No Significant Changes to Residual Viremia After Switch to Dolutegravir and Lamivudine in a Randomized Trial.
ABSTRACT: In the ASPIRE trial, antiretroviral therapy (ART) switch to dolutegravir plus lamivudine (DTG+3TC) was comparable to 3-drug ART in maintaining viral suppression by standard viral load assays. We used an ultrasensitive assay to assess whether this switch led to increased residual viremia. At entry, levels of residual viremia did not differ significantly between arms (DTG+3TC vs 3-drug ART: mean, 5.0 vs 4.2 HIV-1 RNA copies/mL; P = .64). After randomization, no significant between-group differences were found at either week 24 or 48. These results show no evidence for increased viral replication on DTG+3TC and support its further investigation as a dual ART strategy.
Project description:Recommended human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) treatment regimens in the United States contain 3 antiretroviral agents, costing >$30 000/person/year. Pilot studies are evaluating the efficacy of dual therapy with dolutegravir (DTG) and lamivudine (3TC). We examined the potential cost-effectiveness and budget impact of DTG + 3TC regimens in the United States.Using a mathematical model, we projected the clinical and economic outcomes of antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naive patients under 4 strategies: (1) no ART (for modeling comparison); (2) 2-drug: initial regimen of DTG + 3TC; (3) induction-maintenance: 48-week induction regimen of 3 drugs (DTG/abacavir [ABC]/3TC), followed by DTG + 3TC maintenance if virologically suppressed; and (4) standard of care: 3-drug regimen of DTG/ABC/3TC. Strategy-dependent model inputs, varied widely in sensitivity analyses, included 48-week virologic suppression (88%-93%), subsequent virologic failure (0.1%-0.6%/month), and Medicaid-discounted ART costs ($15 200-$39 600/year). A strategy was considered cost-effective if its incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was <$100 000/quality-adjusted life-year (QALY).The 3 ART strategies had the same 5-year survival rates (90%). The ICER was $22 500/QALY for induction-maintenance and >$500 000/QALY for standard of care. Two-drug was the preferred strategy only when DTG + 3TC 48-week virologic suppression rate exceeded 90%. With 50% uptake of either induction-maintenance or 2-drug for ART-naive patients, cost savings totaled $550 million and $800 million, respectively, within 5 years; savings reached >$3 billion if 25% of currently suppressed patients were switched to DTG + 3TC maintenance.Should DTG + 3TC demonstrate high rates of virologic suppression, this regimen will be cost-effective and would save >$500 million in ART costs in the United States over 5 years.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Compare the efficacy and safety of the 2-drug antiretroviral therapy regimen dolutegravir + lamivudine (DTG + 3TC) with traditional 3-drug regimens in treatment-naive patients with HIV-1. DESIGN:Data from double-blind, randomized controlled trials of at least 48 weeks' duration in treatment-naive patients with HIV-1 identified by systematic review were evaluated using a Bayesian network meta-analysis methodology. METHODS:The primary outcome was virologic suppression at Week 48 for 3-drug regimens versus DTG + 3TC (also analyzed in patient subgroup with baseline viral load >100 000 RNA copies/ml). Secondary outcomes included CD4 cell count change from baseline and safety (adverse events, serious adverse events, and drug-related adverse events) at Week 48. RESULTS:The network contains 14 unique regimens from 14 randomized controlled trials based on data from 10 043 patients. The proportional difference for viral suppression at 48 weeks for DTG + 3TC versus the other 13 regimens included in the network ranged from -2.7% (-11.0, 5.6%) versus DTG + tenofovir alafenamide/emtricitabine (FTC) to 7.3% (0.6, 13.8%) versus efavirenz + tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/FTC. DTG + 3TC was found to be significantly better than efavirenz + tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/FTC and similar to all other regimens analysed in terms of viral suppression at 48 weeks. With regard to other outcomes (CD4, adverse event, serious adverse event, drug-related adverse events) at 48 weeks, DTG+3TC was broadly similar to all regimens analysed. CONCLUSION:This network meta-analysis demonstrates similar efficacy and safety outcomes over 48 weeks with DTG + 3TC compared with traditional 3-drug antiretroviral therapy regimens.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Despite evidence shown of dolutegravir (DTG)-related neurotoxicity, which may be more common when combined with abacavir (ABC), its reversibility has not been explored in a clinical trial.<h4>Methods</h4>We conducted a randomized, multicenter, open-label, pilot trial to evaluate the reversibility of patient-reported neuropsychiatric symptoms, developed or worsened on DTG/ABC/lamivudine (DTG/ABC/3TC), in virologically suppressed patients switched to cobicistat-boosted-elvitegravir/emtricitabine/tenofovir-alafenamide (EVG/COBI/FTC/TAF). Participants were randomized to immediate switch (baseline) or to defer switch (week 4), and then all completed 24 weeks of follow up on EVG/COBI/FTC/TAF. At each visit, participants completed Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) scales and were interviewed about 11 neuropsychiatric symptoms potentially related with DTG through a questionnaire. At baseline and at the end of follow up, they also performed neurocognitive testing. Our primary objective was to compare changes in neuropsychiatric symptoms and PSQI and HAD scales between arms at week 4. Secondary objectives were to evaluate changes in neuropsychiatric symptoms and PSQI and HAD scales at weeks 4, 12, and 24 after switching to EVG/COBI/FTC/TAF and in neurocognitive performance and magnetic resonance imaging biomarkers at end of follow up.<h4>Results</h4>Thirty-eight participants were included. Study arms were similar at baseline. At week 4, neuropsychiatric symptoms and PSQI and HAD scores remained unchanged in participants receiving DTG/ABC/3TC and improved significantly in participants receiving EVG/COBI/FTC/TAF. These significant improvements were also observed at weeks 4, 12, and 24 after all participants switched to EVG/COBI/FTC/TAF. In addition, global neurocognitive performance improved (NPZ-7) after switching to EVG/COBI/FTC/TAF.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Neuropsychiatric symptoms in patients on DTG/ABC/3TC could resolve or improve after switching to EVG/COBI/FTC/TAF.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:The objective of this analysis is to perform an indirect comparison of elvitegravir, cobicistat, emtricitabine and tenofovir DF (E/C/F/TDF) to abacavir/lamivudine and dolutegravir (ABC/3TC + DTG) by using 2 trials evaluating each of these regimens in comparison to efavirenz, emtricitabine and tenofovir DF (EFV/FTC/TDF). METHODS:An indirect comparison was performed by using a generalization of Bucher's methodology to calculate risk differences. Two phase III clinical trials (GS-US-236-0102 and SINGLE-described above) were used. RESULTS:Results of the indirect comparison showed no statistically significant risk difference of the efficacy endpoint of achieving HIV RNA < 50 copies/mL between E/C/F/TDF and ABC/3TC + DTG for the ITT population at weeks 48, 96 and 144: respectively -3.7% (CI95% = [-10.8%; 3.4%]), -5.2% (CI95% = [-13.2%; 2.8%]) and -3.1% (CI95% = [-12.0%; 5.7%]). There was no statistically significant differences in the risk difference for serious adverse events (5.7% (CI95% = [-2.2%; 12.3%])), drug related adverse event (2.7% (CI95% = [-7.0%;12.4%])), drug related serious adverse event (0.8% (CI95% = [-1.6%;3.2%])) and death (0.5% (CI95% = [-0.8%;1.8%])), respectively, between E/C/F/TDF and ABC/3TC + DTG. A significant difference was found for discontinuation due to adverse events with a higher rate for E/C/F/TDF (difference = 8.6% (CI95% = [3.3%; 13.9%])). There was also no statistically significant risk difference of the viral resistance of 1.2% (CI95% = [-1.2; 3.7]) between E/C/F/TDF and ABC/3TC + DTG at week 48, 1.7% at week 96 (CI95% = [-1.1; 4.5]) and 2.2% (CI95% = [-1.0; 5.4]) at week 144.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The 2-drug regimen dolutegravir (DTG) + lamivudine (3TC) is indicated for treatment-naive adults with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). We present efficacy and safety of switching to DTG/3TC in virologically suppressed individuals. METHODS:TANGO is an open-label, multicenter, phase 3 study that randomized adults (1:1, stratified by baseline third agent class) with HIV-1 RNA <50 copies/mL to switch to once-daily fixed-dose DTG/3TC or remain on a tenofovir alafenamide (TAF)-based regimen. The primary end point was proportion of participants with HIV-1 RNA ?50 copies/mL at week 48 (US Food and Drug Administration Snapshot algorithm) in the intention-to-treat-exposed population (4% noninferiority margin). RESULTS:743 adults were enrolled; 741 received ?1 dose of study drug (DTG/3TC, N = 369; TAF-based regimen, N = 372). At week 48, proportion of participants with HIV-1 RNA ?50 copies/mL receiving DTG/3TC was 0.3% (1/369) vs 0.5% (2/372) with a TAF-based regimen (adjusted treatment difference [95% confidence interval], -0.3 [-1.2 to .7]), meeting noninferiority criteria. No participants receiving DTG/3TC and 1 receiving a TAF-based regimen met confirmed virologic withdrawal criteria, with no emergent resistance at failure. Drug-related grade ?2 adverse events and withdrawals due to adverse events occurred in 17 (4.6%) and 13 (3.5%) participants with DTG/3TC and 3 (0.8%) and 2 (0.5%) with a TAF-based regimen, respectively. CONCLUSIONS:DTG/3TC was noninferior in maintaining virologic suppression vs a TAF-based regimen at week 48, with no virologic failure or emergent resistance reported with DTG/3TC, supporting it as a simplification strategy for virologically suppressed people with HIV-1. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION:NCT03446573.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Optimization of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) can impact the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) reservoir. We evaluated the effect on the HIV reservoir in peripheral blood and ileum biopsies in patients switching from boosted protease inhibitor (PI/r)-based therapy to dolutegravir (DTG)-based therapy. METHODS:Impact of Integrase-inhibitor DOlutegravir On the viral Reservoir (INDOOR) is a phase 4 open-label clinical trial that randomly included 42 HIV type 1-infected individuals on effective cART: 20 who switched from PI/r-based to DTG-based cART (switch group), and 22 who remained in PI/r-based regimens (control group). We analyzed blood and ileum biopsies to quantify episomal, total, and integrated HIV DNA, cell-associated HIV RNA, residual plasma viremia, T-cell subsets, cell activation, and inflammation markers. RESULTS:There were no related adverse events or treatment discontinuations due to drug intolerance. The HIV reservoir was consistently larger in ileal than in peripheral CD4+ T cells in both groups (P < .01). Residual viremia in plasma decreased in the switch group (P = .03). However, we did not observe significant longitudinal changes in low-level viral replication, total and integrated HIV reservoir, HIV transcription, T-cell maturation subsets, immunoactivation markers, inflammatory soluble proteins, or cellular markers of latently infected cells. CONCLUSIONS:The INDOOR study is the first evaluation of changes in HIV reservoir size in ileum biopsies and in peripheral blood in individuals switched from PI/r- to DTG-based cART. Although this switch was safe and well tolerated, it had no impact on a large array of immunological and inflammatory markers or on HIV reservoir markers in peripheral or in ileal CD4+ T cells. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION:EudraCT 2014-004331-39.
Project description:Abstract Background At Weeks 48 and 96 in the GEMINI-1 and GEMINI-2 studies (Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT02831673 and NCT02831764), the 2DR of DTG+3TC was noninferior to the three-drug regimen of DTG + tenofovir/emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) in achieving plasma HIV-1 RNA < 50 c/mL in treatment-naïve adults. Methods GEMINI-1 and 2 are identical, global, double-blind, multicenter Phase III studies. Participants with screening HIV-1 RNA ? 500.00 c/mL were randomized to once-daily DTG+3TC or DTG+TDF/FTC, stratified by plasma HIV-1 RNA and CD4+ cell count. The primary endpoint was the proportion of participants with plasma HIV-1 RNA < 50 c/mL at Week 48 (Snapshot algorithm). We present a secondary endpoint analysis of efficacy at Week 96 by baseline disease and demographic characteristics. For the overall population, estimates and confidence intervals were based on a stratified analysis using Cochran–Mantel–Haenszel weights. Results In total, 714 and 719 adults were randomized and treated in GEMINI-1 and -2, respectively. Based on a 10% noninferiority margin, DTG+3TC was noninferior to DTG+TDF/FTC at Week 96 in both GEMINI-1 and -2 and in the pooled analysis. Response rates across baseline HIV-1 RNA subgroups were high and similar in both arms in the pooled analysis, including in participants with baseline HIV-1 RNA >100,000 c/mL (Table 1). Results were also generally consistent regardless of age, gender, or race. In the CD4+ ? 200 cells/mm3 subgroup, response rates were lower in the DTG+3TC group compared with DTG+TDF/FTC; most reasons for nonresponse were unrelated to virologic efficacy or treatment regimen. Across both studies, 11 participants on DTG+3TC and 7 on DTG+TDF/FTC met protocol-defined virologic withdrawal criteria through Week 96; none had treatment emergent integrase-strand-transfer-inhibitor or NRTI resistance mutations. Conclusion In GEMINI-1 and 2, DTG+3TC was noninferior to DTG+TDF/FTC in treatment-naïve adults at Week 96, demonstrating durable efficacy. The results of subgroup analyses of efficacy at Week 96 were generally consistent with overall study results, and further demonstrate that DTG+3TC is an effective initial treatment for HIV-infected patients across a spectrum of disease characteristics and patient populations. The studies are ongoing. Disclosures All Authors: No reported Disclosures.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Dolutegravir (DTG)-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) is recommended for first-line HIV treatment in the US and Europe. Efavirenz (EFV)-based regimens remain the standard of care (SOC) in India. We examined the clinical and economic impact of DTG-based first-line ART in the setting of India's recent guidelines change to treating all patients with HIV infection regardless of CD4 count. METHODS:We used a microsimulation of HIV disease, the Cost-Effectiveness of Preventing AIDS Complications (CEPAC)-International model, to project outcomes in ART-naive patients under two strategies: (1) SOC: EFV/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF)/lamivudine (3TC); and (2) DTG: DTG + TDF/3TC. Regimen-specific inputs, including virologic suppression at 48 weeks (SOC: 82% vs. DTG: 90%) and annual costs ($98 vs. $102), were informed by clinical trial data and other sources and varied widely in sensitivity analysis. We compared incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs), measured in $/year of life saved (YLS), to India's per capita gross domestic product ($1600 in 2015). We compared the budget impact and HIV transmission effects of the two strategies for the estimated 444,000 and 916,000 patients likely to initiate ART in India over the next 2 and 5 years. RESULTS:Compared to SOC, DTG improved 5-year survival from 76.7% to 83.0%, increased life expectancy from 22.0 to 24.8 years (14.0 to 15.5 years, discounted), averted 13,000 transmitted HIV infections over 5 years, increased discounted lifetime care costs from $3040 to $3240, and resulted in a lifetime ICER of $130/YLS, less than 10% of India's per capita GDP in 2015. DTG maintained an ICER below 50% of India's per capita GDP as long as the annual three-drug regimen cost was ?$180/year. Over a 2- or 5-year horizon, total undiscounted outlays for HIV-related care were virtually the same for both strategies. CONCLUSIONS:A generic DTG-based regimen is likely to be cost-effective and should be recommended for initial therapy of HIV infection in India.
Project description:Dolutegravir (DTG) has been studied in three trials in HIV treatment-naive participants, showing noninferiority compared with raltegravir (RAL), and superiority compared with efavirenz and ritonavir-boosted darunavir. We explored factors that predicted treatment success, the consistency of observed treatment differences across subgroups and the impact of NRTI backbone on treatment outcome.Retrospective exploratory analyses of data from three large, randomized, international comparative trials: SPRING-2, SINGLE, and FLAMINGO.We examined the efficacy of DTG in HIV-infected participants with respect to relevant demographic and HIV-1-related baseline characteristics using the primary efficacy endpoint from the studies (FDA snapshot) and secondary endpoints that examine specific elements of treatment response. Regression models were used to analyze pooled data from all three studies.Snapshot response was affected by age, hepatitis co-infection, HIV risk factor, baseline CD4? cell count, and HIV-1 RNA and by third agent. Differences between DTG and other third agents were generally consistent across these subgroups. There was no evidence of a difference in snapshot response between abacavir/lamivudine (ABC/3TC) and tenofovir/emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) overall [ABC/3TC 86%, TDF/FTC 85%, difference 1.1%, confidence interval (CI) -1.8, 4.0 percentage points, P?=?0.61] or at high viral loads (difference -2.5, 95% CI -8.9, 3.8 percentage points, P?=?0.42).DTG is a once-daily, unboosted integrase inhibitor that is effective in combination with either ABC/3TC or TDF/FTC for first-line antiretroviral therapy in HIV-positive individuals with a variety of baseline characteristics.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Sub-Saharan African countries are transitioning to dolutegravir-based regimens, even for patients with extensive previous drug exposure, including first-generation integrase strand-transfer inhibitors (INSTI) such as raltegravir. Such exposure might have implications on cross-resistance to dolutegravir-based antiretroviral therapies (ART). CASE PRESENTATION:We report a 65?years old Cameroonian, previously exposed to raltegravir, and failing on third-line treatment with multi-drug resistance to darunavir/r and dolutegravir. Genotypic resistance testing (GRT) and viral tropism were performed during monitoring time points. The patient initiated ART in August 2007. At the time point of the first (29.04.2010), second (01.12.2017) and third (08.08.2019) GRT, prior ART exposure included 3TC, d4T, NVP and EFV; additionally TDF, DRV/r and RAL; and additionally ABC and DTG respectively. First GRT revealed mutations associated with resistance only to first-generation Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI). Second GRT revealed mutations associated with high-level resistance to all NRTIs, first generation NNRTIs, all ritonavir boosted protease inhibitors (PI/r), and all INSTI, while viral tropism (using geno2pheno) revealed a CCR5-tropic virus with a false positive rate (FPR) of 60.9% suggesting effectiveness of maraviroc (MRV). The third GRT showed high-level resistance to NRTI, NNRTI, all PI and all INSTI, with additional mutations (H221HY for NNRTI and S147G for INSTI), and a CCR5-tropic virus with a slightly reduced FPR (57.0%). Without any locally available active therapeutic option, the patient has been on a maintenance therapy with "DRV/r (600mg x 2/day)+TDF+3TC" and patient/family-centered adherence has been reinforced. Since the first viral load (VL) measurement in 2010, the patient has had 12 VL tests with the VL ranging from 4.97 Log to 6.44 Log copies/mL and the CD4 count never exceeded 200 cells/?L. CONCLUSIONS:As African countries transition to dolutegravir-based regimens, prior raltegravir-exposure may prompt selection (and potential transmission) of dolutegravir-resistance, supporting case surveillance.