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Understanding the Role of Innate Immunity in the Response to Intracortical Microelectrodes.


ABSTRACT: Intracortical microelectrodes exhibit enormous potential for researching the nervous system, steering assistive devices and functional electrode stimulation systems for severely paralyzed individuals, and augmenting the brain with computing power. Unfortunately, intracortical microelectrodes often fail to consistently record signals over clinically useful periods. Biological mechanisms, such as the foreign body response to intracortical microelectrodes and self-perpetuating neuroinflammatory cascades, contribute to the inconsistencies and decline in recording performance. Unfortunately, few studies have directly correlated microelectrode performance with the neuroinflammatory response to the implanted devices. However, of those select studies that have, the role of the innate immune system remains among the most likely links capable of corroborating the results of different studies, across laboratories. Therefore, the overall goal of this review is to highlight the role of innate immunity signaling in the foreign body response to intracortical microelectrodes and hypothesize as to appropriate strategies that may become the most relevant in enabling brain-dwelling electrodes of any geometry, or location, for a range of clinical applications.

SUBMITTER: Hermann JK 

PROVIDER: S-EPMC6391891 | BioStudies | 2018-01-01

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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