High-resolution DNA methylome reveals that demethylation enhances adaptability to continuous cropping comprehensive stress in soybean.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Continuous cropping stress involves such factors as biological barriers, allelopathic autotoxicity, deterioration of soil physicochemical properties, and soil fertility imbalance and is regarded as a kind of comprehensive stress limiting soybean yield and quality. Genomic DNA methylation is an important regulatory mechanism for plants to resist various environmental stresses. Therefore, it is especially worthwhile to reveal genomic methylation characteristics under stress and clarify the relationship between DNA methylation status and continuous cropping stress adaptability in soybean. RESULTS:We generated a genome-wide map of cytosine methylation induced by this kind of comprehensive stress in a tolerant soybean variety (Kang Xian 2, KX2) and a sensitive variety (He Feng, HF55) using whole-genome bisulfite sequencing (WGBS) technology. The expression of DNA demethylase genes was detected using real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR). The functions of differentially methylated genes (DMGs) involved in stress response in biochemical metabolism and genetic information transmission were further assessed based on Gene Ontology (GO) annotation and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis. The results showed that genomic DNA demethylation was closely related to continuous cropping comprehensive stress adaptability in soybean, which was further verified by the increasing expression of DNA demethylases ROS1 and DML. The demethylation of mCpG and mCpHpG (mCpApG preferred) contexts was more critical, which mainly occurred in gene-regulatory regions at the whole-chromosome scale. Moreover, this kind of stress adaptability may be related to various stress responders generated through strengthened glucose catabolism and amino acid and fatty acid anabolism, as well as fidelity transmission of genetic information. CONCLUSIONS:Genomic DNA demethylation was closely associated with continuous cropping comprehensive stress adaptability, highlighting the promising potential of screening continuous cropping-tolerant cultivars by DNA methylation index and further exploring the application of DNA demethylases in soybean breeding.
Project description:Epigenetic modification contributes to the regulation of gene expression and plant development under salinity stress. Here we describe the identification of 49 soybean transcription factors by microarray analysis as being inducible by salinity stress. A semi-quantitative RT-PCR-based expression assay confirmed the salinity stress inducibility of 45 of these 49 transcription factors, and showed that ten of them were up-regulated when seedlings were exposed to the demethylation agent 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine. Salinity stress was shown to affect the methylation status of four of these ten transcription factors (one MYB, one b-ZIP and two AP2/DREB family members) using a combination of bisulfite sequencing and DNA methylation-sensitive DNA gel blot analysis. ChIP analysis indicated that the activation of three of the four DNA methylated transcription factors was correlated with an increased level of histone H3K4 trimethylation and H3K9 acetylation, and/or a reduced level of H3K9 demethylation in various parts of the promoter or coding regions. Our results suggest a critical role for some transcription factors' activation/repression by DNA methylation and/or histone modifications in soybean tolerance to salinity stress.
Project description:Long-term continuous soybean cropping can lead to the aggravation of soil fungal disease. However, the manner in which the fungal community and functional groups of fungi are affected by continuous soybean cropping remains unclear. We investigated the fungal abundance, composition and diversity during soybean rotation (RS), 2-year (SS) and long-term (CS) continuous soybean cropping systems using quantitative real-time PCR and high-throughput sequencing. The results showed that the fungal abundance was significantly higher in CS than in SS and RS. CS altered the fungal composition. Compared with RS, SS had an increase of 29 and a decrease of 12 genera in fungal relative abundance, and CS increased 38 and decreased 17 genera. The Shannon index was significantly higher in CS and SS than in RS. The result of principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) showed that CS and SS grouped together and were clearly separated from RS on the PCoA1. A total of 32 features accounted for the differences in fungal composition across RS, SS, and CS. The relative abundance of 10 potentially pathogenic and 10 potentially beneficial fungi changed, and most of their relative abundances dramatically increased in SS and CS compared with RS. Our study indicated that CS results in selective stress on pathogenic and beneficial fungi and causes the development of the fungal community structure that is antagonistic to plant health.
Project description:Plant health and soil fertility are affected by plant-microbial interactions in soils. Peanut is an important oil crop worldwide and shows considerable adaptability, but growth and yield are negatively affected by continuous cropping. In this study, 16S rRNA gene clone library analyses were used to study the succession of soil bacterial communities under continuous peanut cultivation. Six libraries were constructed for peanut over three continuous cropping cycles and during its seedling and pod-maturing growth stages. Cluster analyses indicated that soil bacterial assemblages obtained from the same peanut cropping cycle were similar, regardless of growth period. The diversity of bacterial sequences identified in each growth stage library of the three peanut cropping cycles was high and these sequences were affiliated with 21 bacterial groups. Eight phyla: Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, Gemmatimonadetes, Planctomycetes, Proteobacteria and Verrucomicrobia were dominant. The related bacterial phylotypes dynamic changed during continuous cropping progress of peanut. This study demonstrated that the bacterial populations especially the beneficial populations were positively selected. The simplification of the beneficial microbial communities such as the phylotypes of Alteromonadales, Burkholderiales, Flavobacteriales, Pseudomonadales, Rhizobiales and Rhodospirillales could be important factors contributing to the decline in peanut yield under continuous cropping. The microbial phylotypes that did not successively changed with continuous cropping, such as populations related to Rhizobiales and Rhodospirillales, could potentially resist stress due to continuous cropping and deserve attention. In addition, some phylotypes, such as Acidobacteriales, Chromatiales and Gemmatimonadales, showed a contrary tendency, their abundance or diversity increased with continuous peanut cropping progress. Some bacterial phylotypes including Acidobacteriales, Burkholderiales, Bdellovibrionales, and so on, also were affected by plant age.
Project description:Recent studies have shown that continuous cropping in soybean causes substantial changes to the microbial community in rhizosphere soil. In this study, we investigated the effects of continuous cropping for various time periods on the diversity of rhizosphere soil arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi in various soybean cultivars at the branching stage. The soybean cultivars Heinong 37 (an intermediate cultivar), Heinong 44 (a high-fat cultivar) and Heinong 48 (a high-protein cultivar) were seeded in a field and continuously cropped for two or three years. We analyzed the diversity of rhizosphere soil AM fungi of these soybean plants at the branching stage using morphological and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) techniques. The clustering analysis of unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic averages (UPGMA) was then used to investigate the AM fungal community shifts. The results showed that increasing the number of years of continuous cropping can improve the colonization rate of AM fungi in different soybean cultivars at the branching stage. The dominant AM fungi in the experimental fields were Funneliformismosseae and Glomus spp. The number of years of continuous cropping and the soybean cultivar both had obvious effects on the diversity of AM fungi, which was consistent with the results of colonization rate analysis. This study establishes a basis for screening dominant AM fungi of soybean. In addition, the results of this study may be useful for the development of AM fungal inoculants.
Project description:Nitrogen-fixing microorganisms play important roles in N cycling. However, knowledge related to the changes in the diazotrophic community in response to cropping systems is still rudimentary. In this study, the nifH gene was used to reveal the abundance and community compositions of diazotrophs in the cropping systems of continuous cropping of corn (CC) and soybean (SS) and soybean-corn rotation for growing corn (CSC) and soybean (SCS) in a black soil of Northeast China. The results showed that the abundance of the nifH gene was significantly higher in cropping soybean than in cropping corn under the same cropping system, while remarkably increased in the rotation system under the same crop. The Shannon index in the CC treatment was significantly higher than that in the other treatments, but the OTU number and Chao1 index had no significant change among the four treatments. Bradyrhizobium japonicum was the dominant diazotrophic species, and its relative abundance was at the lowest value in the CC treatment. In contrast, Skermanella sp. had the highest relative abundance in the CC treatment. A PCoA showed that the diazotrophic communities were separated between different cropping systems, and the variation caused by continuous corn cropping was the largest. Among the tested soil properties, the soil available phosphorus was a primary factor in determining diazotrophic community compositions. Overall, the findings of this study highlighted that the diazotrophic communities in black soils are very sensitive to cropping systems.
Project description:Continuous cropping in soybean is increasingly practiced in Heilongjiang Province, leading to substantial yield reductions and quality degradation. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are soil microorganisms that form mutualistic interactions with plant roots and can restore the plant rhizosphere microenvironment. In this study, two soybean lines (HN48 and HN66) were chosen as experimental materials, which were planted in different years of continuous cropping soybean soils and were inoculated or not with Funneliformis mosseae in potted-experiments. Ultimately, analysis of root tissue metabolome and root exudates, soil physicochemical properties, plant biomass, as well as rhizosphere soil properties in different experimental treatments, inoculated or not with F. mosseae, was performed. Experimental results showed that: (a) The disease index of soybean root rot was significantly lower in the treatment group than in the control group, and there were differences in disease index and the resistance effect of F. mosseae between the two cultivars; (b) compared with the control, the root tissue metabolome and root exudates remained unchanged, but there were changes in the relative amounts in the treatment group, and the abundant metabolites differed by soybean cultivar; (c) soybean biomass was significantly higher in the treatment group than in the control group, and the effect of F. mosseae on biomass differed with respect to the soybean cultivar; and (d) there were differences in the physiochemical indexes of soybean rhizosphere soil between the treatment and control groups, and the repairing effect of F. mosseae differed between the two cultivars. Therefore, F. mosseae can increase the biomass of continuously cropped soybean, improve the physicochemical properties of the rhizosphere soil, regulate the root metabolite profiles, and alleviate barriers to continuous cropping in potted-experiments of soybean.
Project description:Soybean (Glycine max) is susceptible to root rot when subjected to continuous cropping, and this disease can seriously diminish the crop yield. Herein, isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) labeling and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) were employed for proteomic analysis of continuously cropped soybean inoculated with the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Funneliformis mosseae. Differential expression of proteins in soybean roots was determined following 1 year of continuous cropping. A total of 131 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) were identified in F. mosseae-treated samples, of which 49 and 82 were up- and down-regulated, respectively. The DEPs were annotated with 117 Gene Ontology (GO) terms, with 48 involved in biological processes, 31 linked to molecular functions, and 39 associated with cell components. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis mapped the DEPs to 113 mainly metabolic pathways including oxidative phosphorylation, glycolysis and amino acid metabolism. Expression of glucan 1,3-beta-glucosidase, chalcone isomerase, calcium-dependent phospholipid binding and other defense-related proteins was up-regulated by F. mosseae, suggesting inoculation promotes the growth and development of soybean and increases disease resistance. The findings provide an experimental basis for further research on the molecular mechanisms of AM fungi in resolving problems associated with continuous soybean cropping.
Project description:Background:Understanding diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) is important for optimizing their role for phosphorus (P) nutrition of soybeans (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) in P-limited soils. However, it is not clear how soybean growth and P nutrition is related to AMF colonization and diversity of AMF communities in a continuous P-unfertilized cover cropping system. Thus, we investigated the impact of P-application and cover cropping on the interaction among AMF colonization, AMF diversity in soybean roots, soybean growth and P nutrition under a five-year P-unfertilized crop rotation. Methods:In this study, we established three cover crop systems (wheat, red clover and oilseed rape) or bare fallow in rotation with soybean. The P-application rates before the seeding of soybeans were 52.5 and 157.5 kg ha-1 in 2014 and 2015, respectively. We measured AMF colonization in soybean roots, soybean growth parameters such as aboveground plant biomass, P uptake at the flowering stage and grain yields at the maturity stage in both years. AMF community structure in soybean roots was characterized by specific amplification of small subunit rDNA. Results:The increase in the root colonization at the flowering stage was small as a result of P-application. Cover cropping did not affect the aboveground biomass and P uptake of soybean in both years, but the P-application had positive effects on the soybean performance such as plant P uptake, biomass and grain yield in 2015. AMF communities colonizing soybean roots were also significantly influenced by P-application throughout the two years. Moreover, the diversity of AMF communities in roots was significantly influenced by P-application and cover cropping in both years, and was positively correlated with the soybean biomass, P uptake and grain yield throughout the two years. Discussion:Our results indicated that P-application rather than cover cropping may be a key factor for improving soybean growth performance with respect to AMF diversity in P-limited cover cropping systems. Additionally, AMF diversity in roots can potentially contribute to soybean P nutrition even in the P-fertilized cover crop rotational system. Therefore, further investigation into the interaction of AMF diversity, P-application and cover cropping is required for the development of more effective P management practices on soybean growth performance.
Project description:DNA methylation is a conserved epigenetic mark that is critical for many biological processes in plants and mammals. In Arabidopsis, the antagonistic activities of RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) and ROS1-dependent active DNA demethylation are key for the dynamic regulation of locus-specific DNA methylation. However, the molecular factors that coordinate RdDM and active demethylation are largely unknown. Here we report that CLSY4 and its three paralogous SWI2/SNF2-type chromatin-remodeling proteins function in both RdDM and DNA demethylation in Arabidopsis. We initially identified CLSY4 in a genetic screen for DNA demethylation factors and subsequently demonstrated that it also is important in RdDM. Comprehensive genetic analyses using single and high order mutants of CLSY family proteins revealed their roles as double agents in the balance between methylation and demethylation reactions. The four CLSY proteins collectively are necessary for the canonical RdDM pathway; at the same time, each CLSY likely mediates DNA demethylation at specific loci where DNA methylation depends on RdDM. These results indicate that the four chromatin-remodeling proteins have dual functions in regulating genomic DNA methylation, and thus provide new insights into the dynamic regulation of DNA methylation in a model multicellular eukaryotic organism.
Project description:In the mammalian genome, 5'-CpG-3' dinucleotides are frequently methylated, correlating with transcriptional silencing. Genome-wide demethylation is thought to occur only twice during development, in primordial germ cells and in the pre-implantation embryo. These demethylation events are followed by de novo methylation, setting up a pattern inherited throughout development and modified only at tissue-specific loci. We studied DNA methylation in differentiating mouse erythroblasts in vivo by using genomic-scale reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS). Demethylation at the erythroid-specific ?-globin locus was coincident with global DNA demethylation at most genomic elements. Global demethylation was continuous throughout differentiation and required rapid DNA replication. Hence, DNA demethylation can occur globally during somatic cell differentiation, providing an experimental model for its study in development and disease.