Defining the genes for the final steps in biosynthesis of the complex polyketide antibiotic mupirocin by Pseudomonas fluorescens NCIMB10586.
ABSTRACT: The mupirocin trans-AT polyketide synthase pathway, provides a model system for manipulation of antibiotic biosynthesis. Its final phase involves removal of the tertiary hydroxyl group from pseudomonic acid B, PA-B, producing the fully active PA-A in a complex series of steps. To further clarify requirements for this conversion, we fed extracts containing PA-B to mutants of the producer strain singly deficient in each mup gene. This additionally identified mupM and mupN as required plus the sequence but not enzymic activity of mupL and ruled out need for other mup genes. A plasmid expressing mupLMNOPVCFU?+?macpE together with a derivative of the producer P. fluorescens strain NCIMB10586 lacking the mup cluster allowed conversion of PA-B to PA-A. MupN converts apo-mAcpE to holo-form while MupM is a mupirocin-resistant isoleucyl tRNA synthase, preventing self-poisoning. Surprisingly, the expression plasmid failed to allow the closely related P. fluorescens strain SBW25 to convert PA-B to PA-A.
Project description:Understanding how complex antibiotics are synthesised by their producer bacteria is essential for creation of new families of bioactive compounds. Thiomarinols, produced by marine bacteria belonging to the genus Pseudoalteromonas, are hybrids of two independently active species: the pseudomonic acid mixture, mupirocin, which is used clinically against MRSA, and the pyrrothine core of holomycin.High throughput DNA sequencing of the complete genome of the producer bacterium revealed a novel 97 kb plasmid, pTML1, consisting almost entirely of two distinct gene clusters. Targeted gene knockouts confirmed the role of these clusters in biosynthesis of the two separate components, pseudomonic acid and the pyrrothine, and identified a putative amide synthetase that joins them together. Feeding mupirocin to a mutant unable to make the endogenous pseudomonic acid created a novel hybrid with the pyrrothine via "mutasynthesis" that allows inhibition of mupirocin-resistant isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase, the mupirocin target. A mutant defective in pyrrothine biosynthesis was also able to incorporate alternative amine substrates.Plasmid pTML1 provides a paradigm for combining independent antibiotic biosynthetic pathways or using mutasynthesis to develop a new family of hybrid derivatives that may extend the effective use of mupirocin against MRSA.
Project description:The genetic analysis of high-level mupirocin resistance (Hi-Mup(r)) in a Staphylococcus pseudintermedius isolate from a dog is presented. The Hi-Mup(r) ileS2 gene flanked by a novel rearrangement of directly repeated insertion sequence IS257 elements was located, together with the aminoglycoside resistance aacA-aphD determinant, on a conjugative plasmid related to the pSK41/pGO1 family plasmids.
Project description:The Pseudomonas synxantha strain NCIMB10586 produces the antibiotic mupirocin / Pseudomonic acid A from a 75 kb gene cluster; expression of this is regulated through quorum-sensing. We wished to examine expression of the strain during batch growth, in particular of the mupirocin cluster and any other operons regulated in a similar manner. We took samples from three independent cultures at 7 time-points - sampling every 2 hours from 6 to 18 hours.
Project description:The methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) population in the Hospital Universitario Nuestra Señora de Candelaria over a 5-year period (1998 to 2002) was marked by shifts in the circulation of pandemic clones. Here, we investigated the emergence of high-level mupirocin resistance (Hi-Mup(r)). In addition to clonal spread, transfer of ileS2-carrying plasmids played a significant role in the dissemination of Hi-Mup(r) among pandemic MRSA lineages.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The data on the prevalence of resistance to mupirocin (MUP), fusidic acid (FA) and retapamulin (RET) in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) from China are still limited. This study aimed to examine these three antibiotics resistance in 1206 MRSA clinical isolates from Eastern China. Phenotypic MUP, FA and RET resistance was determined by minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs), and genotypic by PCR and DNA sequencing of the mupA/B, fusB-D, cfr, vgaA/Av/ALC/B/C/E, lsaA-C/E and salA and mutations in ileS, fusA/E, rplC, and 23S RNA V domain. The genetic characteristics of resistance isolates were conducted by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). RESULTS:Overall MRSA MUP, FA and RET resistance was low (5.1, 1.0 and 0.3%, respectively). MupA was the mechanism of high-level MUP resistance. All low-level MUP resistance isolates possessed an equivocal mutation N213D in IleS; of these, 2 reported an additional V588F mutation with an impact on the Rossman fold. FusA mutations, such as L461K, H457Q, H457Y and V90I were the primary FA mechanisms among high-level resistance isolates, most of which also contained fusC; however, all low-level resistance strains carried fusB. Except lsaE gene detected in one isolate, no other resistance mechanisms tested were found among RET-resistant isolates. Additionally, sixteen PFGE types (A-P) were observed, among which type B was the most common (49/76, 64.5%), followed by types E and G (4/76, 5.3% each) and types C and M (3/76, 3.9% each). All resistant strains were divided into 15 ST types by MLST. ST764 (24/76, 31.6%), ST630 (11/76, 14.5%), ST239 (9/76, 11.8%) and ST5 (7/76, 9.2%) were the major types. PFGE type B isolates with the aforementioned STs were mainly found in mupirocin resistant isolates. CONCLUSIONS:MUP, FA and RET exhibited highly activity against the MRSA isolates. Acquired genes and chromosome-borne genes mutations were responsible for MUP and FA resistance; however, the mechanism for some RET-resistant isolates remains to be further elucidated. Also, the surveillance to MUP in MRSA should be strengthened to prevent elevated resistance due to the expansion of clones.
Project description:Mupirocin is used for eradicating methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in nasal colonization. A plasmid-borne gene, mupA, is associated with high-level mupirocin resistance. Despite the fact that, among all MRSA from a tertiary care center in the German state of Saxony, the prevalence of mupA, encoding high-level mupirocin resistance, was approximately 1% over a 15-year period from 2000-2015, a sharp increase to nearly 20% was observed in 2016/2017. DNA microarray profiling revealed that this was due to the dissemination of a variant of CC22-MRSA-IV ("Barnim Epidemic Strain" or "UK-EMRSA-15"), which, in addition to mecA, harbors mupA, aacA-aphD, qacA, and - in most isolates - erm(C). In order to prevent therapy failures and a further spread of this strain, the use of mupirocin should be more stringently controlled as well as guided by susceptibility testing. In addition, MRSA decolonization regimens that rely on other substances, such as betaisodona, polyhexanide or octenidine, should be considered.
Project description:In the United States, veterinary use of mupirocin is primarily limited to the treatment of canine pyoderma caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP). In this study, only 1 of 581 S. pseudintermedius isolates tested was resistant to mupirocin and carried the high-level mupirocin resistance gene, ileS2, on a plasmid.
Project description:Carriage of resistance genes can underpin bacterial survival, and by spreading these genes between species, mobile genetic elements (MGEs) can potentially protect diversity within microbial communities. The spread of MGEs could be affected by environmental factors such as selection for resistance, and biological factors such as plasmid host range, with consequences for individual species and for community structure. Here we cultured a focal bacterial strain, Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25, embedded within a soil microbial community, with and without mercury selection, and with and without mercury resistance plasmids (pQBR57 or pQBR103), to investigate the effects of selection and resistance gene introduction on (1) the focal species; (2) the community as a whole; (3) the spread of the introduced mer resistance operon. We found that P. fluorescens SBW25 only escaped competitive exclusion by other members of community under mercury selection, even when it did not begin with a mercury resistance plasmid, due to its propensity to acquire resistance from the community by horizontal gene transfer. Mercury pollution had a significant effect on community structure, decreasing alpha diversity within communities while increasing beta diversity between communities, a pattern that was not affected by the introduction of mercury resistance plasmids by P. fluorescens SBW25. Nevertheless, the introduced merA gene spread to a phylogenetically diverse set of recipients over the 5 weeks of the experiment, as assessed by epicPCR. Our data demonstrates how the effects of MGEs can be experimentally assessed for individual lineages, the wider community, and for the spread of adaptive traits.
Project description:Mupirocin is a topical antibiotic used for the treatment of skin infections and the eradication of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus carriage. It inhibits bacterial protein synthesis by interfering with isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase activity. High-level mupirocin resistance (MIC of ≥ 512 μg/ml) is mediated by the expression of mupA (ileS2), which encodes an alternate isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase. In this study, we describe high-level mupirocin resistance mediated by a novel locus, mupB. The mupB gene (3,102 bp) shares 65.5% sequence identity with mupA but only 45.5% identity with ileS. The deduced MupB protein shares 58.1% identity (72.3% similarity) and 25.4% identity (41.8% similarity) with MupA and IleS, respectively. Despite this limited homology, MupB contains conserved motifs found in class I tRNA synthetases. Attempts to transfer high-level mupirocin resistance via conjugation or transformation (using plasmid extracts from an mupB-containing strain) were unsuccessful. However, by cloning the mupB gene into a shuttle vector, it was possible to transfer the resistance phenotype to susceptible S. aureus by electroporation, proving that mupB was responsible for the high-level mupirocin resistance. Further studies need to be done to determine the prevalence of mupB and to understand risk factors and outcomes associated with resistance mediated by this gene.
Project description:Cyclic lipopeptides (CLPs) are produced by many Pseudomonas species and have several biological functions, including a role in surface motility, biofilm formation, virulence, and antimicrobial activity. This study focused on the diversity and role of LuxR-type transcriptional regulators in CLP biosynthesis in Pseudomonas species and, specifically, viscosin production by Pseudomonas fluorescens strain SBW25. Phylogenetic analyses showed that CLP biosynthesis genes in Pseudomonas strains are flanked by LuxR-type regulators that contain a DNA-binding helix-turn-helix domain but lack N-acylhomoserine lactone-binding or response regulator domains. For SBW25, site-directed mutagenesis of the genes coding for either of the two identified LuxR-type regulators, designated ViscAR and ViscBCR, strongly reduced transcript levels of the viscABC biosynthesis genes and resulted in a loss of viscosin production. Expression analyses further showed that a mutation in either viscAR or viscBCR did not substantially (change of <2.5-fold) affect transcription of the other regulator. Transformation of the DeltaviscAR mutant of SBW25 with a LuxR-type regulatory gene from P. fluorescens strain SS101 that produces massetolide, a CLP structurally related to viscosin, restored transcription of the viscABC genes and viscosin production. The results further showed that a functional viscAR gene was required for heterologous expression of the massetolide biosynthesis genes of strain SS101 in strain SBW25, leading to the production of both viscosin and massetolide. Collectively, these results indicate that the regulators flanking the CLP biosynthesis genes in Pseudomonas species represent a unique LuxR subfamily of proteins and that viscosin biosynthesis in P. fluorescens SBW25 is controlled by two LuxR-type transcriptional regulators.