Fabrication of transition metal dichalcogenides quantum dots based on femtosecond laser ablation.
ABSTRACT: As heavy metal-free quantum dots, transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) and boron nitride (BN) quantum dots (QDs) have aroused great interest due to features such as good thermal conductivity, chemical stability, and unique optical properties. Although TMDs have been synthesized using different methods, most of these methods require time-consuming or complex steps, limiting the applications of TMDs. We propose a fast and simple method for the synthesis of high-quality molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) QDs and tungsten disulfide (WS2) QDs based on femtosecond laser ablation and sonication-assisted liquid exfoliation. The prepared MoS2 QDs and WS2 QDs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The resulting products possessed few-layered thickness with an average size of 3.7 nm and 2.1 nm. Due to the abundance of functional groups on their surface, the MoS2 QDs and WS2 QDs showed bright blue-green luminescence under UV irradiation. Our method offers a facile and novel synthetic strategy for TMDs QDs and other two-dimensional nanomaterial quantum dots, such as boron nitride quantum dots (BNQDs).
Project description:Assessing atomic defect states and their ramifications on the electronic properties of two-dimensional van der Waals semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides (SC-TMDs) is the primary task to expedite multi-disciplinary efforts in the promotion of next-generation electrical and optical device applications utilizing these low-dimensional materials. Here, with electron tunneling and optical spectroscopy measurements with density functional theory, we spectroscopically locate the mid-gap states from chalcogen-atom vacancies in four representative monolayer SC-TMDs-WS2, MoS2, WSe2, and MoSe2-, and carefully analyze the similarities and dissimilarities of the atomic defects in four distinctive materials regarding the physical origins of the missing chalcogen atoms and the implications to SC-mTMD properties. In addition, we address both quasiparticle and optical energy gaps of the SC-mTMD films and find out many-body interactions significantly enlarge the quasiparticle energy gaps and excitonic binding energies, when the semiconducting monolayers are encapsulated by non-interacting hexagonal boron nitride layers.
Project description:Photoluminescent zero-dimensional (0D) quantum dots (QDs) derived from transition metal dichalcogenides, particularly molybdenum disulfide, are presently in the spotlight for their advantageous characteristics for optoelectronics, imaging, and sensors. Nevertheless, up to now, little work has been done to synthesize and explore photoluminescent 0D WS2 QDs, especially by a bottom-up strategy without using usual toxic organic solvents. In this work, we report a facile bottom-up strategy to synthesize high-quality water-soluble tungsten disulfide (WS2) QDs through hydrothermal reaction by using sodium tungstate dihydrate and L-cysteine as W and S sources. Besides, hybrid carbon quantum dots/WS2 QDs were further prepared based on this method. Physicochemical and structural analysis of QD hybrid indicated that the graphitic carbon quantum dots with diameters about 5 nm were held onto WS2 QDs via electrostatic attraction forces. The resultant QDs show good water solubility and stable photoluminescence (PL). The excitation-dependent PL can be attributed to the polydispersity of the synthesized QDs. We found that the PL was stable under continuous irradiation of UV light but can be quenched in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The obtained WS2-based QDs were thus adopted as an electrodeless luminescent probe for H2O2 and for enzymatic sensing of glucose. The hybrid QDs were shown to have a more sensitive LOD in the case of glucose sensing. The Raman study implied that H2O2 causes the partial oxidation of QDs, which may lead to oxidation-induced quenching. Overall, the presented strategy provides a general guideline for facile and low-cost synthesis of other water-soluble layered material QDs and relevant hybrids in large quantity. These WS2-based high-quality water-soluble QDs should be promising for a wide range of applications in optoelectronics, environmental monitoring, medical imaging, and photocatalysis.
Project description:Exfoliated transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) such as WS2 and MoS2 have shown exciting potential for energy storage, catalysis and optoelectronics. So far, solution based methods for scalable production of few-layer TMDs usually involve the use of organic solvents or dangerous chemicals. Here, we report an eco-friendly method for facile synthesis of few-layer WS2 and MoS2 nanosheets using dilute aqueous solution of household detergent. Short time sonication of varying amount of bulk samples in soapy water was used to scale up the production of nanosheets. Thermal stability, optical absorption and Raman spectra of as-synthesized WS2 and MoS2 nanosheets are in close agreement with those from other synthesis techniques. Efficient photocatalytic activity of TMDs nanosheets was demonstrated by decomposing Brilliant Green dye in aqueous solution under visible light irradiation. Our study shows the great potential of TMDs nanosheets for environmental remediation by degrading toxic industrial chemicals in wastewater using sunlight.
Project description:Many potential applications of monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) require both high photoluminescence (PL) yield and high electrical mobilities. However, the PL yield of as prepared TMD monolayers is low and believed to be limited by defect sites and uncontrolled doping. This has led to a large effort to develop chemical passivation methods to improve PL and mobilities. The most successful of these treatments is based on the nonoxidizing organic "superacid" bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonimide (TFSI) which has been shown to yield bright monolayers of molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) and tungsten disulfide (WS2) but with trap-limited PL dynamics and no significant improvements in field effect mobilities. Here, using steady-state and time-resolved PL microscopy we demonstrate that treatment of WS2 monolayers with oleic acid (OA) can greatly enhance the PL yield, resulting in bright neutral exciton emission comparable to TFSI treated monolayers. At high excitation densities, the OA treatment allows for bright trion emission, which has not been demonstrated with previous chemical treatments. We show that unlike the TFSI treatment, the OA yields PL dynamics that are largely trap free. In addition, field effect transistors show an increase in mobilities with the OA treatment. These results suggest that OA serves to passivate defect sites in the WS2 monolayers in a manner akin to the passivation of colloidal quantum dots with OA ligands. Our results open up a new pathway to passivate and tune defects in monolayer TMDs using simple "wet" chemistry techniques, allowing for trap-free electronic properties and bright neutral exciton and trion emission.
Project description:Transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) quantum dots (QDs) are fundamentally interesting because of the stronger quantum size effect with decreased lateral dimensions relative to their larger 2D nanosheet counterparts. However, the preparation of a wide range of TMD QDs is still a continual challenge. Here we demonstrate a bottom-up strategy utilizing TM oxides or chlorides and chalcogen precursors to synthesize a small library of TMD QDs (MoS<sub>2</sub>, WS<sub>2</sub>, RuS<sub>2</sub>, MoTe<sub>2</sub>, MoSe<sub>2</sub>, WSe<sub>2</sub> and RuSe<sub>2</sub>). The reaction reaches equilibrium almost instantaneously (~10-20?s) with mild aqueous and room temperature conditions. Tunable defect engineering can be achieved within the same reactions by deviating the precursors' reaction stoichiometries from their fixed molecular stoichiometries. Using MoS<sub>2</sub> QDs for proof-of-concept biomedical applications, we show that increasing sulfur defects enhanced oxidative stress generation, through the photodynamic effect, in cancer cells. This facile strategy will motivate future design of TMDs nanomaterials utilizing defect engineering for biomedical applications.
Project description:Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), a type of transition metal dichalcogenide material, has emerged as an important class among 2D systems. When 2D MoS2 materials are reduced to 0D quantum dots (QDs), they introduce new optical properties that point to several potential technological advantages in electronic, magnetic, optical, and catalytic properties. In this study, a simple way to produce chiral MoS2 QDs from MoS2 nanopowder is presented using l(+)-ascorbic acid as a reducing agent. The calculated quantum yield of QDs is 11.06%. Experimental results reveal that the size of QDs is uniformly monodispersed (2-3 nm) and have a blue emissive fluorescence peak and circular dichroism (CD) peak located at 420 and 330 nm, respectively. Furthermore, a dual-mode detection system based on fluorescence and chirality is performed using as-synthesized MoS2 QDs, where QDs are conjugated with anti-hemagglutinin antibodies of avian influenza virus and made into an immunobridge in the presence of target virus and anti-neuraminidase antibodies conjugated magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). The photoluminescence and CD spectra of unconjugated QDs after separated magnetochirofluorescent (MNPs-QDs) nanohybrids by external magnets enables influenza virus A (H5N1) detection with the limit of detection value of 7.35 and 80.92 pg mL-1, respectively.
Project description:Metal induced nucleation is adopted to achieve the growth of transition metal dichalcogenides at controlled locations. Ordered arrays of MoS2 and WS2 have successfully been fabricated on SiO2 substrates by using the patterned Pt/Ti dots as the nucleation sites. Uniform MoS2 monolayers with the adjustable size up to 50??m are grown surrounding these metal patterns and the mobility of such layer is about 0.86?cm2/V·s. The crystalline flakes of WS2 are also fabricated extending from the metal patterns and the electron mobility of these flakes is up to 11.36?cm2/V·s.
Project description:A convenient bipolar-electrode (BPE) electrochemical method was engineered to produce molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) quantum dots (QDs) using pure phosphate buffer (PBS) as the electrolyte and the MoS2 powder as the precursor. Meanwhile, the corresponding by-product precipitate was studied, in which MoS2 nanosheets were observed. The BPE design would not be restricted by the shape and size of the MoS2 precursor. It could lead to the defect generation and 2H → 1T phase variation of the MoS2, resulting in the formation of nanosheets and finally the QDs. The as-prepared MoS2 QDs exhibited high photoluminescence (PL) quantum yield of 13.9% and average lateral size of 4.4 ± 0.2 nm, respectively. Their excellent PL property, low cytotoxicity, and good aqueous dispersion offer promising applicability in PL staining and cell imaging. Meanwhile, the as-obtained byproduct containing the nanosheets could be used as an effective electromagnetic wave (EMW) absorber. The minimum reflection loss (RL) value was -54.13 dB at the thickness of 3.3 mm. The corresponding bandwidth with efficient attenuation (<-10 dB) was up to 7.04 GHz (8.8-15.84 GHz). The as-obtained EMW performance was far superior over most previously reported MoS2-based nanomaterials.
Project description:Semiconducting 2D materials, like transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), have gained much attention for their potential in opto-electronic devices, valleytronic schemes, and semi-conducting to metallic phase engineering. However, like graphene and other atomically thin materials, they lose key properties when placed on a substrate like silicon, including quenching of photoluminescence, distorted crystalline structure, and rough surface morphology. The ability to protect these properties of monolayer TMDs, such as molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), on standard Si-based substrates, will enable their use in opto-electronic devices and scientific investigations. Here we show that an atomically thin buffer layer of hexagonal-boron nitride (hBN) protects the range of key opto-electronic, structural, and morphological properties of monolayer MoS2 on Si-based substrates. The hBN buffer restores sharp diffraction patterns, improves monolayer flatness by nearly two-orders of magnitude, and causes over an order of magnitude enhancement in photoluminescence, compared to bare Si and SiO2 substrates. Our demonstration provides a way of integrating MoS2 and other 2D monolayers onto standard Si-substrates, thus furthering their technological applications and scientific investigations.
Project description:Using a conventional Raman experimental apparatus, we demonstrate that the photoluminescent (PL) yield from ultrasonication-exfoliated transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) (MoS2 and WS2) can be increased by up to 8-fold by means of a laser etching procedure. This laser etching process allows us to controllably pattern and reduce the number of layers of the solution-exfoliated material, overcoming the key drawback to solvent-based exfoliation of two-dimensional (2D) semiconducting materials for applications in optoelectronics. The successful laser thinning of the exfoliated 2D crystals was investigated systematically by changes in both Raman and PL spectra. A simple proof-of-principle of the scalability of this laser etching technique for solution-exfoliated TMD crystals was also demonstrated. As well as being applicable for individual materials, it is also possible to use this simple laser etching technique to investigate the structure of solution-generated van der Waals heterostructures, consisting of layers of both MoS2 and WS2.