Project description:This 25th International Symposium on Infections in the Critically Ill Patient aims to reviewcurrent concepts, technology and present advances in infections in critically ill patient [...].
Project description:The PREVAIL study was a Phase II/III randomized controlled trial examining the use of lactoferrin to prevent nosocomial infections in critically ill patients undergoing mechanical ventilation. Gene expression data was generated from a consecutive subset of patients at the lead study site. We used the Affymetrix PrimeView array to generate expression data at various time points during the ICU stay. Overall design: Time series gene expression profiling of critically ill patients undergoing mechanical ventilation, who were enroled in the PREVAIL study
Project description:INTRODUCTION: Glutamine supplementation is supposed to reduce mortality and nosocomial infections in critically ill patients. However, the recently published reducing deaths due to oxidative stress (REDOX) trials did not provide evidence supporting this. This study investigated the impact of glutamine-supplemented nutrition on the outcomes of critically ill patients using a meta-analysis. METHODS: We searched for and gathered data from the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, Elsevier, Web of Science and ClinicalTrials.gov databases reporting the effects of glutamine supplementation on outcomes in critically ill patients. We produced subgroup analyses of the trials according to specific patient populations, modes of nutrition and glutamine dosages. RESULTS: Among 823 related articles, eighteen Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) met all inclusion criteria. Mortality events among 3,383 patients were reported in 17 RCTs. Mortality showed no significant difference between glutamine group and control group. In the high dosage subgroup (above 0.5 g/kg/d), the mortality rate in the glutamine group was significantly higher than that of the control group (relative risk (RR) 1.18; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.02 to 1.38; P?=?0.03). In 15 trials, which included a total of 2,862 patients, glutamine supplementation reportedly affected the incidence of nosocomial infections in the critically ill patients observed. The incidence of nosocomial infections in the glutamine group was significantly lower than that of the control group (RR 0.85; 95% CI, 0.74 to 0.97; P?=?0.02). In the surgical ICU subgroup, glutamine supplementation statistically reduced the rate of nosocomial infections (RR 0.70; 95% CI, 0.52 to 0.94; P?=?0.04). In the parental nutrition subgroup, glutamine supplementation statistically reduced the rate of nosocomial infections (RR 0.83; 95% CI, 0.70 to 0.98; P?=?0.03). The length of hospital stay was reported in 14 trials, in which a total of 2,777 patients were enrolled; however, the patient length of stay was not affected by glutamine supplementation. CONCLUSIONS: Glutamine supplementation conferred no overall mortality and length of hospital stay benefit in critically ill patients. However, this therapy reduced nosocomial infections among critically ill patients, which differed according to patient populations, modes of nutrition and glutamine dosages.
Project description:Dysbiosis of the microbiome is a common finding in critically ill patients, who receive broad-spectrum antibiotics and various forms of organ support. Multidrug-resistant (MDR) organisms are a growing threat in all areas of medicine, but most markedly in the critically ill, where there is both loss of host defences and widespread use of broad spectrum antibiotics. We present a case of a critically ill patient with persistent MDR Klebsiella pneumoniae infection, successfully treated with fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), using stool of a rigorously-screened, healthy donor. FMT for Clostridium difficile colitis has been well described in the literature and is an established therapy for recurrent infections with Clostridium difficile. The use of FMT for other multidrug-resistant organisms is less frequently described, particularly in the context of critically ill patients. In our case, we have culture-documented clearance of the MDR Klebsiella pneumoniae form a patient of FMT.
Project description:Abstract Objectives Emergency department boarding is the practice of caring for admitted patients in the emergency department after hospital admission, and boarding has been a growing problem in the United States. Boarding of the critically ill has achieved specific attention because of its association with poor clinical outcomes. Accordingly, the Society of Critical Care Medicine and the American College of Emergency Physicians convened a Task Force to understand the implications of emergency department boarding of the critically ill. The objective of this article is to review the U.S. literature on (1) the frequency of emergency department boarding among the critically ill, (2) the outcomes associated with critical care patient boarding, and (3) local strategies developed to mitigate the impact of emergency department critical care boarding on patient outcomes. Data sources and study selection Review article. Data extraction and data synthesis Emergency department–based boarding of the critically ill patient is common, but no nationally representative frequency estimates has been reported. Boarding literature is limited by variation in the definitions used for boarding and variation in the facilities studied (boarding ranges from 2% to 88% of ICU admissions). Prolonged boarding in the emergency department has been associated with longer duration of mechanical ventilation, longer ICU and hospital length of stay, and higher mortality. Health systems have developed multiple mitigation strategies to address emergency department boarding of critically ill patients, including emergency department?based interventions, hospital?based interventions, and emergency department–based resuscitation care units. Conclusions Emergency department boarding of critically ill patients was common and was associated with worse clinical outcomes. Health systems have generated a number of strategies to mitigate these effects. A definition for emergency department boarding is proposed. Future work should establish formal criteria for analysis and benchmarking of emergency department–based boarding overall, with subsequent efforts focused on developing and reporting innovative strategies that improve clinical outcomes of critically ill patients boarded in the emergency department.
Project description:Tocilizumab has been recognized as one of the few existing biologic useful for combating COVID-19 infections especially in critically ill patient. We had experience in treating five critically ill patients with severe lung injury who were COVID-19 positive with tocilizumab. In the present case series, we have attempted to summarize their clinical profile, changes in laboratory biomarkers and outcomes.
Project description:Pulmonary infections in critically ill patients are common and are associated with high morbidity and mortality. Piperacillin-tazobactam is a frequently used therapy in critically ill patients with pulmonary infection. Antibiotic concentrations in the lung reflect target-site antibiotic concentrations in patients with pneumonia. The aim of this study was to assess the plasma and intrapulmonary pharmacokinetics (PK) of piperacillin-tazobactam in critically ill patients administered standard piperacillin-tazobactam regimens. A population PK model was developed to describe plasma and intrapulmonary piperacillin and tazobactam concentrations. The probability of piperacillin exposures reaching pharmacodynamic end points and the impact of pulmonary permeability on piperacillin and tazobactam pulmonary penetration was explored. The median piperacillin and tazobactam pulmonary penetration ratios were 49.3 and 121.2%, respectively. Pulmonary piperacillin and tazobactam concentrations were unpredictable and negatively correlated with pulmonary permeability. Current piperacillin-tazobactam regimens may be insufficient to treat pneumonia caused by piperacillin-tazobactam-susceptible organisms in some critically ill patients.
Project description:Metabolic alterations in the critically ill have been studied for more than a century, but the heterogeneity of the critically ill patient population, the varying duration and severity of the acute phase of illness, and the many confounding factors have hindered progress in the field. These factors may explain why management of metabolic alterations and related conditions in critically ill patients has for many years been guided by recommendations based essentially on expert opinion. Over the last decade, a number of randomized controlled trials have been conducted, providing us with important population-level evidence that refutes several longstanding paradigms. However, between-patient variation means there is still substantial uncertainty when translating population-level evidence to individuals. A cornerstone of metabolic care is nutrition, for which there is a multifold of published guidelines that agree on many issues but disagree on others. Using a series of nine questions, we provide a review of the latest data in this field and a background to promote efforts to address the need for international consistency in recommendations related to the metabolic care of the critically ill patient. Our purpose is not to replace existing guidelines, but to comment on differences and add perspective.
Project description:Objectives:Bloodstream infection is associated with high mortality rates in critically ill patients but is difficult to identify clinically. This results in frequent blood culture testing, exposing patients to additional costs as well as the potential harms of unnecessary antibiotics. The purpose of this study was to assess whether the analysis of bedside physiologic monitoring data could accurately describe a pathophysiologic signature of bloodstream infection in patients admitted to the ICU. Design:Development of a statistical model using physiologic data from a retrospective observational cohort. Setting:University of Virginia Medical Center (Charlottesville, VA), a tertiary-care academic medical center. Patients:Critically ill patients consecutively admitted to either the medical or surgical/trauma ICUs with available physiologic monitoring data between February 2011 and June 2015. Interventions:None. Measurements and Main Results:We analyzed 9,954 ICU admissions with 144 patient-years of vital sign and electrocardiography waveform data, totaling 1.3 million hourly measurements. There were 15,577 blood culture instances, with 1,184 instances of bloodstream infection (8%). The multivariate pathophysiologic signature of bloodstream infection was characterized by abnormalities in 15 different physiologic features. The cross-validated area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.78 (95% CI, 0.69-0.85). We also identified distinct signatures of Gram-negative and fungal bloodstream infections, but not Gram-positive bloodstream infection. Conclusions:Signatures of bloodstream infection can be identified in the routine physiologic monitoring data of critically ill adults. This may assist in identifying infected patients, maximizing diagnostic stewardship, and measuring the effect of new therapeutic modalities for sepsis.
Project description:The 2020 International Web Scientific Event in COVID-19 pandemic in critically ill patients aimed at updating the information and knowledge on the COVID-19 pandemic in the intensive care unit. Experts reviewed the latest literature relating to the COVID-19 pandemic in critically ill patients, such as epidemiology, pathophysiology, phenotypes of infection, COVID-19 as a systematic infection, molecular diagnosis, mechanical ventilation, thromboprophylaxis, COVID-19 associated co-infections, immunotherapy, plasma treatment, catheter-related bloodstream infections, artificial intelligence for COVID-19, and vaccination. Antiviral therapy and co-infections are out of the scope of this review. In this review, each of these issues is discussed with key messages regarding management and further research being presented after a brief review of available evidence.