Traumatic chorioretinitis sclopetaria: Risk factors, management, and prognosis.
ABSTRACT: Purpose:To describe new cases of sclopetaria and evaluate the risk factors, management, and visual prognosis of all reported cases in the literature. Observations:We performed a retrospective, observational case series. This study included six cases (median age 23, interquartile range 33) of sclopetaria. Additionally, literature searches were conducted in the PubMed and Cochrane Library databases to uncover risk factors associated with all published cases of sclopetaria. Main outcome measure was best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) worse than 20/20. Sixty-seven cases (71 eyes) of sclopetaria have been reported, of which 59 cases (61 eyes) met inclusion criteria in this study. Most were young (median age 19.5 years) men (51/59, 88.1%). Thirty-seven eyes were observed while 24 underwent immediate surgery including six pars plana vitrectomies and three scleral buckles. Compared to initial presentation, BCVA improved in 31/48 (64.6%) eyes, remained stable in 12/48 eyes (25.0%), and worsened in 5/48 eyes (10.4%). Ten patients (16.4%) achieved a final BCVA of 20/20 with median follow up time of seven months. In a multivariate model, location of sclopetaria in the macula, temporal retina, or immediate orbital foreign body removal predicted poor final BCVA with an area under receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.767. Conclusions and importance:Traumatic chorioretinitis sclopetaria is rare, but reports have increased dramatically over the past two decades. While pars plana vitrectomy may be required for the management of retinal detachments and non-clearing vitreous hemorrhage, close observation is appropriate in most cases. Visual prognosis is poor with most patients attaining 20/200 vision or worse.
Project description:BACKGROUND:To investigate the long-term outcomes and complications of scleral-fixated intraocular lens (SFIOL) implantation without conjunctival peritomies and sclerotomy in patients with a history of ocular trauma with inadequate capsular support during primary pars plana vitrectomy or silicone oil removal. METHODS:Records of ocular trauma patients who underwent implantation of SFIOL without conjunctival peritomies and sclerotomy during primary pars plana vitrectomy or silicone oil removal. RESULTS:Sixty-nine eyes of 69 patients were included in this study. The median follow-up period was 34 months (range, 6-99 months). The average patient age at the time of surgery was 44 years old (range, 4-80 years). At the end of follow-up, the preoperative mean of best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was 0.79 ± 0.86 log of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR), which improved 0.20 ± 0.26 logMAR postoperatively (P = 0.01). BCVA improved or remained unchanged in 64 eyes (92.8%), VA decreased two lines in five eyes (7.2%). Early postoperative complications included transient corneal edema in seven eyes (10.1%), minor vitreous hemorrhage in four eyes (5.8%), transient elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) in one eye (1.4%), and hypotony in three eyes (4.3%). Late postoperative complications included persistent elevated IOP in five eyes (7.2%), epiretinal membrane formation in three eyes (4.3%), and cystoid macular edema noted in one eye (1.4%). CONCLUSIONS:Use of a scleral-fixated intraocular lens implantation without conjunctival peritomies and sclerotomy in ocular trauma patients during either primary pars plana vitrectomy or second silicone oil removal is a valuable approach for the management of traumatic aphakia in the absence of capsular support.
Project description:Purpose:This study describes a novel surgical technique of fibrin glue-assisted retinopexy for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (GuARD) without oil or gas tamponade after pars plana vitrectomy (PPV). Methods:This pilot clinical trial included five eyes of five patients with rhegmatogenous retinal detachments (RD). A complete PPV was done in all cases followed by fluid-air exchange, laser photocoagulation around the break/s, and application of 0.1-0.2 mL of fibrin glue. No air, long-acting gas or silicone oil was used subsequently. No specific postoperative positioning was prescribed. The primary outcome measure was efficacy of the procedure defined as successful anatomical retinal reattachment. Secondary outcome measures were postoperative improvement in best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and complications. Results:The median age of patients was 55 (range: 36-61 years) years and median duration of symptoms was 15 (range: 7-60) days. All eyes were pseudophakic, four eyes had inferior and one eye had total RD. Successful retinal reattachment was achieved in all (100%) cases and was maintained at the end of 3-8 months of follow-up. The median BCVA improved from 20/100 preoperatively to 20/80 at 1-week and 20/50 at 1-month postoperatively. None of the eyes had any postoperative complications such as elevated intraocular pressures or unexpected inflammation. Conclusion:The findings of this study suggest that GuARD is a promising technique for treatment of rhegmatogenous RD that may allow early visual recovery while avoiding the problems of gas or oil tamponade and obviating the need of postoperative positioning.
Project description:PURPOSE: To evaluate the long-term visual outcomes of pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) for polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV)-associated vitreous haemorrhage (VH). METHOD: We retrospectively reviewed the records of patients with PCV-related VH who underwent PPV. The main outcome measures were best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and fundus findings at 3 months postoperatively and final visit. RESULTS: Seventeen eyes of 17 patients with massive subretinal haemorrhage (16.7±7.1 disc size of mean subretinal haemorrhage area) were enrolled. The mean postoperative follow-up period was 25.2 months. Four eyes received intravitreal bevacizumab injections, and three eyes underwent photodynamic therapy before the onset of VH. The mean BCVA improved from logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (LogMAR) of 2.63±0.57 preoperatively to 1.43±0.82 at final visit (P<0.001). Among the eyes with initial polyps at subfoveal or juxtafoveal area, 16.70% achieved final BCVA ≥20/400 (LogMAR 1.3), whereas 87.50% of eyes with initial polyps at extrafoveal area had final BCVA ≥20/400 (Fisher's exact test, P=0.026). CONCLUSIONS: PCV with massive subretinal haemorrhage is at risk for breakthrough VH. The visual prognosis in eyes with PCV-related breakthrough VH is variable after vitrectomy. Initial polyps at the extrafoveal area led to better functional outcomes. Early vitrectomy may be beneficial for visual recovery after PCV-related VH.
Project description:PURPOSE:To report the surgical outcomes of primary rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) repaired by 27-gauge pars plana vitrectomy combined with Healaflow patch and air tamponade. METHODS:In an initial vitro experiment, we observed and compared the dissolution and displacement of the dispersion spots of 0.05-mL Healaflow and sodium hyaluronate. We then performed a prospective, interventional cohort study on 38 eyes in 37 consecutive patients with primary rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. All eyes underwent pars plana vitrectomy combined with Healaflow patch and air tamponade; the postoperative period did not involve prone positioning. The primary and final anatomical attachment rate, best-corrected visual acuity, and intraoperative and postoperative complications were evaluated. RESULTS:In the in vitro experiment, the viscoelastic Healaflow remained adherent with no change in the size of the area; however, the control dissolved completely in the balance solution. The patient study included 16 women (43.2%) and 21 men (56.8%) (mean age, 59.5 ± 9.5 years; mean follow-up period, 8.9 ± 3.8 months). A single break was present in 21 (55.3%) and 2 to 5 breaks in 17 cases (44.8%). The macula was involved in 25 (65.8%) and attached in 13 cases (34.2%) intraoperatively. Initial reattachment was achieved in 37 (97.4%) and final reattachment in 38 cases (100%). In one case (2.6%), the macula redetached because of failure of the chorioretinal scar to develop around the treated break. Mean preoperative and postoperative best-corrected visual acuities were 1.02 ± 0.82 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (median Snellen acuity: 20/125, range: 20/20,000-20/20) and 0.23 ± 0.17 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (median Snellen acuity: 20/32, range: 20/100-20/20), respectively (P < 0.001). Intraocular pressure was elevated transiently in 28 eyes (73.7%). There were no other intraoperative complications or postoperative scleral incision leakage. CONCLUSION:A 27-gauge pars plana vitrectomy combined with Healaflow patch, and air tamponade results in a high reattachment rate in the treatment of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. Thus, patients can benefit from early visual recovery and less complications.
Project description:Purpose: The study aims to determine the anatomical success and functional outcome of pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) for macular holes (MH) performed at a single study center using a consistent procedure of internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling, SF6 tamponade and 3 days face-down positioning. Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study involving eyes with MHs which underwent 23- or 25-gauge PPV with or without phacoemulsification and all undergoing a 20% SF6 gas tamponade, follow-up to 6 months postoperatively were included at the Department of Ophthalmology, Oslo University Hospital and University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway (12-month study period between 1 January and 31 December 2015) Pre- and post-operative Best-Corrected Visual Acuity (BCVA) assessment, comprehensive eye examination and intraocular pressure (IOP) measurement. as well as Optical Coherence Tomography to determine the diameter of the MH and its closure were all carried out. Results: 198 consecutive eyes operated for MH (age: 69.4 ± 7.6 years; 1.6:1 female:male ratio) were included; 35.7%/48.6% had symptoms from 3-6/6-48 months; 5.1% had high-grade myopia, 21.5% focal VMT <1500 µm with or without epiretinal membrane (ERM), and 74.0%/26.0% had phakic/pseudophakic status. Primary closure of the MH occurred in 93.3% of the patients. Lens status and length of symptoms showed no significant correlation with closure of the MH. The pre-operative logMAR visual acuity: 0.8 ± 0.3 (median: 0.7; interquartile range (IQR): 0.5-0.8; range: 0.3-1.7), improved significantly post-operatively: 0.4 ± 0.3 (median: 0.3; interquartile range (IQR): 0.1-0.5; range: -0.02-1.2). BCVA improvement of <0.2, 0.2-0.4 and >0.4 was present in 28.3%, 27.3% and 44.4% of the treated patients. No significant median differences could be detected between the duration of the pre-operative symptoms and the pre-/post-operative visual acuity. Increased IOP was measured in 2.6% of the cases day after surgery. Conclusions: Our study found visual outcome not to be dependent upon the length of symptoms in MH patients treated by PPV all undergoing ILM peeling, SF6 tamponade and face-down positioning. The large diameter MH was not a limiting factor to achieve improved post-operative BCVA.
Project description:PURPOSE:To study UK practice patterns for the management of retinal detachment secondary to macular hole (MHRD) and macular retinoschisis (MRS) in pathological myopia (PM). To review the anatomical and visual outcomes of the surgically managed cases. METHODS:A prospective observational case series for the management of MHRD was undertaken in association with the British Ophthalmological Surveillance Unit (BOSU). The results were combined with retrospective data, collected by the COllaboration of British RetinAl Surgeons (COBRA), on the management of both MHRD and MRS in PM in the UK. A total of 20 cases of MHRD and 53 cases of MRS (27 surgical cases and 26 cases managed conservatively) are reported in this combined study. RESULTS:MHRD: Mean baseline best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was 1.60 logMAR. All cases underwent pars plana vitrectomy (PPV). Mean post-operative BCVA was 1.49 logMAR (p = 0.674). The macular hole was closed in 5/20 (25%) cases, open/flat in 10/20 (50%) cases and open/elevated in 4/20 cases (20%). MRS: Mean baseline BCVA was 0.87 logMAR in the surgical group and 0.45 logMAR in the conservatively managed group (p = 0.002). All eyes that had surgical intervention underwent PPV. Mean post-operative BCVA was 0.68 logMAR (p = 0.183). Anatomical outcomes demonstrated a persistent MRS in 2/27 (7.4%) cases, partial resolution in 7/27 (25.9%) cases and complete resolution in 16/27 (59.2%) cases. CONCLUSIONS:PPV is the only surgical procedure performed for the management of MHRD and MRS amongst the study participants. Success rates and visual outcomes are limited for MHRD and consistent with the current literature for MRS.
Project description:To report our experience using 27-gauge pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) system for treating patients with combined tractional and rhegmatogenous retinal detachments (CTRRD) involving the macula associated with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR).Retrospective noncomparative interventional cases series of 12 patients with CTRRD associated with PDR who underwent 3-port, transconjunctival 27-gauge PPV by a single surgeon. Main outcome measures were change in Snellen best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and occurrence of intra- and post-operative complications.Twelve eyes from 12 patients (9 men and 3 women) underwent 27-gauge PPV. Mean follow-up was 17 months (range 8-26 months). Preoperatively, BCVA of 20/400 or better was recorded in only 2 of 12 (16.7%) eyes. Postoperatively, BCVA improved to 20/400 or better in 11 of 12 (91.7%) eyes at 6 months (P = 0.001). At last follow-up, BCVA of 20/400 or better was recorded in 10 of 12 (83.3%), in comparison to 2 (16.7%) eyes at baseline (P = 0.004). The only intraoperative complication was an iatrogenic break in 1 eye (8.3%). Postoperative complications included vitreous hemorrhage in 4 eyes (33.3%) and transient ocular hypertension in 3 eyes (25.0%). At final follow-up anatomic success was confirmed in all eyes.The current study findings suggest that 27-gauge PPV is a safe and promising surgical technology for treating patients with CTRRD involving the macula associated with PDR. Smaller gauge instruments and higher cutting rates may facilitate the dissection and shaving of fibrovascular membranes, while minimizing intra- and post-operative complications.
Project description:A 7-year-old boy presented with history of blunt trauma 1 month back. Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was 20/200 with optical coherence tomography (OCT) showing a large macular hole. Spontaneous closure of the macular hole seemed unlikely following a month of observation. Pars plana vitrectomy along with autologous retinal graft was performed. At subsequent follow up, hole appeared closed with nasal shrinkage of graft and BCVA improved to 20/100. OCT showed mechanical integration of the graft with adjoining retina. Autologous retinal graft is a feasible option in cases where conventional internal limiting membrane peeling shows lower anatomical success.
Project description:We evaluated predictive factors for visual outcomes in patients with idiopathic epiretinal membrane (iERM) after pars plana vitrectomy (PPV). Clinical records for 114 eyes (114 patients, mean age: 70.6 years) with iERM treated by PPV between March 2012 and March 2018 were retrospectively reviewed. Overall, the mean postoperative best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and central retinal thickness measured by optical coherence tomography improved as early as 1 month after surgery, and further improved until 3 months (P?<?0.01). Multiple linear regression analyses adjusted for the preoperative BCVA showed that older age (B, 0.010; 95% confidence interval, 0.003 to 0.016; P?=?0.003) and a shorter axial length (AL; B, -0.059; 95% confidence interval, -0.099 to -0.019; P?=?0.005) predicted worse postoperative BCVA. The Mann-Whitney U test showed that the postoperative BCVA was worse in eyes with AL?<?23.6?mm than in eyes with AL???23.6?mm (P?=?0.037), and in patients aged ?69 years than in patients aged <69 years (P?=?0.024). The findings may help in evaluating surgical indications for each patient to obtain satisfactory outcomes, irrespective of the preoperative BCVA.
Project description:To report the clinical settings, microbiological isolates, and best-corrected visual acuities (BCVA) of patients with persistently culture-positive exogenous fungal endophthlamitis.Retrospective consecutive case series.Setting: Tertiary referral center.Sixteen eyes of 16 patients with at least 2 consecutive positive vitreous cultures between 1981 and 2015.Intravitreal antifungal injection, pars plana vitrectomy (PPV).Clinical settings, microbiologic isolates, BCVA.The most common clinical settings were after cataract surgery (9/16, 56%), glaucoma surgery (4/16, 25%), and trauma (2/16, 13%). The most common single fungal isolate was Candida (4/16, 25%), but 75% of all isolates were molds. Treatment for presumed bacterial endophthalmitis was given initially in 14 patients (88%). All patients underwent a vitrectomy during the course of their treatment, and all received intravitreal or systemic antifungal therapy. The mean initial BCVA was 1.76 ± 0.9 logMAR (Snellen equivalent ?20/1200), and the mean final BCVA was 1.84 ± 1.2 logMAR (?20/1400, P = .83). The 9 patients (56%) who had intraocular lens (IOL) and capsular bag removals had better final BCVAs than those who did not (P = .011). The BCVAs were similar in eyes with yeast and mold (P = .37). The visual acuity at the last follow-up was ?20/40 in 13% (2/16), ?20/400 in 50% (8/16), and no light perception in 25% (4/16).Candida was the single most common isolate, but the majority of isolates were molds. Eyes managed with PPV and removal of the IOL and capsular bag had better visual outcomes. Persistently culture-positive fungal endophthalmitis was associated with poor final visual acuities.