Clostridium ramosum regulates enterochromaffin cell development and serotonin release.
ABSTRACT: Peripheral serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine: 5-HT) synthesized in the intestine by enterochromaffin cells (ECs), plays an important role in the regulation of peristaltic of the gut, epithelial secretion and promotes the development and maintenance of the enteric neurons. Recent studies showed that the indigenous gut microbiota modulates 5-HT signalling and that ECs use sensory receptors to detect dietary and microbiota-derived signals from the lumen to subsequently transduce the information to the nervous system. We hypothesized that Clostridium ramosum by increasing gut 5-HT availability consequently contributes to high-fat diet-induced obesity. Using germ-free mice and mice monoassociated with C. ramosum, intestinal cell lines and mouse organoids, we demonstrated that bacterial cell components stimulate host 5-HT secretion and program the differentiation of colonic intestinal stem progenitors toward the secretory 5-HT-producing lineage. An elevated 5-HT level regulates the expression of major proteins involved in intestinal fatty acid absorption in vitro, suggesting that the presence of C. ramosum in the gut promotes 5-HT secretion and thereby could facilitates intestinal lipid absorption and the development of obesity.
Project description:Gut microbiota alterations have been described in several diseases with altered gastrointestinal (GI) motility, and awareness is increasing regarding the role of the gut microbiome in modulating GI function. Serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)] is a key regulator of GI motility and secretion. To determine the relationship among gut microbes, colonic contractility, and host serotonergic gene expression, we evaluated mice that were germ-free (GF) or humanized (HM; ex-GF colonized with human gut microbiota). 5-HT reduced contractile duration in both GF and HM colons. Microbiota from HM and conventionally raised (CR) mice significantly increased colonic mRNAs Tph1 [(tryptophan hydroxylase) 1, rate limiting for mucosal 5-HT synthesis; P < 0.01] and chromogranin A (neuroendocrine secretion; P < 0.01), with no effect on monoamine oxidase A (serotonin catabolism), serotonin receptor 5-HT4, or mouse serotonin transporter. HM and CR mice also had increased colonic Tph1 protein (P < 0.05) and 5-HT concentrations (GF, 17 ± 3 ng/mg; HM, 25 ± 2 ng/mg; and CR, 35 ± 3 ng/mg; P < 0.05). Enterochromaffin (EC) cell numbers (cells producing 5-HT) were unchanged. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) promoted TPH1 transcription in BON cells (human EC cell model). Thus, gut microbiota acting through SCFAs are important determinants of enteric 5-HT production and homeostasis.
Project description:5-HT storing enterochromaffin (EC) cells are believed to respond to nutrient and gut microbial components, and 5-HT receptor-expressing afferent vagal neurons have been described to be the major sensors of nutrients in the GI-tract. However, the molecular mechanism through which EC cells sense nutrients and gut microbiota is still unclear.TPH1, the 5-HT generating enzyme, and chromogranin A, an acidic protein responsible for secretory granule storage of 5-HT, were highly enriched in FACS-purified EC cells from both small intestine and colon using a 5-HT antibody-based method. Surprisingly, EC cells from the small intestine did not express GPCR sensors for lipid and protein metabolites, such as FFAR1, GPR119, GPBAR1 (TGR5), CaSR, and GPR142, in contrast to the neighboring GLP-1 storing enteroendocrine cell. However, the GLP-1 receptor was particularly highly expressed and enriched in EC cells as judged both by qPCR and by immunohistochemistry using a receptor antibody. GLP-1 receptor agonists robustly stimulated 5-HT secretion from intestinal preparations using both HPLC and a specific amperometric method. Colonic EC cells expressed many different types of known and potential GPCR sensors of microbial metabolites including three receptors for SCFAs, i.e. FFAR2, OLF78, and OLF558 and receptors for aromatic acids, GPR35; secondary bile acids GPBAR1; and acyl-amides and lactate, GPR132.Nutrient metabolites apparently do not stimulate EC cells of the small intestine directly but through a paracrine mechanism involving GLP-1 secreted from neighboring enteroendocrine cells. In contrast, colonic EC cells are able to sense a multitude of different metabolites generated by the gut microbiota as well as gut hormones, including GLP-1.
Project description:The intestines of obese humans and mice are enriched with Erysipelotrichi, a class within the Firmicutes. Clostridium ramosum, a member of the Erysipelotrichi, is associated with symptoms of the metabolic syndrome in humans. To clarify the possible obesogenic potential of this bacterial species and to unravel the underlying mechanism, we investigated the role of C. ramosum in obesity development in gnotobiotic mice. Mice were associated with a simplified human intestinal (SIHUMI) microbiota of eight bacterial species, including C. ramosum, with the SIHUMI microbiota except C. ramosum (SIHUMIw/oCra), or with C. ramosum only (Cra) and fed a high-fat diet (HFD) or a low-fat diet (LFD). Parameters related to the development of obesity and metabolic diseases were compared. After 4 weeks of HFD feeding, the mouse groups did not differ in energy intake, diet digestibility, gut permeability, and parameters of low-grade inflammation. However, SIHUMI and Cra mice fed the HFD gained significantly more body weight and body fat and displayed higher food efficiency than SIHUMIw/oCra mice fed the HFD. Gene expression of glucose transporter 2 (Glut2) in jejunal mucosa and of fatty acid translocase (CD36) in ileal mucosa was significantly increased in the obese SIHUMI and Cra mice compared with the less obese SIHUMIw/oCra mice. The data demonstrate that the presence of C. ramosum in SIHUMI and Cra mice enhanced diet-induced obesity. Upregulation of small intestinal glucose and fat transporters in these animals may contribute to their increased body fat deposition.Obesity is a growing health problem worldwide. Changes in the proportions of Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, the two dominant phyla in the human and the murine intestinal tract, link the intestinal microbiota to obesity. Erysipelotrichi, a class within the Firmicutes, increase in response to high-fat feeding in mice. Clostridium ramosum, a member of the Erysipelotrichi, has been linked to symptoms of the metabolic syndrome. We hypothesized that C. ramosum promotes obesity development and related pathologies. Our experiments in gnotobiotic mice show that C. ramosum promoted diet-induced obesity, probably by enhancing nutrient absorption. Identification of obesogenic bacteria and understanding their mode of action enable the development of novel strategies for the treatment of this epidemic disease. Pharmaceuticals that target obesogenic bacteria or their metabolism could help to prevent and treat obesity and related disorders in the future.
Project description:The gastrointestinal (GI) tract contains much of the body's serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT), but mechanisms controlling the metabolism of gut-derived 5-HT remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that the microbiota plays a critical role in regulating host 5-HT. Indigenous spore-forming bacteria (Sp) from the mouse and human microbiota promote 5-HT biosynthesis from colonic enterochromaffin cells (ECs), which supply 5-HT to the mucosa, lumen, and circulating platelets. Importantly, microbiota-dependent effects on gut 5-HT significantly impact host physiology, modulating GI motility and platelet function. We identify select fecal metabolites that are increased by Sp and that elevate 5-HT in chromaffin cell cultures, suggesting direct metabolic signaling of gut microbes to ECs. Furthermore, elevating luminal concentrations of particular microbial metabolites increases colonic and blood 5-HT in germ-free mice. Altogether, these findings demonstrate that Sp are important modulators of host 5-HT and further highlight a key role for host-microbiota interactions in regulating fundamental 5-HT-related biological processes.
Project description:The enteric nervous system (ENS) is crucial for essential gastrointestinal physiologic functions such as motility, fluid secretion, and blood flow. The gut is colonized by trillions of bacteria that regulate host production of several signaling molecules including serotonin (5-HT) and other hormones and neurotransmitters. Approximately 90% of 5-HT originates from the intestine, and activation of the 5-HT4 receptor in the ENS has been linked to adult neurogenesis and neuroprotection. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the gut microbiota could induce maturation of the adult ENS through release of 5-HT and activation of 5-HT4 receptors. Colonization of germ-free mice with a microbiota from conventionally raised mice modified the neuroanatomy of the ENS and increased intestinal transit rates, which was associated with neuronal and mucosal 5-HT production and the proliferation of enteric neuronal progenitors in the adult intestine. Pharmacological modulation of the 5-HT4 receptor, as well as depletion of endogenous 5-HT, identified a mechanistic link between the gut microbiota and maturation of the adult ENS through the release of 5-HT and activation of the 5-HT4 receptor. Taken together, these findings show that the microbiota modulates the anatomy of the adult ENS in a 5-HT-dependent fashion with concomitant changes in intestinal transit.
Project description:Background: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a malignant nasopharyngeal disease with a complicated etiology that occurs mostly in southern China. Intestinal flora imbalance is believed to be associated with a variety of organ malignancies. Current studies revealed that the destruction of intestinal flora is associated with NPC, and many studies have shown that intestinal flora can be used as a biomarker for many cancers and to predict cancer. Methods: To compare the differences in intestinal flora compositions and biological functions among 8 patients with familial NPC (NPC_F), 24 patients with sporadic NPC (NPC_S), and 27 healthy controls (NOR), we compared the intestinal flora DNA sequencing and hematological testing results between every two groups using bioinformatic methods. Results: Compared to the NOR group, the intestinal flora structures of the patients in the NPC_F and NPC_S groups showed significant changes. In NPC_F, Clostridium ramosum, Citrobacter spp., Veillonella spp., and Prevotella spp. were significantly increased, and Akkermansia muciniphila and Roseburia spp. were significantly reduced. In NPC_S, C. ramosum, Veillonella parvula, Veillonella dispar, and Klebsiella spp. were significantly increased, and Bifidobacterium adolescentis was significantly reduced. A beta diversity analysis showed significant difference compared NPC_F with NOR based on Bray Curtis (P = 0.012) and Unweighted UniFrac (P = 0.0045) index, respectively. The areas under the ROC curves plotted were all 1. Additionally, the concentrations of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in NPC_F and NPC_S were significantly higher than those of NOR. C. ramosum was positively correlated with 5-HT (rcm: 0.85, P < 0.001). A functional analysis of the intestinal flora showed that NPC_F was associated with Neurodegenerative Diseases (P = 0.023) and that NPC_S was associated with Neurodegenerative Diseases (P = 0.045) as well. Conclusion: We found that NPC was associated with structural imbalances in the intestinal flora, with C. ramosum that promoted the elevation of 5-HT and opportunistic pathogens being significantly increased, while probiotics significantly decreased. C. ramosum can be used as a novel biomarker and disease prediction models should be established for NPC. The new biomarkers and disease prediction models may be used for disease risk prediction and the screening of high-risk populations, as well as for the early noninvasive diagnosis of NPC.
Project description:The gut microbiota regulates levels of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)) in the intestinal epithelium and lumen1-5. However, whether 5-HT plays a functional role in bacteria from the gut microbiota remains unknown. We demonstrate that elevating levels of intestinal lumenal 5-HT by oral supplementation or genetic deficiency in the host 5-HT transporter (SERT) increases the relative abundance of spore-forming members of the gut microbiota, which were previously reported to promote host 5-HT biosynthesis. Within this microbial community, we identify Turicibacter sanguinis as a gut bacterium that expresses a neurotransmitter sodium symporter-related protein with sequence and structural homology to mammalian SERT. T. sanguinis imports 5-HT through a mechanism that is inhibited by the selective 5-HT reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine. 5-HT reduces the expression of sporulation factors and membrane transporters in T. sanguinis, which is reversed by fluoxetine exposure. Treating T. sanguinis with 5-HT or fluoxetine modulates its competitive colonization in the gastrointestinal tract of antibiotic-treated mice. In addition, fluoxetine reduces the membership of T. sanguinis in the gut microbiota of conventionally colonized mice. Host association with T. sanguinis alters intestinal expression of multiple gene pathways, including those important for lipid and steroid metabolism, with corresponding reductions in host systemic triglyceride levels and inguinal adipocyte size. Together, these findings support the notion that select bacteria indigenous to the gut microbiota signal bidirectionally with the host serotonergic system to promote their fitness in the intestine.
Project description:Commensal microbiota contribute to gut homeostasis by inducing transcription of mucosal genes. Analysis of the impact of various microbiota on intestinal tissue provides an important insight into the function of this organ. We used cDNA microarrays to determine the gene expression signature of mucosa isolated from the small intestine and colon of germ-free (GF) mice and animals monoassociated with two E. coli strains. The results were compared to the expression data obtained in conventionally reared (CR) mice. In addition, we analyzed gene expression in colon organoids derived from CR, GF, and monoassociated animals. The analysis revealed that the complete absence of intestinal microbiota mainly affected the mucosal immune system, which was not restored upon monoassociation. The most important expression changes observed in the colon mucosa indicated alterations in adipose tissue and lipid metabolism. In the comparison of differentially expressed genes in the mucosa or organoids obtained from GF and CR mice, only six genes were common for both types of samples. The results show that the increased expression of the angiopoietin-like 4 (Angptl4) gene encoding a secreted regulator of lipid metabolism indicates the GF status.
Project description:The neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT) plays a vital regulatory role in both the brain and gut. 5-HT is crucial for regulating mood in the brain as well as gastrointestinal motility and secretion peripherally. Alterations in 5-HT transmission have been linked to pathological symptoms in both intestinal and psychiatric disorders and selective 5-HT transporter (5-HTT) inhibitors, affecting the 5-HT system by blocking the 5-HT transporter (5-HTT) have been successfully used to treat CNS- and intestinal disorders. Humans that carry the short allele of the 5-HTT-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) are more vulnerable to adverse environmental stressors, in particular early life stress. Although, early life stress has been shown to alter the composition of the gut microbiota, it is not known whether a lower 5-HTT expression is also associated with an altered microbiome composition. To investigate this, male and female wild type (5-HTT+/+), heterozygous (5-HTT+/-), and knockout (5-HTT-/-) 5-HT transporter rats were maternally separated for 6 h a day from postnatal day 2 till 15. On postnatal day 21, fecal samples were collected and the impact of 5-HTT genotype and maternal separation (MS) on the microbiome was analyzed using high-throughput sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene. MS showed a shift in the ratio between the two main bacterial phyla characterized by a decrease in Bacteroidetes and an increase in Firmicutes. Interestingly, the 5-HTT genotype caused a greater microbal dysbiosis (microbial imbalance) compared with MS. A significant difference in microbiota composition was found segregating 5-HTT-/- apart from 5-HTT+/- and 5-HTT+/+ rats. Moreover, exposure of rats with 5-HTT diminished expression to MS swayed the balance of their microbiota away from homeostasis to 'inflammatory' type microbiota characterized by higher abundance of members of the gut microbiome including Desulfovibrio, Mucispirillum, and Fusobacterium, all of which are previously reported to be associated with a state of intestinal inflammation, including inflammation associated with MS and brain disorders like multiple depressive disorders. Overall, our data show for the first time that altered expression of 5-HTT induces disruptions in male and female rat gut microbes and these 5-HTT genotype-related disruptions are augmented when combined with early life stress.
Project description:The gut microbiota is critical for maturation of the immune system. Recent evidence suggests that early establishment of lactobacilli in the intestinal microbiota, during neonatal colonization or by probiotic supplementation, could prevent the development of allergic disorders. Postnatal maturation of the gut immune system with allergen-producing lactobacilli colonizing the digestive tract could then affect the development of further allergic sensitization. In this paper, we describe construction of a recombinant Lactobacillus casei strain that can constitutively deliver bovine beta-lactoglobulin (BLG), a major cow's milk allergen, to the guts of gnotobiotic mice. The blg gene was inserted into the L. casei chromosome downstream of an endogenous promoter. BLG production was improved by fusing the propeptide LEISSTCDA (LEISS) to the BLG mature moiety. This led to a 10-fold increase in LEISS-BLG production compared to the production obtained without the propeptide and also led to enhanced secretion corresponding to 5% of the total production. After inoculation into germfree C3H/HeN mice, the genetic stability of the recombinant strain and in vivo BLG production were confirmed for at least 10 weeks. BLG stimulation of spleen cells from mice monoassociated with the BLG-producing lactobacilli induced secretion of the Th1 cytokine gamma interferon and, to a lesser extent, the Th2 cytokine interleukin-5. No BLG-specific immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1), IgG2a, or IgA was detected in sera or in fecal samples. These results suggest that gut colonization with allergen-producing lactobacilli could provide a useful model for studying the modulation of allergic disorders.