Biodegradable Micelles for NIR/GSH-Triggered Chemophototherapy of Cancer.
ABSTRACT: The chemotherapy of stimuli-responsive drug delivery systems (SDDSs) is a promising method to enhance cancer treatment effects. However, the low efficiency of chemotherapy drugs and poor degradation partly limit the application of SDDSs. Herein, we report doxorubicin (DOX)-loading mixed micelles for biotin-targeting drug delivery and enhanced photothermal/photodynamic therapy (PTT/PDT). Glutathione (GSH)-responsive mixed micelles were prepared by a dialysis method, proportionally mixing polycaprolactone-disulfide bond-biodegradable photoluminescent polymer (PCL-SS-BPLP) and biotin-polyethylene glycol-cypate (biotin-PEG-cypate). Chemically linking cypate into the mixed micelles greatly improved cypate solubility and PTT/PDT effect. The micelles also exhibited good monodispersity and stability in cell medium (~119.7 nm), low critical micelles concentration, good biodegradation, and photodecomposition. The high concentration of GSH in cancer cells and near-infrared light (NIR)-mediated cypate decomposition were able to achieve DOX centralized release. Meanwhile, the DOX-based chemotherapy combined with cypate-based NIR-triggered hyperthermia and reactive oxygen species could synergistically induce HepG2 cell death and apoptosis. The in vivo experiments confirmed that the micelles generated hyperthermia and achieved a desirable therapeutic effect. Therefore, the designed biodegradable micelles are promising safe nanovehicles for antitumor drug delivery and chemo/PTT/PDT combination therapy.
Project description:Combination of photodynamic therapy (PDT) with photothermal therapy (PTT) has achieved significantly improved therapeutic efficacy compared to a single phototherapy modality. However, most nanomaterials used for combined PDT/PTT are made of non-biodegradable materials (e.g., gold nanorods, carbon nanotubes, and graphenes) and may remain intact in the body for long time, raising concerns over their potential long-term toxicity. Here we report a new combined PDT/PTT nanomedicine, designated SP3NPs, that exhibit photo-decomposable, photodynamic and photothermal properties. SP3NPs were prepared by self-assembly of PEGylated cypate, comprising FDA-approved PEG and an ICG derivative. We confirmed the ability of SP3NPs to generate both singlet oxygen for a photodynamic effect and heat for photothermal therapy in response to NIR laser irradiation in vitro. Also, the unique ability of SP3NPs to undergo irreversible decomposition upon NIR laser irradiation was demonstrated. Further our experimental results demonstrated that SP3NPs strongly accumulated in tumor tissue owing to their highly PEGylated surface and relatively small size (~60 nm), offering subsequent imaging-guided combined PDT/PTT treatment that resulted in tumor eradication and prolonged survival of mice. Taken together, our SP3NPs described here may represent a novel and facile approach for next-generation theranostics with great promise for translation into clinical practice in the future.
Project description:A combination of chemo- and photo-thermal therapy (PTT) has provided a promising efficient approach for cancer therapy. To achieve the superior synergistic chemotherapeutic effect with PTT, the development of a simple theranostic nanoplatform that can provide both cancer imaging and a spatial-temporal synchronism of both therapeutic approaches are highly desired. Our previous study has demonstrated that near-infrared (NIR) light-triggered biodegradable chitosan-based amphiphilic block copolymer micelles (SNSC) containing light-sensitive 2-nitrobenzyl alcohol and NIR dye cypate on the hydrophobic block could be used for fast light-triggered drug release. In this study, we conjugated the SNSC micelles with tumor targeting ligand c(RGDyK) and also encapsulated antitumor drug Paclitaxel (PTX). The results show that c(RGDyK)-modified micelles could enhance the targeting and residence time in tumor site, as well as be capable performing high temperature response for PTT on cancer cells and two-photon photolysis for fast release of anticancer drugs under NIR irradiation. In vitro release profiles show a significant controlled release effort that the release concentration of PTX from micelles was significantly increased with the exposure of NIR light. In vitro and in vivo antitumor studies demonstrate that, compared with chemo or PTT treatment alone, the combined treatment with the local exposure of NIR light exhibited significantly enhanced anti-tumor efficiency. These findings indicate that this system exhibited great potential in tumor-targeting imaging and synchronous chemo- and photo-thermal therapy.
Project description:Reversing multidrug resistance (MDR) remains a big challenge in cancer therapy. Combining the hyperthermia and chemotherapy is a promising strategy for efficient cancer treatment with MDR reversal. Gold nanocages (GNCs) are an ideal photothermal (PTT)-chemotherapy integration platform due to their good photothermal conversion efficiency and the unique hollow interiors. However, insufficient tumor cell internalization and <i>in vivo</i> premature drug leakage restrict the anticancer activity of GNCs-based drug delivery systems. <b>Methods</b>: pH low insertion peptide (pHLIP)- and thermoresponsive poly(di(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate-co-oligo(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate) polymer-conjugated GNCs were rationally constructed to load anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX@pPGNCs). Tumor acidic environment-responsive tumor cell internalization, and near-infrared (NIR) laser-induced tumor accumulation, penetration and on-demand drug release were systematically examined. <b>Results</b>: DOX@pPGNCs display good photothermal efficacy and thermoresponsive property. NIR laser irradiations at the tumor site significantly enhance tumor accumulation and penetration. Once DOX@pPGNCs reach the tumor site, the conformational transformation of pHLIP at the acidic tumor microenvironment contributes to the enhanced cellular internalization. Furthermore, NIR laser-triggered photothermal effects induce the shrinkage of thermoresponsive polymer, resulting in the opening of the pores of GNCs and a rapid intracellular DOX release to the nuclei. DOX@pPGNCs exhibit synergistic antitumor effect with MDR reversal <i>in vitro</i> and <i>in vivo</i>. <b>Conclusion</b>: DOX@pPGNCs present strong potential to overcome MDR in cancer.
Project description:Regenerated silk fibroin (SF) is a type of natural biomacromolecules with outstanding biocompatibility and biodegradability. However, stimulus-responsive SF-based nanocomplex has seldom been reported for application in tumor diagnosis and therapy. Methods: As a proof-of-concept study, a multifunctional SF@MnO2 nanoparticle-based platform was strategically synthesized using SF as a reductant and a template via a biomineralization-inspired crystallization process in an extremely facile way. Because of their mesoporous structure and abundant amino and carboxyl terminal residues, SF@MnO2 nanoparticles were co-loaded with a photodynamic agent indocyanine green (ICG) and a chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin (DOX) to form a SF@MnO2/ICG/DOX (SMID) nanocomplex. Results: The obtained product was highly reactive with endogenous hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in tumor microenvironment, which was decomposed into O2 to enhance tumor-specific photodynamic therapy (PDT). Moreover, SMID nanocomplex produced a strong and stable photothermal effect upon near-infrared (NIR) irradiation for photothermal therapy (PTT) owing to the distinct photothermal response of SF@MnO2 and stably conjugated ICG. The concurrent NIR fluorescence and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in vivo both indicated effective tumor-specific enrichment of SMID nanoparticles via enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect. Animal studies further verified that SMID nanoparticles remarkably improved tumor inhibitive efficacy through combination PTT/PDT/chemotherapy with minimal systemic toxicity or adverse effect. Conclusion: This study demonstrated the promising potential of SF-based nanomaterial to address some of the key challenges in cancer therapy due to unfavorable tumor microenvironment for drug delivery.
Project description:Cancer remains a major threat to human health due to low therapeutic efficacies of currently available cancer treatment options. Nanotheranostics, capable of simultaneous therapy and diagnosis/monitoring of diseases, has attracted increasing amounts of attention, particularly for cancer treatment. In this study, CuS-based theranostic micelles capable of simultaneous combination chemotherapy and photothermal therapy (PTT), as well as photoacoustic imaging, were developed for targeted cancer therapy. The micelle was formed by a CuS nanoparticle (NP) functionalized by thermosensitive amphiphilic poly(acrylamide-acrylonitrile)-poly(ethylene glycol) block copolymers. CuS NPs under near-infrared (NIR) irradiation induced a significant temperature elevation, thereby enabling NIR-triggered PTT. Moreover, the hydrophobic core formed by poly(acrylamide-acrylonitrile) segments used for drug encapsulation exhibited an upper critical solution temperature (UCST; ?38 °C), which underwent a hydrophobic-to-hydrophilic transition once the temperature rose above the UCST induced by NIR-irradiated CuS NPs, thereby triggering a rapid drug release and enabling NIR-controlled chemotherapy. The CuS-based micelles conjugated with GE11 peptides were tested in an epidermal growth factor receptor-overexpressing triple-negative breast cancer model. In both two-dimensional monolayer cell and three-dimensional multicellular tumor spheroid models, GE11-tagged CuS-based micelles under NIR irradiation, enabling the combination chemotherapy and PTT, exhibited the best therapeutic outcome due to a synergistic effect. These CuS-based micelles also displayed a good photoacoustic imaging ability under NIR illumination. Taken together, this multifunctional CuS-based micelle could be a promising nanoplatform for targeted cancer nanotheranostics.
Project description:Gold nanocages (AuNCs), with high photothermal conversion efficiency and unique hollow interiors, have become a promising nanoplatform for synergistic phototheraml therapy (PTT)-chemotherapy. However, the insufficient tumor targeting, in vivo premature drug leakage and low drug loading efficiency responsible for the spatial-temporal un-synchronization of PTT-chemotherapy, as well as inflammatory response might compromise the anticancer treatment of AuNCs-based drug delivery systems. Methods: Cancer cell membrane (CCM)-coated AuNCs were developed to load anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX@CAuNCs) by transmembrane ammonium sulfate gradient method. In vitro and in vivo analysis, including characterization, macrophage phagocytosis and tumor targeting capacity, near-infrared (NIR) laser-induced drug release, antitumor efficacy and inflammation response were systematically performed. Results: DOX@CAuNCs showed a high DOX loading capacity and on-demand NIR laser-triggered DOX release compared with CAuNCs passively loading DOX by electrostatic adsorption, a commonly used method to load drug to AuNCs. Meanwhile, in view of the properties of CCM coated on AuNCs, DOX@CAuNCs exhibited decreased macrophage phagocytosis, prolonged blood circulation and enhanced internalization by cancer cells, generating preferable tumor targeting ability. With these integrated advantages, DOX@CAuNCs demonstrated highly efficient and precise spatial-temporal synchronization of PTT-chemotherapy, achieving complete tumor ablation with no obvious side effects. Besides, coating with CCM significantly alleviated AuNCs-induced inflammatory response. Conclusion: This biomimetic AuNCs-based platform might be a prospective drug delivery system for precision PTT and chemotherapy, acquiring desired cancer treatment efficacy and low inflammatory response.
Project description:Although neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are slow growing, they are frequently metastatic at the time of discovery and no longer amenable to curative surgery, emphasizing the need for the development of other treatments. In this study, multifunctional upconversion nanoparticle (UCNP)-based theranostic micelles are developed for NET-targeted and near-infrared (NIR)-controlled combination chemotherapy and photodynamic therapy (PDT), and bioimaging. The theranostic micelle is formed by individual UCNP functionalized with light-sensitive amphiphilic block copolymers poly(4,5-dimethoxy-2-nitrobenzyl methacrylate)-polyethylene glycol (PNBMA-PEG) and Rose Bengal (RB) photosensitizers. A hydrophobic anticancer drug, AB3, is loaded into the micelles. The NIR-activated UCNPs emit multiple luminescence bands, including UV, 540 nm, and 650 nm. The UV peaks overlap with the absorption peak of photocleavable hydrophobic PNBMA segments, triggering a rapid drug release due to the NIR-induced hydrophobic-to-hydrophilic transition of the micelle core and thus enabling NIR-controlled chemotherapy. RB molecules are activated via luminescence resonance energy transfer to generate 1O2 for NIR-induced PDT. Meanwhile, the 650 nm emission allows for efficient fluorescence imaging. KE108, a true pansomatostatin nonapeptide, as an NET-targeting ligand, drastically increases the tumoral uptake of the micelles. Intravenously injected AB3-loaded UCNP-based micelles conjugated with RB and KE108-enabling NET-targeted combination chemotherapy and PDT-induce the best antitumor efficacy.
Project description:We report a type of photosensitizer (PS)-loaded micelles integrating cyanine dye as potential theranostic micelles for precise anatomical tumor localization via dual photoacoustic (PA)/near-infrared fluorescent (NIRF) imaging modalities, and simultaneously superior cancer therapy via sequential synergistic photothermal therapy (PTT)/photodynamic therapy (PDT). The micelles exhibit enhanced photostability, cell internalization and tumor accumulation. The dual NIRF/PA imaging modalities of the micelles cause the high imaging contrast and spatial resolution of tumors, which provide precise anatomical localization of the tumor and its inner vasculature for guiding PTT/PDT treatments. Moreover, the micelles can generate severe photothermal damage on cancer cells and destabilization of the lysosomes upon PTT photoirradiation, which subsequently facilitate synergistic photodynamic injury via PS under PDT treatment. The sequential treatments of PTT/PDT trigger the enhanced cytoplasmic delivery of PS, which contributes to the synergistic anticancer efficacy of PS. Our strategy provides a dual-modal cancer imaging with high imaging contrast and spatial resolution, and subsequent therapeutic synergy of PTT/PDT for potential multimodal theranostic application.
Project description:Chemo-photothermal therapy shows great potential for inhibiting tumor growth. However, achieving maximal chemo-photothermal synergistic efficacy is challenging because of the low efficiency of controllable chemo-drug release in response to external or internal triggers. Thus, a nano-delivery system that could effectively achieve photothermal therapy and dual stimuli-responsive (heat and pH) drug release to inhibit both primary breast tumor growth and metastases is required. Methods: Herein, a thermo- and pH-responsive polymer (mPEG-PAAV) with an upper critical solution temperature (UCST) was synthesized to fabricate a DOX- and IR780-loaded micellar system. After systematic studies of the photothermal performance and controllable drug release of mPEG-PAAV micelles/IR780+DOX under NIR irradiation at different pH values, their chemo-photothermal synergetic therapy efficacies were also estimated both in in vitro and in vivo. Results: Because of the photothermal conversion of mPEG-PAAV micelle/IR780+DOX (~200 nm, 3.82 mV), high local temperature could be induced at the tumor site under NIR laser irradiation. This hyperthermia not only produced an enhanced tumor necrosis, but also broke down the micelles under the decreased pH environment, resulting in rapid DOX release and enhanced intracellular drug accumulation after NIR laser irradiation. In addition, photoacoustic imaging (PAI) of mPEG-PAAV/IR780+DOX micelle was adopted to monitor the morphology and micro-vascular distribution of the tumor tissue, which could also guide the chemo-photothermal therapy. Most importantly, the systemic administration of mPEG-PAAV micelles/IR780+DOX combined with NIR laser irradiation could simultaneously eliminate the 4T1 breast tumor and thoroughly suppress lung metastasis without any obvious adverse effects. Conclusion: Herein, a pH- and thermo-dual responsive UCST micelle system was developed for delivering IR780 and DOX, which could achieve NIR laser-controlled drug release and PA imaging guidance for chemo-photothermal synergistic therapy of both primary breast tumors and their metastases.
Project description:With advances in nanoparticle (NP) synthesis and engineering, nanoscale agents with both therapeutic and diagnostic functions have been increasingly exploited for cancer management. Herein, we synthesized a new type of zwitterionic polymer-gated Au@TiO2 core-shell nanoparticles, which showed that they could selectively target and efficiently eliminate cancer cells via photothermal therapy (PTT), photodynamic therapy (PDT), pH/NIR-induced drug release, and cationic therapy. Methods: In the present study, the multifunctional therapeutic agent [Mn@P(CitAPDMAEMA)@Au@TiO2@DOX] was prepared to treat cancer with imaging-guided combination method. Firstly, Au@TiO2 core-shell nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized. Taking advantage of broad and strong photoabsorption and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, Au@TiO2 core-shell NPs facilitated the single light-induced PTT and PDT. Next, a chemotherapy drug doxorubicin (DOX) was loaded into Au@TiO2 core-shell NPs. Then, a biocompatible zwitterionic polymer P(CitAPDMAEMA) was grafted to improve the hemocompatibility of NPs and prolong the circulation time. The polymer also served as a capping or switching material for pH-triggered drug release. In addition, the cationic nature of P(CitAPDMAEMA) eased the binding to human cervical cancer (HeLa) cells and effectively inhibited their growth in acidic environments (termed cationic therapy). Moreover, with Mn2+ ions immanently chelated, Mn@P(CitAPDMAEMA)@Au@TiO2@DOX NPs were able to provide enhanced contrast under T 1- or T 2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Results: The in vitro and in vivo anticancer experiments demonstrated the tumor was effectively inhibited with minimal side effects by the multifunctional NPs. Conclusions: As far as we know, this is the first presentation of four therapeutic methods into one nanomaterial, which will open up a new dimension for the design of combined treatment.