and oleic acid, has a unique apoptotic activity for the selective killing of tumor cells, the molecular mechanisms of expression of the HAMLET activity are not well understood. Therefore, we studied the molecular properties of HAMLET and its goat counterpart, GAMLET (goat α-lactalbumin made lethal to tumor cells), by pulse field gradient NMR and 920-MHz two-dimensional NMR techniques. We also examined the expression of HAMLET-like activities of complexes between oleic acid and other proteins that form a stable molten globule state. We observed that both HAMLET and GAMLET at pH 7.5 were heterogeneous, composed of the native protein, the monomeric molten globule-like state, and the oligomeric species. At pH 2.0 and 50 °C, HAMLET and GAMLET appeared in the monomeric state, and we identified the oleic acid-binding site in the complexes by two-dimensional NMR. Rather surprisingly, the binding site thus identified was markedly different between HAMLET and GAMLET. Furthermore, canine milk lysozyme, apo-myoglobin, and β2-microglobulin all formed the HAMLET-like complex with the anti-tumor activity, when the protein was treated with oleic acid under conditions in which their molten globule states were stable. From these results, we conclude that the protein portion of HAMLET, GAMLET, and the other HAMLET-like protein-oleic acid complexes is not the origin of their cytotoxicity to tumor cells and that the protein portion of these complexes plays a role in the delivery of cytotoxic oleic acid molecules into tumor cells across the cell membrane.
Project description:BACKGROUND:At a time when programs were struggling to design effective regimens for the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), the marketing authorization of bedaquiline and delamanid was a critical development in the MDR-TB treatment landscape. However, despite their availability for routine programmatic use, the uptake of these drugs has remained slow; concerns included a lack of evidence on safety and efficacy and the need to protect the new drugs from the development of acquired resistance. As part of the endTB Project, we aimed to address these barriers by generating evidence on safety and efficacy of bedaquiline or delamanid based MDR-TB regimens. METHODS:This is a protocol for a multi-center prospective cohort study to enroll 2600 patients from April 2015 through September 2018 in 17 countries. The protocol describes inclusion of patients started on treatment with bedaquiline- or delamanid- containing regimens under routine care, who consented to participate in the endTB observational study. Patient follow-up was according to routine monitoring schedules recommended for patients receiving bedaquiline or delamanid as implemented at each endTB site. Therefore, no additional tests were performed as a part of the study. Data were to be collected in a customized, open-source electronic medical record (EMR) system developed as a part of the endTB Project across all 17 countries. DISCUSSION:The endTB observational study will generate evidence on safety and efficacy of bedaquiline- and delamanid-containing regimens in a large, extremely heterogeneous group of MDR-TB patients, from 17 epidemiologically diverse countries. The systematic, prospective data collection of repeated effectiveness and safety measures, and analyses performed on these data, will improve the quality of evidence available to inform MDR-TB treatment and policy decisions. Further, the resources available to countries through implementation of the endTB project will have permitted countries to: gain experience with the use of these drugs in MDR-TB regimens, improve local capacity to record and report adverse events (pharmacovigilance), and enhance significantly the body of data available for safety evaluation of these drugs and other novel treatments. TRIAL REGISTRATION:This study was registered on 24 August 2017 at clincaltrials.gov (Registration number: NCT03259269).
Project description:The new drugs delamanid and bedaquiline are increasingly being used to treat multidrug-resistant (MDR-) and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB). The World Health Organization, based on lack of evidence, recommends their use under specific conditions and not in combination. No systematic review has yet evaluated the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of delamanid and bedaquiline used in combination. A search of peer-reviewed, scientific evidence was carried out, aimed at evaluating the efficacy/effectiveness, safety, and tolerability of delamanid and bedaquiline-containing regimens in individuals with pulmonary/extrapulmonary disease, which were bacteriologically confirmed as M/XDR-TB. We used PubMed to identify any relevant manuscripts in English up to the 23 December 2016, excluding editorials and reviews. Three out of 75 manuscripts retrieved satisfied the inclusion criteria, whilst 72 were excluded for dealing with only one drug (three studies), being recommendations (one study) or identifying need for their use (one study), focusing on drug resistance aspects (six studies) or being generic reviews/other studies (61 papers). The studies retrieved reported two XDR-TB cases observed for six months and achieving consistent sputum smear and culture conversion. Case 2 experienced a short break of bedaquiline, which was re-started after introducing verapamil. After a transient and symptom-free increase of the QT interval from week 5 to 17, it then decreased below the 500 ms threshold.
Project description:HAMLET (Human Alpha-lactalbumin Made LEthal to Tumor cells) is the first member in a new family of protein-lipid complexes with broad tumoricidal activity. Elucidating the molecular structure and the domains crucial for HAMLET formation is fundamental for understanding its tumoricidal function. Here we present the low-resolution solution structure of the complex of oleic acid bound HAMLET, derived from small angle X-ray scattering data. HAMLET shows a two-domain conformation with a large globular domain and an extended part of about 2.22 nm in length and 1.29 nm width. The structure has been superimposed into the related crystallographic structure of human ?-lactalbumin, revealing that the major part of ?-lactalbumin accommodates well in the shape of HAMLET. However, the C-terminal residues from L105 to L123 of the crystal structure of the human ?-lactalbumin do not fit well into the HAMLET structure, resulting in an extended conformation in HAMLET, proposed to be required to form the tumoricidal active HAMLET complex with oleic acid. Consistent with this low resolution structure, we identified biologically active peptide epitopes in the globular as well as the extended domains of HAMLET. Peptides covering the alpha1 and alpha2 domains of the protein triggered rapid ion fluxes in the presence of sodium oleate and were internalized by tumor cells, causing rapid and sustained changes in cell morphology. The alpha peptide-oleate bound forms also triggered tumor cell death with comparable efficiency as HAMLET. In addition, shorter peptides corresponding to those domains are biologically active. These findings provide novel insights into the structural prerequisites for the dramatic effects of HAMLET on tumor cells.