Results of a nationwide survey on Japanese clinical practice in breast-conserving radiotherapy for breast cancer.
ABSTRACT: The Breast Cancer Group of the Japanese Radiation Oncology Study Group conducted a nationwide questionnaire survey on the clinical practice of postoperative radiotherapy for breast-conserving treatment for breast cancer. This questionnaire consisted of 18 questions pertaining to the annual number of treated patients, planning method, contouring structure, field design, dose-fractionated regimen, application of hypofractionated radiotherapy, boost irradiation, radiotherapy for synchronously bilateral breast cancer, and accelerated partial breast irradiation. The web-based questionnaire had responses from 293 Japanese hospitals. The results indicated the following: treatment planning is performed using relatively similar field designs and delivery methods; the field-in-field technique is used at more than one-third of institutes; the commonest criteria for boost irradiation is based on the surgical margin width (?5 mm) and the second commonest criteria was age (?40 or ?50 years), although some facilities applied a different age criterion (>70 years) for omitting a tumor bed boost; for conventional fractionation, almost all institutes delivered 50 Gy in 25 fractions to the conserved whole breast and 10 Gy in 5 fractions to the tumor bed. This survey revealed that 43% of hospitals offered hypofractionated radiotherapy, and the most common regimens were 42.56 Gy in 16 fractions for whole-breast irradiation and 10.64 Gy in 4 fractions for boost irradiation. Almost all of the facilities irradiated both breasts simultaneously for synchronously bilateral breast cancer, and accelerated partial breast irradiation was rarely offered in Japan. This survey provided an overview of the current clinical practice of radiotherapy for breast-conserving treatment of breast cancer in Japan.
Project description:<h4>Aim</h4>To report the long-term local control and survival of patients with early breast cancer who had hypofractionated whole breast irradiation with concomitant boost (Hypo-CB).<h4>Methods and materials</h4>Between October 2009 and June 2010, 73 patients with early breast cancer (T1-3N0-1M0) who underwent breast conserving surgery were enrolled into the study. Thirty-six of these participants received 50 Gy of conventional irradiation in 25 fractions over 5 weeks to the whole breast with a sequential boost to the tumor bed with 10-16 Gy in 5-8 fractions (Conv-SEQ). The other 37 participants received a hypofractionated dose of 43.2 Gy in 16 fractions with an additional daily concomitant boost (CB) of 0.6 Gy over 3 weeks (Hypo-CB).<h4>Results</h4>At a median follow-up time of 123 months, ipsilateral local recurrence (ILR) was found in 3 participants, 1 of whom was in the hypofractionated group. All 3 ILR were true local recurrence (TR). There were no significant differences in the 10-year disease free survival (DFS) and 10-year overall survival rates (OS) between the conventional and hypofractionated groups (93.9% vs. 94.4%, p = 0.96 and 91.9% vs. 91.6%, p = 0.792, respectively).<h4>Conclusion</h4>This study showed that the effectiveness, DFS and OS were comparable between hypofractionated whole breast irradiation with a CB and the conventional irradiation with a sequential boost.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>We report results of a multicenter prospective single-arm phase II trial (ARO-2013-04, NCT01948726) of moderately accelerated hypofractionated radiotherapy with a simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) in patients with breast cancer receiving adjuvant radiotherapy after breast-conserving surgery.<h4>Methods</h4>The eligibility criteria included unifocal breast cancer with an indication for adjuvant radiotherapy to the whole breast and boost radiotherapy to the tumor bed. The whole breast received a dose of 40?Gy and the tumor bed a total dose of 48?Gy in 16 fractions of 2.5 and 3?Gy, respectively. Radiotherapy could be given either as 3D conformal RT (3D-CRT) or as intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). The study was designed as a prospective single-arm trial to evaluate the acute toxicity of the treatment regimen. The study hypothesis was that the frequency of acute skin reaction grade ?2 would be 20% or less.<h4>Results</h4>From November 2013 through July 2014, 149 patients were recruited from 12 participating centers. Six patients were excluded, leaving 143 patients for analysis. Eighty-four patients (58.7%) were treated with 3D-CRT and 59 (41.3%) with IMRT. Adherence to the treatment protocol was high. The rate of grade ?2 skin toxicity was 14.7% (95% confidence interval 9.8-21.4%). The most frequent grade 3 toxicity (11%) was hot flashes.<h4>Conclusion</h4>This study demonstrated low toxicity of and high treatment adherence to hypofractionated adjuvant radiotherapy with SIB in a multicenter prospective trial, although the primary hypothesis was not met.
Project description:The term IORT (intraoperative radiotherapy) is currently used for various techniques that show decisive differences in dose delivery. The largest evidence for boost IORT preceding whole breast irradiation (WBI) originates from intraoperative electron treatments with single doses around 10?Gy, providing outstandingly low local recurrence rates in any risk constellation also at long term analyses. Compared to other boost methods, an intraoperative treatment has evident advantages as follows. Precision. Direct visualisation of the tumour bed during surgery guarantees an accurate dose delivery. This fact has additionally gained importance in times of primary reconstruction techniques after lumpectomy to optimise cosmetic outcome. IORT is performed before breast tissue is mobilised for plastic purposes. Cosmesis. As a consequence of direct tissue exposure without distension by hematoma/seroma, IORT allows for small treatment volumes and complete skin sparing, both having a positive effect on late tissue tolerance and, hence, cosmetic appearance. Patient Comfort. Boost IORT marginally prolongs the surgical procedure, while significantly shortening postoperative radiotherapy. Its combination with a 3-week hypofractionated external beam radiotherapy to the whole breast (WBI) is presently tested in the HIOB trial (hypofractionated WBI preceded by IORT electron boost), a prospective multicenter trial of the International Society of Intraoperative Radiotherapy (ISIORT).
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>To evaluate acute and late genitourinary and gastrointestinal toxicities and patient reported urinary and sexual function following accelerated, hypofractionated external beam radiotherapy to the prostate, seminal vesicles and pelvic lymph nodes and high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy or stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) prostate boost.<h4>Methods</h4>Patients at a single institution with NCCN intermediate- and high-risk localized prostate cancer with logistical barriers to completing five weeks of whole pelvic radiotherapy (WPRT) were retrospectively reviewed for toxicity following accelerated, hypofractionated WPRT (41.25 Gy in 15 fractions of 2.75 Gy). Patients also received prostate boost radiotherapy with either HDR brachytherapy (1 fraction of 15 Gy) or SBRT (19 Gy in 2 fractions of 9.5 Gy). The duration of androgen deprivation therapy was at the discretion of the treating radiation oncologist. Toxicity was evaluated by NCI CTCAE v 5.0.<h4>Results</h4>Between 2015 and 2017, 22 patients with a median age of 71 years completed accelerated, hypofractionated WPRT. Median follow-up from the end of radiotherapy was 32 months (range 2-57). 5%, 73%, and 23% of patients had clinical T1, T2, and T3 disease, respectively. 86% of tumors were Gleason grade 7 and 14% were Gleason grade 9. 68% and 32% of patients had NCCN intermediate- and high-risk disease, respectively. 91% and 9% of patients received HDR brachytherapy and SBRT prostate boost following WPRT, respectively. Crude rates of grade 2 or higher GI and GU toxicities were 23% and 23%, respectively. 3 patients (14%) had late or persistent grade 2 toxicities of urinary frequency and 1 patient (5%) had late or persistent GI toxicity of diarrhea. No patient experienced grade 3 or higher toxicity at any time. No difference in patient-reported urinary or sexual function was noted at 12 months.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Accelerated, hypofractionated whole pelvis radiotherapy was associated with acceptable GU and GI toxicities and should be further validated for those at risk for harboring occult nodal disease.
Project description:IOERT (intraoperative electron radiotherapy) in breast cancer is used either as a boost (10-12 Gy) followed by whole breast irradiation (WBI) or as full-dose partial breast irradiation (PBI, 20-24 Gy) during breast-conserving surgery. IOERT has the longest evidence of all IORT techniques. When administered as a boost, excellent low local recurrence rates were observed in long-term follow-up >5 years. Even in high-risk groups like triple-negative or locally advanced breast cancers, IOERT contributes to long-term local control rates of more than 90%. For selected low-risk groups, IOERT as PBI with 21 Gy seems to be a viable treatment alternative to standard WBI. IOERT has been shown to be advantageous for several reasons: Geographic misses are avoided due to direct visualization of the tumor bed; thus, a high single dose is delivered with utmost precision to small volumes, completely sparing the skin and ensuring good long-term cosmetic outcome. Furthermore, high single doses seem to induce biological mechanisms with verifiable antitumor capability in in-vitro cell-line studies. In addition, IOERT markedly shortens the overall treatment time both in combination with (now mostly hypofractionated) WBI or as a PBI in selected low-risk constellations.
Project description:Adjuvant lymphatic radiotherapy (LNRT) is recommended for selected axillary node positive women with early breast cancer. We investigated whether hypofractionated LNRT is safe combined with similarly-hypofractionated breast/chest wall radiotherapy (RT).The Standardisation of Breast Radiotherapy (START) pilot, A and B trials randomised women with early breast cancer to schedules of 2.67-3.3?Gy versus 2.0?Gy fractions (control). RT adverse effects were assessed by patients using the EORTC QLQ-BR23 and protocol-specific questions, and by physicians. Rates of arm/shoulder effects were compared between schedules for patients given LNRT.864/5861 (14.7%) patients received LNRT (385 START-pilot, 318 START-A, 161 START-B). Prevalences of moderate/marked arm/shoulder effects were low up to 10?years. There were no significant differences between the hypofractionated and control groups for patient- and physician-assessed symptoms in START-A or START-B. In START-pilot, adverse effect rates were higher after 13 fractions of 3.3?Gy, consistent with effects reported in the breast/chest wall (significant for shoulder stiffness, HR 3.07, 95%CI 1.62-5.83, p?=?0.001).The START trial results suggest that appropriately-dosed hypofractionated LNRT is safe in the long-term, according to patient and physician-assessed arm and shoulder symptoms. These findings are consistent with those reported after the same schedules delivered to the breast/chest wall.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>To evaluate and compare health-related quality of life (HRQL) of women with early-stage breast cancer (BC) treated with different radiotherapy (RT) regimens.<h4>Methods</h4>Data were collected from five prospective cohorts of BC patients treated with breast-conserving surgery and different RT regimens: intraoperative RT (IORT, 1 × 23.3 Gy; n = 267), external beam accelerated partial breast irradiation (EB-APBI, 10 × 3.85 Gy; n = 206), hypofractionated whole breast irradiation(hypo-WBI, 16 × 2.67 Gy; n = 375), hypo-WBI + boost(hypo-WBI-B, 21-26 × 2.67 Gy; n = 189), and simultaneous WBI + boost(WBI-B, 28 × 2.3 Gy; n = 475). Women ≥ 60 years with invasive/in situ carcinoma ≤ 30 mm, cN0 and pN0-1a were included. Validated EORTC QLQ-C30/BR23 questionnaires were used to asses HRQL. Multivariable linear regression models adjusted for confounding (age, comorbidity, pT, locoregional treatment, systemic therapy) were used to compare the impact of the RT regimens on HRQL at 12 and 24 months. Differences in HRQL over time (3-24 months) were evaluated using linear mixed models.<h4>Results</h4>There were no significant differences in HRQL at 12 months between groups except for breast symptoms which were better after IORT and EB-APBI compared to hypo-WBI at 12 months (p < 0.001). Over time, breast symptoms, fatigue, global health status and role functioning were significantly better after IORT and EB-APBI than hypo-WBI. At 24 months, HRQL was comparable in all groups.<h4>Conclusion</h4>In women with early-stage breast cancer, the radiotherapy regimen did not substantially influence long-term HRQL with the exception of breast symptoms. Breast symptoms are more common after WBI than after IORT or EB-APBI and improve slowly until no significant difference remains at 2 years posttreatment.
Project description:Aim:To compare late toxicity after postoperative hypofractionated radiotherapy (RT) and standard fractionated RT in patients with early-stage breast carcinoma. Methods:This retrospective study included 447 patients (Modulated Accelerated Radiotherapy [MARA-1]: 317 patients, and control group [CG]: 130 patients). In the CG, the whole breast received 50.4 Gy in 28 fractions (fx) using 3D-radiotherapy, plus a sequential electron boost (10 Gy in 4 fx) to tumor bed. In MARA-1 group, a forward-planned intensity-modulated radiotherapy technique with 40 Gy in 16 fx with a concomitant boost of 4 Gy to breast was used. The primary endpoint was to evaluate late toxicity, and secondary endpoints were acute toxicity, local control, and survival. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03461224. Results:Median follow-up was 52 months (range: 3-115 months). Late skin and subcutaneous toxicity were acceptable: 5-year actuarial cumulative incidence of Grade (G) 3 late skin toxicity was 1.5% in CG and 0.0% in MARA-1. Five-year actuarial cumulative incidence of G3 late subcutaneous toxicity was 0.8% in CG and 0.3% in MARA-1. On multivariate analysis, tobacco smoking and planning target volume were associated with an increased risk of late G1 skin toxicity (HR: 2.15, 95% CI: 1.38-3.34 and HR: 1.12, 95% CI: 1.07-1.18, respectively), whereas patients with a larger planning target volume also showed an increased risk of G1 and G2 late subcutaneous toxicity (HR: 1.14, CI 95%: 1.08-1.20 and HR: 1.14, 95% CI: 1.01-1.28, respectively). MARA-1 patients also showed an increased risk of late G1 and G2 subcutaneous toxicity (HR: 2.35, 95% CI: 1.61-3.41 and HR: 3.07, 95% CI: 1.11-8.53, respectively) compared to CG. Conclusion:In this retrospective analysis, postoperative accelerated-hypofractionated RT for early-stage-breast carcinoma was associated with higher incidence of subcutaneous side effects. However, this increase was limited to G1-G2 toxicity. In the future, development of predictive models could help in tailoring dose and fractionation based on the risk of toxicity.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Hypofractionated radiotherapy is the current standard for adjuvant radiotherapy across many centres. Further hypofractionation may be possible but remains to be investigated in non-Caucasian populations with more advanced disease, with a higher proportion of patients requiring mastectomy as well as tumour bed boost. We are reporting the design of randomized controlled trial testing the hypothesis that a 1-week (5 fractions) regimen of radiotherapy will be non-inferior to a standard 3-week (15 fractions) schedule. METHODS:We describe a multicentre, randomized controlled trial recruiting patients at large academic centres across India. Patients without distant metastases who merit adjuvant radiotherapy will be eligible for inclusion in the study. Patients in the control arm will receive adjuvant radiotherapy to the breast or chest wall (with/without regional nodes) to a dose of 40?Gy/15 fractions/3?weeks, while those in the experimental arm will receive a dose of 26?Gy/5 fractions/1?week (to the same volume). The use of a simultaneous integrated boost (dose of 8?Gy and 6?Gy, respectively) is allowed in patients who have undergone breast conservation. A sample size of 2100 patients provides an 80% power to detect a non-inferiority of 3% in the 5-year locoregional recurrence rate with a one-sided type I error of 2.5%, assuming that the locoregional recurrence rate in the control arm is 5% at 5?years (corresponding to a hazard ratio of 1.63). Patients will be recruited over a period of 5?years and followed up for a further 5?years thereafter. DISCUSSION:If a five-fraction regimen of breast cancer is proven to be non-inferior, this will result in a significant improvement in the access to radiotherapy, as well as reduced costs of treatment. The trial gives an opportunity to standardize and quality-assure radiotherapy practices across the nation at the same time. Along with the results of the FAST-Forward trial, the safety of this intervention in advanced node-positive disease requiring regional nodal radiation will be established. TRIAL REGISTRATION:The trial has been registered at the Clinical Trial Registry of India (CTRI) vide registration number: CTRI/2018/12/016816 (December 31, 2018) as well as the ClinicalTrial.gov website at NCT03788213 (December 28, 2018).
Project description:BACKGROUND:Hypofractionated whole-breast irradiation is a standard adjuvant therapy for early-stage breast cancer. This study evaluates the plan quality and efficacy of an in-house-developed automated radiotherapy treatment planning algorithm for hypofractionated whole-breast radiotherapy. METHODS:A cohort of 99 node-negative left-sided breast cancer patients completed hypofractionated whole-breast irradiation with six-field IMRT for 42.56?Gy in 16 daily fractions from year 2016 to 2018 at a tertiary center were re-planned with an in-house-developed algorithm. The automated plan-generating C#-based program is developed in a Varian ESAPI research mode. The dose-volume histogram (DVH) and other dosimetric parameters of the automated and manual plans were directly compared. RESULTS:The average time for generating an autoplan was 5 to 6?min, while the manual planning time ranged from 1 to 1.5?h. There was only a small difference in both the gantry angles and the collimator angles between the autoplans and the manual plans (ranging from 2.2 to 5.3 degrees). Autoplans and manual plans performed similarly well in hotspot volume and PTV coverage, with the autoplans performing slightly better in the ipsilateral-lung-sparing dose parameters but were inferior in contralateral-breast-sparing. The autoplan dosimetric quality did not vary with different breast sizes, but for manual plans, there was worse ipsilateral-lung-sparing (V4Gy) in larger or medium-sized breasts than in smaller breasts. Autoplans were generally superior than manual plans in CI (1.24?±?0.06 vs. 1.30?±?0.09, p?<?0.01) and MU (1010?±?46 vs. 1205?±?187, p?<?0.01). CONCLUSIONS:Our study presents a well-designed standardized fully automated planning algorithm for optimized whole-breast radiotherapy treatment plan generation. A large cohort of 99 patients were re-planned and retrospectively analyzed. The automated plans demonstrated similar or even better dosimetric quality and efficacy in comparison with the manual plans. Our result suggested that the autoplanning algorithm has great clinical applicability potential.