Transcriptome-wide analysis of filarial extract-primed human monocytes reveal changes in LPS-induced PTX3 expression levels.
ABSTRACT: Filarial nematodes modulate immune responses in their host to enable their survival and mediate protective effects against autoimmunity and allergies. In this study, we examined the immunomodulatory capacity of extracts from the human pathogenic filaria Brugia malayi (BmA) on human monocyte responses in a transcriptome-wide manner to identify associated pathways and diseases. As previous transcriptome studies often observed quiescent responses of innate cells to filariae, the potential of BmA to alter LPS driven responses was investigated by analyzing >47.000 transcripts of monocytes from healthy male volunteers stimulated with BmA, Escherichia coli LPS or a sequential stimulation of both. In comparison to ~2200 differentially expressed genes in LPS-only stimulated monocytes, only a limited number of differentially expressed genes were identified upon BmA priming before LPS re-stimulation with only PTX3↓ reaching statistical significance after correcting for multiple testing. Nominal significant differences were reached for metallothioneins↑, MMP9↑, CXCL5/ENA-78↑, CXCL6/GCP-2↑, TNFRSF21↓, and CCL20/MIP3α↓ and were confirmed by qPCR or ELISA. Flow cytometric analysis of activation markers revealed a reduced LPS-induced expression of HLA-DR and CD86 on BmA-primed monocytes as well as a reduced apoptosis of BmA-stimulated monocytes. While our experimental design does not allow a stringent extrapolation of our results to the development of filarial pathology, several genes that were identified in BmA-primed monocytes had previously been associated with filarial pathology, supporting the need for further research.
Project description:Infection with filarial parasites is associated with T cell hyporesponsiveness, which is thought to be partly mediated by their ability to induce regulatory T cells (Tregs) during human infections. This study investigates the functional capacity of Tregs from different groups of filarial patients to suppress filaria-specific immune responses during human filariasis. Microfilaremic (MF), chronic pathology (CP) and uninfected endemic normal (EN) individuals were selected in an area endemic for Brugia timori in Flores island, Indonesia. PBMC were isolated, CD4CD25(hi) cells were magnetically depleted and in vitro cytokine production and proliferation in response to B. malayi adult worm antigen (BmA) were determined in total and Treg-depleted PBMC. In MF subjects BmA-specific T and B lymphocyte proliferation as well as IFN-gamma, IL-13 and IL-17 responses were lower compared to EN and CP groups. Depletion of Tregs restored T cell as well as B cell proliferation in MF-positives, while proliferative responses in the other groups were not enhanced. BmA-induced IL-13 production was increased after Treg removal in MF-positives only. Thus, filaria-associated Tregs were demonstrated to be functional in suppressing proliferation and possibly Th2 cytokine responses to BmA. These suppressive effects were only observed in the MF group and not in EN or CP. These findings may be important when considering strategies for filarial treatment and the targeted prevention of filaria-induced lymphedema.
Project description:In vitro priming of human peripheral monocytes with the filarial extract from Brugia malayi and subsequent LPS stimulation to explore the immunmodulatory capacity of filarial extract to subsequent inflammatory LPS responses and thus to identify new candidates to modify TLR4-associated responses/diseases and filarial pathology.
Project description:Monocytes and macrophages contribute to the dysfunction of immune responses in human filariasis. During patent infection monocytes encounter microfilariae in the blood, an event that occurs in asymptomatically infected filariasis patients that are immunologically hyporeactive.To determine whether blood microfilariae directly act on blood monocytes and in vitro generated macrophages to induce a regulatory phenotype that interferes with innate and adaptive responses.Monocytes and in vitro generated macrophages from filaria non-endemic normal donors were stimulated in vitro with Brugia malayi microfilarial (Mf) lysate. We could show that monocytes stimulated with Mf lysate develop a defined regulatory phenotype, characterised by expression of the immunoregulatory markers IL-10 and PD-L1. Significantly, this regulatory phenotype was recapitulated in monocytes from Wuchereria bancrofti asymptomatically infected patients but not patients with pathology or endemic normals. Monocytes from non-endemic donors stimulated with Mf lysate directly inhibited CD4+ T cell proliferation and cytokine production (IFN-?, IL-13 and IL-10). IFN-? responses were restored by neutralising IL-10 or PD-1. Furthermore, macrophages stimulated with Mf lysate expressed high levels of IL-10 and had suppressed phagocytic abilities. Finally Mf lysate applied during the differentiation of macrophages in vitro interfered with macrophage abilities to respond to subsequent LPS stimulation in a selective manner.Conclusively, our study demonstrates that Mf lysate stimulation of monocytes from healthy donors in vitro induces a regulatory phenotype, characterized by expression of PD-L1 and IL-10. This phenotype is directly reflected in monocytes from filarial patients with asymptomatic infection but not patients with pathology or endemic normals. We suggest that suppression of T cell functions typically seen in lymphatic filariasis is caused by microfilaria-modulated monocytes in an IL-10-dependent manner. Together with suppression of macrophage innate responses, this may contribute to the overall down-regulation of immune responses observed in asymptomatically infected patients.
Project description:Parasitic nematodes have evolved powerful immunomodulatory molecules to enable their survival in immunocompetent hosts by subverting immune responses and minimizing pathological processes. One filarial molecule known to counteract host immune responses by inducing IL-10 and regulatory macrophages in mice is filarial cystatin. During a patent filarial infection monocytes encounter microfilariae in the blood, an event that occurs in asymptomatically infected filariasis patients that are immunologically hyporeactive. The microfilarial larval stage was formerly shown to induce human regulatory monocytes and macrophages. Thus, here we aim was to determine how filarial cystatin of the human pathogenic filaria Brugia malayi (BmCPI-2) contributes to immune hyporesponsiveness in human monocytes and macrophages elicited by microfilaria. For this purpose, filarial cystatin was depleted from microfilarial lysate (Mf). Detecting the immunomodulatory potential of cystatin-depleted Mf revealed that IL-10, but not IL-8 and IL-6 induction in monocytes and macrophages is dependent on the presence of cystatin. In addition, the Mf-induced expression of the regulatory surface markers PD-L1 and PD-L2 in human monocytes, but not in macrophages, is dependent on cystatin. While Mf-treated monocytes result in decreased CD4+ T-cell proliferation in a co-culture assay, stimulation of T-cells with human monocytes treated with cystatin-depleted Mf lead to a restoration of CD4+ T-cell proliferation. Moreover, IL-10 induction by cystatin within Mf was dependent on p38 and ERK in macrophages, but independent of the ERK pathway in monocytes. These findings indicate that filarial nematodes differentially trigger and exploit various signaling pathways to induce immunomodulation in different myeloid cell subsets.
Project description:Monocyte dysfunction in filarial infection has been proposed as one mechanism underlying the diminished antigen-specific T-cell response seen in patent lymphatic filariasis. Cytokine/chemokine production and gene expression in monocytes from filaria-infected patients and uninfected healthy donors were assessed unstimulated and in response to stimulation with Staphylococcus aureus Cowan I bacteria plus gamma interferon both before and 8 months following treatment. Monocytes from filaria-infected individuals were studded with intracellular microfilarial antigens. Furthermore, monocytes from these individuals were less capable of producing interleukin-8 (IL-8), Exodus II, MIP-1alpha, MIP-1beta, and IL-1alpha and preferentially expressed genes involved in apoptosis and adhesion compared with monocytes from uninfected donors. Eight months following treatment with a single dose of ivermectin-albendazole, some of these defects were reversed, with monocyte production of IL-8, IL-1alpha, MIP-1alpha, and IL-10 being comparable to that seen in the uninfected controls. In addition, a marked increase in mRNA expression of genes associated with protein metabolism, particularly heat shock proteins, was seen compared with pretreatment expression. These data suggest that the function and gene expression of monocytes in filaria-infected patients are altered but that this dysfunction is partially reversible following antifilarial treatment.
Project description:APC dysfunction has been postulated to mediate some of the parasite-specific T cell unresponsiveness seen in patent filarial infection. We have shown that live microfilariae of Brugia malayi induce caspase-dependent apoptosis in human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs) in vitro. This study addresses whether apoptosis observed in vitro extends to patent filarial infections in humans and is reflected in the number of circulating myeloid DCs (mDCs; CD11c(-)CD123(lo)) in peripheral blood of infected microfilaremic individuals. Utilizing flow cytometry to identify DC subpopulations (mDCs and plasmacytoid DCs [pDCs]) based on expression of CD11c and CD123, we found a significant increase in numbers of circulating mDCs (CD11c(+)CD123(lo)) in filaria-infected individuals compared with uninfected controls from the same filaria-endemic region of Mali. Total numbers of pDCs, monocytes, and lymphocytes did not differ between the two groups. To investigate potential causes of differences in mDC numbers between the two groups, we assessed chemokine receptor expression on mDCs. Our data indicate that filaria-infected individuals had a lower percentage of circulating CCR1(+) mDCs and a higher percentage of circulating CCR5(+) mDCs and pDCs. Finally, live microfilariae of B. malayi were able to downregulate cell-surface expression of CCR1 on monocyte-derived DCs and diminish their calcium flux in response to stimulation by a CCR1 ligand. These findings suggest that microfilaria are capable of altering mDC migration through downregulation of expression of some chemokine receptors and their signaling functions. These observations have major implications for regulation of immune responses to these long-lived parasites.
Project description:Human monocytes from patients with patent filarial infections are studded with filarial antigen and express markers associated with alternative activation of macrophages (M?). To explore the role of filaria-derived parasite antigen in differentiation of human monocytes, cells were exposed to microfilariae (mf) of Brugia malayi, and their phenotypic and functional characteristics were compared with those of monocytes exposed to factors known to generate either alternatively (interleukin-4 [IL-4]) or classically (macrophage colony-stimulating factor [MCSF]) activated M?. IL-4 upregulated mRNA expression of CCL13, CCL15, CCL17, CCL18, CCL22, CLEC10A, MRC1, CADH1, CD274, and CD273 associated with alternative activation of M? but not arginase 1. IL-4-cultured monocytes had a diminished ability to promote proliferation of both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells compared to that of unexposed monocytes. Similar to results with IL-4, exposure of monocytes to live mf induced upregulation of CCL15, CCL17, CCL18, CCL22, CD274, and CD273 and downregulation of Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3), TLR5, and TLR7. In contrast to results with MCSF-cultured monocytes, exposure of monocytes to mf resulted in significant inhibition of the phagocytic ability of these cells to the same degree as that seen with IL-4. Our data suggest that short exposure of human monocytes to IL-4 induces a phenotypic characteristic of alternative activation and that secreted filarial products skew monocytes similarly.
Project description:Being generally regarded as commensal bacteria, the pro-inflammatory capacity of Ureaplasma species has long been debated. Recently, we confirmed Ureaplasma-driven pro-inflammatory cytokine responses and a disturbance of cytokine equilibrium in primary human monocytes in vitro. The present study addressed the expression of CC chemokines and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in purified term neonatal and adult monocytes stimulated with serovar 8 of Ureaplasma urealyticum (Uu) and serovar 3 of U. parvum (Up). Using qRT-PCR and multi-analyte immunoassay, we assessed mRNA and protein expression of the monocyte chemotactic proteins 1 and 3 (MCP-1/3), the macrophage inflammatory proteins 1? and 1? (MIP-1?/?) as well as MMP-9. For the most part, both isolates stimulated mRNA expression of all given chemokines and MMP-9 in cord blood and adult monocytes (p<0.05 and p<0.01). These results were paralleled by Uu and Up-induced secretion of MCP-1 protein in both cells (neonatal: p<0.01, adult: p<0.05 and p<0.01). Release of MCP-3, MIP-1?, MIP-1? and MMP-9 was enhanced upon exposure to Up (neonatal: p<0.05, p<0.01 and p<0.001, respectively; adult: p<0.05). Co-stimulation of LPS-primed monocytes with Up increased LPS-induced MCP-1 release in neonatal cells (p<0.05) and aggravated LPS-induced MMP-9 mRNA in both cell subsets (neonatal: p<0.05, adult: p<0.01). Our results document considerable expression of pro-inflammatory CC chemokines and MMP-9 in human monocytes in response to Ureaplasma isolates in vitro, adding to our previous data. Findings from co-stimulated cells indicate that Ureaplasma may modulate monocyte immune responses to a second stimulus.
Project description:Exaggerated CD4(+) T helper 2-specific cytokine producing memory T cell responses developing concomitantly with a T helper 1 response might have a detrimental role in immunity to infection caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. To assess the dynamics of Ag-specific memory T cell compartments in the context of filarial infection, we used multiparameter flow cytometry on PBMCs from 25 microfilaremic filarial-infected (Inf) and 14 filarial-uninfected (Uninf) subjects following stimulation with filarial Ag (BmA) or with the M. tuberculosis-specific Ag culture filtrate protein-10 (CFP-10). Our data demonstrated that the Inf group had a marked increase in BmA-specific CD4(+)IL-4(+) cells (median net frequency compared with baseline [Fo] = 0.09% versus 0.01%; p = 0.038) but also to CFP-10 (Fo = 0.16% versus 0.007%; p = 0.04) and staphylococcal enterotoxin B (Fo = 0.49% versus 0.26%; p = 0.04). The Inf subjects showed a BmA-specific expansion of CD4(+)CD45RO(+)IL-4(+) producing central memory (TCM, CD45RO(+)CCR7(+)CD27(+); Fo = 1.1% versus 0.5%; p = 0.04) as well as effector memory (TEM, CD45RO(+)CCR7(-)CD27(-); Fo = 1.5% versus 0.2%; p = 0.03) with a similar but nonsignificant response to CFP-10. In addition, there was expansion of CD4(+)IL-4(+)CD45RA(+)CCR7(+)CD27(+) (naive-like) in Inf individuals compared with Uninf subjects. Among Inf subjects with definitive latent tuberculosis, there were no differences in frequencies of IL-4-producing cells within any of the memory compartments compared with the Uninf group. Our data suggest that filarial infection induces Ag-specific, exaggerated IL-4 responses in distinct T cell memory compartments to M. tuberculosis-specific Ags, which are attenuated in subjects who are able to mount a delayed type hypersensitivity reaction to M. tuberculosis.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The hygiene hypothesis suggests that parasitic infection modulates host immune responses and decreases atopy. Other data suggest parasitic infections may induce allergic responsiveness. OBJECTIVE:To assess the structural and immunologic relationships between the known Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Der p 10) tropomyosin allergen and filarial tropomyosin of Onchocerca volvulus (OvTrop). METHODS:The molecular, structural, and immunologic relationships between OvTrop and Der p 10 were compared. Levels of OvTrop-specific and Der p 10-specific IgE, IgG, and IgG? in sera of filaria-infected and filarial-uninfected D pteronyssinus-atopic individuals were compared, as were the responses in nonhuman primates infected with the filarial parasite Loa loa. Cross-reactivity was compared by antigen-mediated depletion assays and functionality by passive basophil sensitization. RESULTS:Filarial and mite tropomyosins were very similar, with 72% identity at the amino acid level, and overlapping predicted 3-dimensional structures. The prevalence of IgE and IgG to Der p 10 was increased in filaria-infected individuals compared with uninfected subjects. There was a strong correlation between serum levels of Ov- and Der p 10-tropomyosin-specific IgE, IgG, and IgG? (P < .0001; r > 0.79). Preincubation of sera from anti-Der p 10-positive subjects with OvTrop completely depleted IgE, IgG, and IgG? anti-Der p 10. Basophils sensitized with sera from individuals allergic to Der p 10 released histamine similarly when triggered with OvTrop or Der p 10. Primates experimentally infected with L loa developed IgE that cross-reacted with Der p 10. CONCLUSION:Filarial infection induces strong cross-reactive antitropomyosin antibody responses that may affect sensitization and regulation of allergic reactivity.