Project description:<h4>Objective</h4> The most common histopathologic malignant and benign nodules are Adenocarcinoma and Granuloma, respectively, which have different standards of care. In this paper, we propose an automatic framework for the diagnosis of the Adenocarcinomas and the Granulomas in the CT scans of the chest from a private dataset. We use the radiomic features of the nodules and the attached vessel tortuosity for the diagnosis. The private dataset includes 22 CTs for each nodule type, i.e., adenocarcinoma and granuloma. The dataset contains the CTs of the non-smoker patients who are between 30 and 60 years old. To automatically segment the delineated nodule area and the attached vessels area, we apply a morphological-based approach. For distinguishing the malignancy of the segmented nodule, two texture features of the nodule, the curvature Mean and the number of the attached vessels are extracted. <h4>Results</h4> We compare our framework with the state-of-the-art feature selection methods for differentiating Adenocarcinomas from Granulomas. These methods employ only the shape features of the nodule, the texture features of the nodule, or the torsion features of the attached vessels along with the radiomic features of the nodule. The accuracy of our framework is improved by considering the four selected features. <h4>Supplementary Information</h4> The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1186/s13104-021-05502-1.
Project description:PURPOSE:Computed tomography (CT) is an effective method for detecting and characterizing lung nodules in vivo. With the growing use of chest CT, the detection frequency of lung nodules is increasing. Noninvasive methods to distinguish malignant from benign nodules have the potential to decrease the clinical burden, risk, and cost involved in follow-up procedures on the large number of false-positive lesions detected. This study examined the benefit of including perinodular parenchymal features in machine learning (ML) tools for pulmonary nodule assessment. METHODS:Lung nodule cases with pathology confirmed diagnosis (74 malignant, 289 benign) were used to extract quantitative imaging characteristics from computed tomography scans of the nodule and perinodular parenchyma tissue. A ML tool development pipeline was employed using k-medoids clustering and information theory to determine efficient predictor sets for different amounts of parenchyma inclusion and build an artificial neural network classifier. The resulting ML tool was validated using an independent cohort (50 malignant, 50 benign). RESULTS:The inclusion of parenchymal imaging features improved the performance of the ML tool over exclusively nodular features (P < 0.01). The best performing ML tool included features derived from nodule diameter-based surrounding parenchyma tissue quartile bands. We demonstrate similar high-performance values on the independent validation cohort (AUC-ROC = 0.965). A comparison using the independent validation cohort with the Fleischner pulmonary nodule follow-up guidelines demonstrated a theoretical reduction in recommended follow-up imaging and procedures. CONCLUSIONS:Radiomic features extracted from the parenchyma surrounding lung nodules contain valid signals with spatial relevance for the task of lung cancer risk classification. Through standardization of feature extraction regions from the parenchyma, ML tool validation performance of 100% sensitivity and 96% specificity was achieved.
Project description:Adenocarcinomas and active granulomas can both have a spiculated appearance on computed tomography (CT) and both are often fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) avid on positron emission tomography (PET) scan, making them difficult to distinguish. Consequently, patients with benign granulomas are often subjected to invasive surgical biopsies or resections. In this study, quantitative vessel tortuosity (QVT), a novel CT imaging biomarker to distinguish between benign granulomas and adenocarcinomas on routine non-contrast lung CT scans is introduced. Our study comprised of CT scans of 290 patients from two different institutions, one cohort for training (N?=?145) and the other (N?=?145) for independent validation. In conjunction with a machine learning classifier, the top informative and stable QVT features yielded an area under receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC AUC) of 0.85 in the independent validation set. On the same cohort, the corresponding AUCs for two human experts including a radiologist and a pulmonologist were found to be 0.61 and 0.60, respectively. QVT features also outperformed well known shape and textural radiomic features which had a maximum AUC of 0.73 (p-value?=?0.002), as well as features learned using a convolutional neural network AUC?=?0.76 (p-value?=?0.028). Our results suggest that QVT features could potentially serve as a non-invasive imaging biomarker to distinguish granulomas from adenocarcinomas on non-contrast CT scans.
Project description:No predictive biomarkers can robustly identify patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who will benefit from immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) therapies. Here, in a machine learning setting, we compared changes ("delta") in the radiomic texture (DelRADx) of CT patterns both within and outside tumor nodules before and after two to three cycles of ICI therapy. We found that DelRADx patterns could predict response to ICI therapy and overall survival (OS) for patients with NSCLC. We retrospectively analyzed data acquired from 139 patients with NSCLC at two institutions, who were divided into a discovery set (D<sub>1</sub> = 50) and two independent validation sets (D<sub>2</sub> = 62, D<sub>3</sub> = 27). Intranodular and perinodular texture descriptors were extracted, and the relative differences were computed. A linear discriminant analysis (LDA) classifier was trained with 8 DelRADx features to predict RECIST-derived response. Association of delta-radiomic risk score (DRS) with OS was determined. The association of DelRADx features with tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) density on the diagnostic biopsies (<i>n</i> = 36) was also evaluated. The LDA classifier yielded an AUC of 0.88 ± 0.08 in distinguishing responders from nonresponders in D<sub>1</sub>, and 0.85 and 0.81 in D<sub>2</sub> and D<sub>3</sub> DRS was associated with OS [HR: 1.64; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.22-2.21; <i>P</i> = 0.0011; C-index = 0.72). Peritumoral Gabor features were associated with the density of TILs on diagnostic biopsy samples. Our results show that DelRADx could be used to identify early functional responses in patients with NSCLC.
Project description:<h4>Object</h4>STAS is associated with poor differentiation, KRAS mutation and poor recurrence-free survival. The aims of this study are to evaluate the ability of intra- and perinodular radiomic features to distinguish STAS at non-contrast CT.<h4>Patients and methods</h4>This retrospective study included 216 patients with pathologically confirmed lung adenocarcinoma (STAS+, n = 56; STAS-, n = 160). Texture-based features were extracted from intra- and perinodular regions of 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 20 mm distances from the tumor edge using an erosion and expansion algorithm. Traditional radiologic features were also analyzed including size, consolidation tumor ratio (CTR), density, shape, vascular change, cystic airspaces, tumor-lung interface, lobulation, spiculation, and satellite sign. Nine radiomic models were established by using the eight separate models and a total of the eight VOIs (eight-VOI model). Then the prediction efficiencies of the nine radiomic models were compared to predict STAS of lung adenocarcinomas.<h4>Results</h4>Among the traditional radiologic features, CTR, unclear tumor-lung interface, and satellite sign were found to be associated with STAS significantly, and the AUCs were 0.796, 0.677, and 0.606, respectively. Radiomic model of combined tumor bodies and all the distances of perinodular areas (eight-VOI model) had better predictive efficiency for predicting STAS+ lung adenocarcinoma. The AUCs of the eight-VOI model in the training and verification sets were 0.907 (95%CI, 0.862-0.947) in the training set, and 0.897 (95%CI, 0.784-0.985) in the testing set, and 0.909 (95%CI, 0.863-0.949) in the external validation set, and the diagnostic accuracy in the external validation set was 0.849.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Radiomic features from intra- and perinodular regions of nodules can best distinguish STAS of lung adenocarcinoma.
Project description:Pulmonary hamartoma (PH) is the most common benign tumor of the lung, typically presenting as a peripheral solitary nodule with round shape and smooth margins. The main computed tomography (CT) features that allow a confident diagnosis of PH are intranodular fat and popcorn-like calcifications. However, the presence of these features within PHs is variable. Thus, a reliable diagnosis of PH cannot be formulated in approximately 30% of cases. Furthermore, PHs may occasionally show atypical CT features. The present article reports the case of a centrally located PH with an extremely rare and previously unreported CT presentation consisting of fluid attenuation, rim enhancement and thick enhancing septa that mimicked a mediastinal cyst-like lesion.
Project description:Tumor phenotypes captured in computed tomography (CT) images can be described qualitatively and quantitatively using radiologist-defined "semantic" and computer-derived "radiomic" features, respectively. While both types of features have shown to be promising predictors of prognosis, the association between these groups of features remains unclear. We investigated the associations between semantic and radiomic features in CT images of 258 non-small cell lung adenocarcinomas. The tumor imaging phenotypes were described using 9 qualitative semantic features that were scored by radiologists, and 57 quantitative radiomic features that were automatically calculated using mathematical algorithms. Of the 9 semantic features, 3 were rated on a binary scale (cavitation, air bronchogram, and calcification) and 6 were rated on a categorical scale (texture, border definition, contour, lobulation, spiculation, and concavity). 32-41 radiomic features were associated with the binary semantic features (AUC?=?0.56-0.76). The relationship between all radiomic features and the categorical semantic features ranged from weak to moderate (|Spearmen's correlation|?=?0.002-0.65). There are associations between semantic and radiomic features, however the associations were not strong despite being significant. Our results indicate that radiomic features may capture distinct tumor phenotypes that fail to be perceived by naked eye that semantic features do not describe and vice versa.
Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4>This study aims to measure the reproducibility of radiomic features in pancreatic parenchyma and ductal adenocarcinomas (PDAC) in patients who underwent consecutive contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) scans.<h4>Methods</h4>In this IRB-approved and HIPAA-compliant retrospective study, 37 pairs of scans from 37 unique patients who underwent CECTs within a 2-week interval were included in the analysis of the reproducibility of features derived from pancreatic parenchyma, and a subset of 18 pairs of scans were further analyzed for the reproducibility of features derived from PDAC. In each patient, pancreatic parenchyma and pancreatic tumor (when present) were manually segmented by two radiologists independently. A total of 266 radiomic features were extracted from the pancreatic parenchyma and tumor region and also the volume and diameter of the tumor. The concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) was calculated to assess feature reproducibility for each patient in three scenarios: (1) different radiologists, same CECT; (2) same radiologist, different CECTs; and (3) different radiologists, different CECTs.<h4>Results</h4>Among pancreatic parenchyma-derived features, using a threshold of CCC?>?0.90, 58/266 (21.8%) and 48/266 (18.1%) features met the threshold for scenario 1, 14/266 (5.3%) and 15/266 (5.6%) for scenario 2, and 14/266 (5.3%) and 10/266 (3.8%) for scenario 3. Among pancreatic tumor-derived features, 11/268 (4.1%) and 17/268 (6.3%) features met the threshold for scenario 1, 1/268 (0.4%) and 5/268 (1.9%) features met the threshold for scenario 2, and no features for scenario 3 met the threshold, respectively.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Variations between CECT scans affected radiomic feature reproducibility to a greater extent than variation in segmentation. A smaller number of pancreatic tumor-derived radiomic features were reproducible compared with pancreatic parenchyma-derived radiomic features under the same conditions.<h4>Key points</h4>• For pancreatic-derived radiomic features from contrast-enhanced CT (CECT), fewer than 25% are reproducible (with a threshold of CCC?<?0.9) in a clinical heterogeneous dataset. • Variations between CECT scans affected the number of reproducible radiomic features to a greater extent than variations in radiologist segmentation. • A smaller number of pancreatic tumor-derived radiomic features were reproducible compared with pancreatic parenchyma-derived radiomic features under the same conditions.
Project description:Objectives: To investigate the performance of radiomic-based quantitative analysis on CT images in predicting invasiveness of lung adenocarcinoma manifesting as pure ground-glass nodules (pGGNs). Methods: A total of 275 lung adenocarcinoma cases, with 322 pGGNs resected surgically and confirmed pathologically, from January 2015 to October 2017 were enrolled in this retrospective study. All nodules were split into training and test cohorts randomly with a ratio of 4:1 to establish models to predict between pGGN-like adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS)/minimally invasive adenocarcinoma (MIA) and invasive adenocarcinoma (IVA). Radiomic feature extraction was performed using Pyradiomics with semi-automatically segmented tumor regions on CT scans that were contoured with an in-house plugin for 3D-Slicer. Random forest (RF) and support vector machine (SVM) were used for feature selection and predictive model building in the training cohort. Three different predictive models containing conventional, radiomic, and combined models were built on the basis of the selected clinical, radiological, and radiomic features. The predictive performance of each model was evaluated through the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) and the area under the curve (AUC). The predictive performance of two radiologists (A and B) and our radiomic predictive model were further investigated in the test cohort to see if radiomic predictive model could improve radiologists' performance in prediction between pGGN-like AIS/MIA and IVA. Results: Among 322 nodules, 48 (14.9%) were AIS and 102 (31.7%) were MIA with 172 (53.4%) for IVA. Age, diameter, density, and nine meaningful radiomic features were selected for model building in the training cohort. Three predictive models showed good performance in prediction between pGGN-like AIS/MIA and IVA (AUC > 0.8, P < 0.05) in both training and test cohorts. The AUC values in the test cohort were 0.824 (95% CI, 0.723-0.924), 0.833 (95% CI, 0.733-0.934), and 0.848 (95% CI, 0.750-0.946) for conventional, radiomic, and combined models, respectively. The predictive accuracy was 73.44 and 59.38% for radiologist A and radiologist B in the test cohort and was improved dramatically to 79.69 and 75.00% with the aid of our radiomic predictive model. Conclusion: The predictive models built in our study showed good predictive power with good accuracy and sensitivity, which provided a non-invasive, convenient, economic, and repeatable way for the prediction between IVA and AIS/MIA representing as pGGNs. The radiomic predictive model outperformed two radiologists in predicting pGGN-like AIS/MIA and IVA, and could significantly improve the predictive performance of the two radiologists, especially radiologist B with less experience in medical imaging diagnosis. The selected radiomic features in our research did not provide more useful information to improve the combined predictive model's performance.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:The use of a neoadjuvant chemoradiation followed by surgery in patients with stage IIIA NSCLC is controversial and the benefit of surgery is limited. There are currently no clinically validated biomarkers to select patients for such an approach. In this study we evaluate computed tomography (CT) derived intratumoral and peritumoral texture and nodule shape features in their ability to predict major pathological response (MPR). MPR being defined as ?10% of residual viable tumor, assessed at the time of surgery. MATERIAL AND METHODS:Ninety patients with stage III NSCLC treated with chemoradiation prior to surgical resection were selected. The patients were divided randomly into two equal sets, one for training and one for independent testing. The radiomic texture and shape features were extracted from within the nodule (intra) and from the parenchymal regions immediately surrounding the nodule (peritumoral). A univariate regression analysis was performed on the image and clinicopathologic variables and then included into a multivariable logistic regression (MLR) for binary outcome prediction of MPR. The radiomic signature risk-score was generated by using a multivariate Cox regression model and association of the signature with OS and DFS was also evaluated. RESULTS:Thirteen stable and predictive intratumoral and peritumoral radiomic texture features were found to be predictive of MPR. The MLR classifier yielded an AUC of 0.90?±?0.025 within the training set and a corresponding AUC?=?0.86 in prediction of MPR within the test set. The radiomic signature was also significantly associated with OS (HR?=?11.18, 95% CI?=?3.17, 44.1; p-value?=?0.008) and DFS (HR?=?2.78, 95% CI?=?1.11, 4.12; p-value?=?0.0042) in the testing set. CONCLUSION:Texture features extracted within and around the lung tumor on CT images appears to be associated with the likelihood of MPR, OS and DFS to chemoradiation.