Effects of chloride ions in acid-catalyzed biomass dehydration reactions in polar aprotic solvents.
ABSTRACT: The use of polar aprotic solvents in acid-catalyzed biomass conversion reactions can lead to improved reaction rates and selectivities. We show that further increases in catalyst performance in polar aprotic solvents can be achieved through the addition of inorganic salts, specifically chlorides. Reaction kinetics studies of the Brønsted acid-catalyzed dehydration of fructose to hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) show that the use of catalytic concentrations of chloride salts leads to a 10-fold increase in reactivity. Furthermore, increased HMF yields can be achieved using polar aprotic solvents mixed with chlorides. Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations (AIMD) show that highly localized negative charge on Cl- allows the chloride anion to more readily approach and stabilize the oxocarbenium ion that forms and the deprotonation transition state. High concentrations of polar aprotic solvents form local hydrophilic environments near the reactive hydroxyl group which stabilize both the proton and chloride anions and promote the dehydration of fructose.
Project description:HMF synthesis typically requires high temperature and is carried out in aqueous solutions. In this work, the low-temperature dehydration of fructose to HMF in different deep eutectic solvents (DES) was investigated. We found a very active and selective reaction system consisting of the DES tetraethyl ammonium chloride as hydrogen bond acceptor (HBA) and levulinic acid as hydrogen bond donor (HBD) in a molar ratio of 1:2 leading to a maximum HMF yield of 68% after 120 h at 323 K. The DES still contained a low amount of water at the initial reaction, and water was also produced during the reaction. Considering the DES properties, neither the molar ratio in the DES nor the reaction temperature had a significant influence on the overall performance of the reaction system. However, the nature of the HBA as well as the acidity of the HBD play an important role for the maximum achievable HMF yield. This was validated by measured yields in a DES with different combinations of HBD (levulinic acid and lactic acid) and HBA (choline chloride and tetra-n-alkyl ammonium chlorides). Moreover, addition of vanadium containing catalysts, especially the polyoxometalate HPA-5 (H8PV5Mo7O40) leads to drastically increased reaction kinetics. Using HPA-5 and the DES tetraethyl ammonium chloride-levulinic acid we could reach a maximum HMF yield of 57% after only 5 h reaction time without decreasing the very high product selectivity.
Project description:Being a member of the glycosaminoglycan family of carbohydrates, native heparin is a highly sulfated polysaccharide. Herein, heparin was grafted onto polydopamine (PDA)- and poly(ethylene imine) (PEI)-coated multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) (heparin-PEI@PDA@MWCNT). The immobilized heparin consists of a sulfated repeating disaccharide unit, conferring a unique microenvironment when catalyzing fructose dehydration into 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). The hydrogen bonding interactions naturally occur between the disaccharide unit of heparin and the monosaccharide fructose, and the adjacent sulfonic acid groups catalyze the fructose dehydration. The reactions were performed in water, and heparin-PEI@PDA@MWCNT achieved an HMF yield of 46.2% and an HMF selectivity of 82.2%. For the dehydration of fructose in water, heparin-PEI@PDA@MWCNT exhibits advantages over published heterogeneous catalysts on the basis of HMF yield and HMF selectivity. Three aspects contribute to the environmentally benign processing: (1) the catalyst heparin is a natural sulfated polysaccharide; (2) the catalysis is carried out in water and not in organic solvents; and (3) fructose can be produced from a biomass resource.
Project description:A number of ionic liquids have been shown to be excellent solvents for lignocellulosic biomass processing, and some of these are particularly effective in the production of the versatile chemical building block 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). In this study, the production of HMF from the simple sugar glucose in ionic liquid media is discussed. Several aspects of the selective catalytic formation of HMF from glucose have been elucidated using metal halide salts in two distinct ionic liquids, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hydrogen sulfate as well as mixtures of these, revealing key features for accelerating the desired reaction and suppressing byproduct formation. The choice of ionic liquid anion is revealed to be of particular importance, with low HMF yields in the case of hydrogen sulfate-based salts, which are reported to be effective for HMF production from fructose. The most successful system investigated in this study led to almost quantitative conversion of glucose to HMF (90% in only 30 minutes using 7 mol% catalyst loading at 120°C) in a system which is selective for the desired product, has low energy intensity and is environmentally benign.
Project description:The increase in energy demand and depletion of fossil fuels are among major issues of modern society. Valorization and transformation of raw materials in products of industrial value represent a challenge. This justifies the growing interest of scientific research toward the identification of suitable media and methodologies able to pursue above goals, paying attention to matter of sustainability. On this subject, we studied sulfonic-acid functionalized diimidazolium salts as catalysts for the conversion of fructose and sucrose to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) in an ionic liquid mixture. In general, using these salts allowed us to obtain 5-HMF in good yields from both substrates in mild conditions. Indeed, at 60°C and in the presence of 20 mol% of catalyst, 5-HMF yields of 60 and 30% were obtained from fructose and sucrose, respectively. The catalytic system was recycled and used up to six times observing no appreciable loss in yield for the first four cycles. Moreover, we gathered mechanistic information by in situ 1H NMR monitoring the dehydration of fructose. To dissect the role of acidity on the reaction, we determined the Hammett acidity function of each salt. Comparison of these results with yields and reactivity observed in the presence of related monocationic salts and with a dicationic salt bearing only one sulfonic acid group, allowed stating that the reactivity observed is the result of the combined action of acidity and structural features of the catalysts. Overall, the approach proposed here could contribute to pave the way to increase sustainability in the raw material valorization processes.
Project description:Dehydration of glucose to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) remains a significant problem in the context of the valorization of lignocellulosic biomass. Hydrolysis of WCl6 and NbCl5 leads to precipitation of Nb-containing tungstite (WO3 ?H2 O) at low Nb content and mixtures of tungstite and niobic acid at higher Nb content. Tungstite is a promising catalyst for the dehydration of glucose to HMF. Compared with Nb2 O5 , fewer by-products are formed because of the low Brønsted acidity of the (mixed) oxides. In water, an optimum yield of HMF was obtained for Nb-W oxides with low Nb content owing to balanced Lewis and Brønsted acidity. In THF/water, the strong Lewis acidity and weak Brønsted acidity caused the reaction to proceed through isomerization to fructose and dehydration of fructose to a partially dehydrated intermediate, which was identified by LC-ESI-MS. The addition of HCl to the reaction mixture resulted in rapid dehydration of this intermediate to HMF. The HMF yield obtained in this way was approximately 56?% for all tungstite catalysts. Density functional theory calculations show that the Lewis acid centers on the tungstite surface can isomerize glucose into fructose. Substitution of W by Nb lowers the overall activation barrier for glucose isomerization by stabilizing the deprotonated glucose adsorbate.
Project description:Salts with high hydration states have the potential to maintain high levels of relative humidity (RH) in the near subsurface of Mars, even at moderate temperatures. These conditions could promote deliquescence of lower hydrates of ferric sulfate, chlorides, and other salts. Previous work on deliquesced ferric sulfates has shown that when these materials undergo rapid dehydration, such as that which would occur upon exposure to present day Martian surface conditions, an amorphous phase forms. However, the fate of deliquesced halides or mixed ferric sulfate-bearing brines are presently unknown. Here we present results of rapid dehydration experiments on Ca-, Na-, Mg- and Fe-chloride brines and multi-component (Fe2 (SO4)3 ± Ca, Na, Mg, Fe, Cl, HCO3) brines at ?21°C, and characterize the dehydration products using visible/near-infrared (VNIR) reflectance spectroscopy, mid-infrared attenuated total reflectance spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. We find that rapid dehydration of many multicomponent brines can form amorphous solids or solids with an amorphous component, and that the presence of other elements affects the persistence of the amorphous phase under RH fluctuations. Of the pure chloride brines, only Fe-chloride formed an amorphous solid. XRD patterns of the multicomponent amorphous salts show changes in position, shape, and magnitude of the characteristic diffuse scattering observed in all amorphous materials that could be used to help constrain the composition of the amorphous salt. Amorphous salts deliquesce at lower RH values compared to their crystalline counterparts, opening up the possibility of their role in potential deliquescence-related geologic phenomena such as recurring slope lineae (RSLs) or soil induration. This work suggests that a wide range of aqueous mixed salt solutions can lead to the formation of amorphous salts and are possible for Mars; detailed studies of the formation mechanisms, stability and transformation behaviors of amorphous salts are necessary to further constrain their contribution to Martian surface materials.
Project description:The effective dehydration of glucose to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) has attracted increasing attention. Herein, a series of sulfonic-acid-functionalized ionic liquid (IL)-heteropolyacid (HPA) hybrid catalysts are proposed for the conversion of glucose to HMF. A maximum total yield of HMF and levoglucosan (LGA; ?71?%) was achieved in the presence of pyrazine IL-HPA hybrid catalyst [PzS]H2PW in THF/H2O-NaCl (v/v 5:1). The mechanism of glucose dehydration was studied by tailoring the Brønsted/Lewis acid sites of the hybrid catalysts and altering the solvent composition. It was found that water and heteropolyanions have a significant effect on the reaction kinetics. Heteropolyanions are able to stabilize the intermediates and promote the direct dehydration of glucose and intermediate LGA to HMF. A small amount of water could facilitate the conversion of glucose to LGA and suppress the dehydration of LGA to levoglucosenone. In addition, the synergetic effect of Brønsted/Lewis acid sites and a little water was conducive to accelerated proton transfer, which improved the yield of HMF from glucose dehydration.
Project description:A mixture of hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP) and water was used as a new and unknown monophasic reaction solvent for fructose dehydration in order to produce HMF. HFIP is a low-boiling fluorous alcohol (b.p. 58 °C). Hence, HFIP can be recovered cost efficiently by distillation. Different ion-exchange resins were screened for the HFIP/water system in batch experiments. The best results were obtained for acidic macroporous ion-exchange resins, and high HMF yields up to 70% were achieved. The effects of various reaction conditions like initial fructose concentration, catalyst concentration, water content in HFIP, temperature and influence of the catalyst particle size were evaluated. Up to 76% HMF yield was attained at optimized reaction conditions for high initial fructose concentration of 0.5 M (90 g/L). The ion-exchange resin can simply be recovered by filtration and reused several times. This reaction system with HFIP/water as solvent and the ion-exchange resin Lewatit K2420 as catalyst shows excellent performance for HMF synthesis.
Project description:Cationic biaryl derivatives were synthesized by Suzuki-Miyaura coupling of 3-bromonaphtho[1,2-b]quinolizinium bromide with arylboronic acids. The resulting cationic biaryl derivatives exhibit pronounced fluorosolvatochromic properties. First photophysical studies in different solvents showed that the emission energy of the biaryl derivatives decreases with increasing solvent polarity. This red-shifted emission in polar solvents is explained by a charge shift (CS) in the excited state and subsequent solvent relaxation. Furthermore, the polarity of protic polar and aprotic polar solvents affects the emission energy to different extent, which indicates a major influence of hydrogen bonding on the stabilization of the ground and excited states.
Project description:Heterogeneous Zr-Mont catalyst prepared by a simple protocol was employed for the production of diesel fuel precursors via Friedel-Crafts (FC) alkylation of petroleum-derived arenes (e.g., mesitylene, xylene, and toluene) with biomass-derived 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural (HMF), HMF derivatives, and carbohydrates. Initially, several acidic catalysts were screened for the FC alkylation of mesitylene with HMF in nitroethane solvent. Among all, Zr-Mont catalyst gave an exceptionally high yield (80%) of mesitylmethylfurfural (MMF). The catalytic activity of Zr-Mont was also evaluated for the alkylation of different petroleum-derived arenes with ester/halogen derivatives of HMF. Suitable acid strength and high surface area of Zr-Mont were its major attributes to make it the most efficient solid acid catalyst for this FC reaction. Even after several reuses, the catalytic activity of Zr-Mont was found to be consistent, which was also evidenced by the acidity measurements of fresh and reused Zr-Mont catalysts by temperature-programmed desorption of ammonia and pyridine Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy techniques. Direct conversion of glucose to diesel fuel precursors was also attempted over Zr-Mont catalyst in mesitylene and polar nonacidic solvents at 150 °C. However, the activity of Zr-Mont catalyst was limited for glucose dehydration to HMF and MMF did not form. When the same experiment was performed in formic acid medium, MMF was produced in 34% yield. After the addition of formic acid, the reaction becomes biphasic which contains mesitylene as an organic phase and formic acid as an aqueous phase. Formic acid worked as a solvent, reactant, and cocatalyst, whereas mesitylene worked as a reactant and product extraction phase to enable easy product isolation. With this strategy, other diesel fuel precursors were also produced in 26-30% yields from glucose and different arenes. Similar strategy was successfully extended for the conversion of sucrose to diesel fuel precursors.