Study on the salivation effect of encapsulated food products containing Sichuan pepper oil.
ABSTRACT: Sichuan pepper is a plant belonging to the genus Zanthoxylum and family rue. To evaluate whether Sichuan pepper oil boosts saliva secretion using an encapsulated food product containing the oil in subjects presenting with mouth dryness. We evaluated subjective symptoms that changed with a decrease in salivary secretion in the subjects by evaluating the number of Candida colonies and by conducting interviews. The study results demonstrated that salivary secretion increased by 39.4% ± 37.6% after single ingestion of the product, and an additional 8.7% ± 13.2% and 6.3% ± 31.2% following continuous ingestion over 2 and 4 weeks, respectively. These findings suggested that the product rapidly promotes and maintains salivation. Regarding the proliferation of Candida colonies in subjects with mouth dryness, a negative correlation was observed between Candida colony number and salivary secretion quantity. Additionally, interviews revealed that subjective symptoms, such as mouth dryness, discomfort and pain in the mouth, difficulty swallowing the saliva, and feeling of stickiness in the mouth, improved shortly after single ingestion of the product, and mouth dryness was reduced by continuous consumption of the product. These findings indicated that the product studied promotes rapid salivary secretion, is effective in reducing the number of oral Candida colonies, and improves subjective symptoms such as mouth dryness.
Project description:A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group comparative clinical study was conducted to examine the effects of ubiquinol (the reduced form of Coenzyme Q10) on secretion of saliva. This interventional study enrolled 40 subjects aged 65 years or younger who were healthy, but noted slight dryness of the mouth. Subjects were randomized with stratification according to gender and age to ingestion of gummy candy containing 50 mg of ubiquinol or placebo twice daily for 8 weeks. At the end of study, along with a significant increase of the CoQ10 level in saliva (p = 0.025*, d = 0.65), there was a significant increase of the saliva flow rate (p = 0.048*, d = 0.66) in the ubiquinol candy group (n = 18; 47.4±6.2 years; 6 men and 12 women) compared to the placebo group (n = 20; 52.2±7.7 years; 4 men and 16 women). The strength of the stomatognathic muscles was not significantly enhanced by ingestion of ubiquinol candy. Compared with baseline, significant improvement of the following four questionnaire items was observed in the ubiquinol group at the end of the study: feeling tired (p = 0.00506, d = -0.726), dryness of the mouth (p = 0.04799, d = -0.648), prone to catching a cold (p = 0.00577, d = -0.963), and diarrhea (p = 0.0166, d = -0.855). There were no serious adverse events. An in vitro study revealed that ubiquinol stimulated a significant and concentration-dependent increase of ATP production by a cell line derived from human salivary gland epithelial cells (p<0.05), while 1 nM ubiquinol significantly suppressed (p = 0.028) generation of malondialdehyde by cells exposed to FeSO4-induced oxidative stress. These findings suggest that ubiquinol increases secretion of saliva by suppressing oxidative stress in the salivary glands and by promoting ATP production. Trial Registration: UMIN-CTR UMIN000024406.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Several questionnaires, such as the internationally validated and frequently used Xerostomia Inventory (XI), have been developed to quantify the subjective feeling of a dry mouth. These questionnaires quantify the overall perception of dry mouth but lack the possibility to differentiate between various intra-oral regions. In this light, a novel questionnaire, the Regional Oral Dryness Inventory (RODI), which quantifies the severity of dryness at various locations in the mouth, was evaluated. MATERIALS AND METHODS:A retrospective case report study was designed. Data were collected from patients who visited the saliva clinic for Special Care Dentistry in Amsterdam. Data, including the saliva secretion rates, RODI scores, the Xerostomia Inventory (XI) score, and Clinical Oral Dryness Score (CODS), were extracted from the electronic health record system Oase Dental. RESULTS:A total of 337 patients participated in this study with an average age of 54?±?17 years. The majority of the patients were female (68.5%). The perceived dryness as determined by the RODI was the highest for the posterior palate and the lowest for the floor of the mouth. The highest correlations were found between the corresponding regions in the RODI and regionally related individual items of the XI and CODS. CONCLUSION:There is a significant difference in dry-mouth feeling at different intra-oral locations. CLINICAL RELEVANCE:Regional evaluation of xerostomia with RODI might improve diagnosis of xerostomia by helping to discriminate between different potential causes of oral dryness in patients and for evaluating the efficacy of mouth-moistening products. RODI is highly accessible and easy to perform in dental practices during routine clinical assessment.
Project description:Sjögren's syndrome is a chronic autoimmune disorder characterized by lymphocytic infiltration and hypofunction of salivary and lacrimal glands. This loss of salivary function leads to oral dryness, impaired swallowing and speech, and increased infection and is associated with other autoimmune diseases and an increased risk of certain cancers. Despite the implications of this prevalent disease, diagnosis currently takes years, partly due to the diversity in patient presentation. Saliva is a complicated biological fluid with major constituents, including heavily glycosylated mucins MUC5B and MUC7, important for its viscoelastic and hydrating and lubricating properties. This study investigated Sjögren's patient's perception of dryness (bother index questionnaires) along with the rheological, protein composition, and glycan analysis of whole mouth saliva and the saliva on the mucosal surface (residual mucosal saliva) to understand the properties that most affect patient wellbeing. Sjögren's patients exhibited a statistically significant reduction in residual mucosal saliva, salivary flow rate, and extensional rheology, spinnbarkeit (stringiness). Although the concentration of mucins MUC5B and MUC7 were similar between patients and controls, a comparison of protein Western blotting and glycan staining identified a reduction in mucin glycosylation in Sjögren's, particularly on MUC7. LC-MS/MS analysis of O-glycans released from MUC7 by ?-elimination revealed that although patients had an increase in core 1 sulfation, the even larger reduction in sialylation resulted in a global decline of charged glycans. This was primarily due to the loss of the extended core 2 disialylated structure, with and without fucosylation. A decrease in the extended, fucosylated core 2 disialylated structure on MUC7, residual mucosal wetness, and whole mouth saliva flow rate appeared to have a negative and cumulative effect on the perception of oral dryness. The observed changes in MUC7 glycosylation could be a potential diagnostic tool for saliva quality and taken into consideration for future therapies for this multifactorial syndrome.
Project description:The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of three formulations of DC161 oral spray, a saliva substitute, and a comparator in relieving drug-induced xerostomia. This was an open-label, randomized, 4-period, cross-over study in adult subjects with drug-induced xerostomia and documented hyposalivation. During each of the four 1-day periods, one product (one of three DC161 formulations or the comparator) was applied at T0 and then at T4h (before a meal). Mouth dryness and related symptoms were evaluated by the subject on a 100-mm visual analog scale. The primary efficacy criterion was the area under the curve of the dry mouth evaluation (baseline to T4h) after the first application. The oral mucosa was examined by a dental specialist; tolerability and product acceptability were assessed by the subject. Twenty-four subjects were randomized and completed the study. Despite large variability in data among the products, the selected aqueous formulation - DC161-DP0292 - reduced the intensity of dryness of mouth at least as well as the comparator; DC161-DP0292 provided a fast relief and a long-lasting effect on mouth dryness. Both products improved other symptoms such as swallowing and speaking, even when applied just prior to a meal. DC161-DP0292 was well tolerated and rated by subjects as providing a slightly higher acceptability of taste/aftertaste, texture, and lubricating effect than the comparator. No clinically relevant signs were reported for any product following the oral examination. DC161-DP0292 provides fast and long-acting symptomatic relief and is a relevant new treatment for drug-induced xerostomia.
Project description:Salivary gland dysfunction occurs in several autoimmune and immune-related conditions, including Sjögren syndrome (SS); immune checkpoint inhibitor-induced sicca (ICIS) that develops in some cancer patients and is characterized by severe, sudden-onset dry mouth; and autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED). Although subjects with these conditions present with oral dryness and often exhibit inflammatory infiltration of the salivary gland, little is known about the B-cell humoral responses directed against salivary gland protein targets. In this study, autoantibodies were evaluated against Ro52, Ro60, and La, as well as against a panel of 22 proteins derived from the salivary proteome. The tested cohort included healthy volunteers and subjects with SS, ICIS, and APECED without and with sicca. As expected, a high percentage of autoantibody seropositivity was detected against Ro52, Ro60, and La in SS, but only a few ICIS patients were seropositive for these autoantigens. A few APECED subjects also harbored autoantibodies to Ro52 and La, but only Ro60 autoantibodies were weakly associated with a small subset of APECED patients with sicca. Additional testing of the salivary panel failed to detect seropositive autoantibodies against any of the salivary-enriched proteins in the SS and ICIS subjects. However, APECED subjects selectively demonstrated seropositivity against BPI fold containing family A member 1 (BPIFA1), BPI fold containing family A member 2 (BPIFA2)/parotid salivary protein (PSP), and lactoperoxidase, 3 salivary-enriched proteins. Moreover, high levels of serum autoantibodies against BPIFA1 and BPIFA2/PSP occurred in 30% and 67% of the APECED patients with sicca symptoms, respectively, and were associated with an earlier age onset of oral dryness (P = 0.001). These findings highlight the complexity of humoral responses in different sicca diseases and provide new insights and biomarkers for APECED-associated sicca (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00001196; NCT00001390; NCT01425892; NCT01386437).
Project description:Understanding the impact of the disease on quality of life is crucial in patient management. In this cross-sectional study, general and oral health-related quality of life questionnaires, and thorough examinations of oral and ocular dryness were performed in age- and sex-matched patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS group), non-Sjögren's syndrome sicca (non-SS group) and healthy controls. General and oral health-related quality of life were investigated with the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey and the 14-Item Oral Health Impact Profile questionnaires, respectively. Subjective symptoms of xerostomia and ocular dryness were recorded using the Summated Xerostomia Inventory and Ocular Surface Disease Index, respectively. Clinical examinations included evaluation of clinical oral dryness scores, candida counts, unstimulated and stimulated saliva secretory rates, tear osmolarity, tear film break-up time, Schirmer I test and ocular surface staining. Both patient groups had pronounced signs and symptoms of xerostomia and ocular dryness. Even though the non-SS patients had less severe clinical signs than the pSS patients, they demonstrated much poorer general and oral health-related quality of life. In conclusion, non-SS patients require more attention in order to improve their quality of life.
Project description:Tick salivary glands play critical roles in maintaining water balance for survival, as they eliminate excess water and ions during blood feeding on hosts. In the long duration of fasting in the off-host period, ticks secrete hygroscopic saliva into the mouth cavity to uptake atmospheric water vapor. Type I acini of tick salivary glands are speculated to be involved in secretion of hygroscopic saliva based on ultrastructure studies. However, we recently proposed that type I acini play a role in resorption of water/ions from the primary saliva produced by other salivary acini (i.e., types II and III) during the tick blood feeding phase. In this study, we tested the function of type I acini in unfed female Ixodes scapularis. The route of ingested water was tracked after forced feeding of water with fluorescent dye rhodamine123. We found that type-I acini of the salivary glands, but not type II and III, are responsible for water uptake. In addition, the ingestion of water through the midgut was also observed. Injection or feeding of ouabain, a Na/K-ATPase inhibitor, suppressed water absorption in type I acini. When I. scapularis was offered a droplet of water, ticks rarely imbibed water directly (5%), while some approached the water droplet to use the high humidity formed in the vicinity of the droplet (23%). We conclude that during both on- and off-host stages, type I acini in salivary glands of female Ixodes scapularis absorb water and ions.
Project description:This study aimed to investigate the molecular mechanism of diabetes mellitus (DM)-induced dry mouth and an application of natural products from Ixeris dentata (IXD), a recently suggested regulator of amylase secretion in salivary cells. Vehicle-treated or diabetic rats were orally treated with either water or an IXD extract for 10 days to observe the effect on salivary flow. We found that the IXD extract increased aquaporin 5 (AQP5) and alpha-amylase protein expression in the submandibular gland along with salivary flow rate. Similarly, the IXD extract and its purified compound increased amylase secretion in high glucose-exposed human salivary gland cells. Furthermore, increased endoplasmic reticulum stress response in the submandibular gland of diabetic rats was inhibited by treatment with the IXD extract, suggesting that IXD extract treatment improves the ER environment by increasing the protein folding capacity. Thus, pharmacological treatment with the IXD extract is suggested to relieve DM-induced dry mouth symptoms.
Project description:Natural compounds that can stimulate salivary secretion are of interest in developing treatments for xerostomia, the perception of a dry mouth, that affects between 10 and 30% of the adult and elderly population. Chemesthetic transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are expressed in the surface of the oral mucosa. The TRPV1 agonists capsaicin and piperine have been shown to increase salivary flow when introduced into the oral cavity but the sialogogic properties of other TRP channel agonists have not been investigated. In this study we have determined the influence of different TRP channel agonists on the flow and protein composition of saliva. Mouth rinsing with the TRPV1 agonist nonivamide or menthol, a TRPM8 agonist, increased whole mouth saliva (WMS) flow and total protein secretion compared to unstimulated saliva, the vehicle control mouth rinse or cinnamaldehyde, a TRPA1 agonist. Nonivamide also increased the flow of labial minor gland saliva but parotid saliva flow rate was not increased. The influence of TRP channel agonists on the composition and function of the salivary proteome was investigated using a multi-batch quantitative mass spectrometry method novel to salivary proteomics. Inter-personal and inter-mouth rinse variation was observed in the secreted proteomes and, using a novel bioinformatics method, inter-day variation was identified with some of the mouth rinses. Significant changes in specific salivary proteins were identified after all mouth rinses. In the case of nonivamide, these changes were attributed to functional shifts in the WMS secreted, primarily the over representation of salivary and non-salivary cystatins which was confirmed by immunoassay. This study provides new evidence of the impact of TRP channel agonists on the salivary proteome and the stimulation of salivary secretion by a TRPM8 channel agonist, which suggests that TRP channel agonists are potential candidates for developing treatments for sufferers of xerostomia
Project description:INTRODUCTION:We established a promising sialendoscopic treatment for in vivo enhancement of salivation in salivary glands affected by Sjögren's syndrome (SS). In this technique, the ducts of the salivary glands are irrigated with saline and steroids. This allows for dilatation of ductal strictures and removal of debris. Unfortunately, it is not possible to assess the delivery and penetration of saline or medications in the ductal system and parenchyma. To address this problem, we will conduct contrast-enhanced ultrasound sialendoscopy (CEUSS) using sulphur hexafluoride microbubbles. To the best of our knowledge, microbubbles have never been used for the treatment of salivary glands in SS. It is, therefore, imperative to test this application for its safety and feasibility. METHODS AND ANALYSIS:A single-arm phase I study will be performed in 10 SS patients. Under local anaesthesia, ultrasound (US) guided infusion of the parotid and submandibular glands with microbubbles will be performed. Continuous US imaging will be used to visualise the glands, including the location of strictures and occlusions. Main outcomes will be the evaluation of safety and technical feasibility of the experimental treatment. Secondary outcomes will consist of determinations of unstimulated whole mouth saliva flow, stimulated whole mouth saliva flow, stimulated parotid saliva flow, clinical oral dryness, reported pain, xerostomia, disease activity, salivary cytokine profiles and clinical SS symptoms. Finally, salivary gland topographical alterations will be evaluated by US. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:Ethical approval for this study was obtained from the Medical Ethics Committee of the Amsterdam University Medical Centre, Amsterdam, The Netherlands (NL68283.029.19). data will be presented at national and international conferences and published in a peer-reviewed journal. The study will be implemented and reported in line with the Standard Protocol Items: Recommendations for Interventional Trials' statement. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBERS:The Netherlands Trial Register: NL7731, MREC Trial Register: NL68283.029.19; Pre-results.