Potential of reflected UV imaging technique for detection of defects on the surface area of mango.
ABSTRACT: Surface defects such as mechanical damage, black lesion, latex stains and shriveling of mango fruit are very common and responsible for lowering of market prices as well as postharvest losses. Current research, thus, focused on the study of reflected ultraviolet imaging (UV) technique, its potential of detecting defected mangoes and to develop a computer vision system which could find the reflected area on injured or defected mango's surface. The visual visualization of the bruised areas was noticed different when viewed under 15 W fluorescent UV tube (100-400 nm) light by UV camera. Hidden defects on fruit's surface detected just after the image acquisition by UV camera and brightness enhancement. Defected or injured surface of mangoes recognized easily by reflected UV imaging at 400 nm band-pass filter. The seriousness of injuries which were not detected by RGB color camera, detected by reflected UV imaging technique exactly.
Project description:Here, we report, for what we believe to be the first time, on the modification of a low cost sensor, designed for the smartphone camera market, to develop an ultraviolet (UV) camera system. This was achieved via adaptation of Raspberry Pi cameras, which are based on back-illuminated complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) sensors, and we demonstrated the utility of these devices for applications at wavelengths as low as 310 nm, by remotely sensing power station smokestack emissions in this spectral region. Given the very low cost of these units, ? USD 25, they are suitable for widespread proliferation in a variety of UV imaging applications, e.g., in atmospheric science, volcanology, forensics and surface smoothness measurements.
Project description:Freshly-harvested mature green mangoes (cvs. 'Alphonso' and 'Banganapalli') were individually shrink wrapped using two semi-permeable Cryovac films® (D-955 and LD-935) and a locally available LDPE film. The shrink wrapped and non-wrapped fruit were stored at 8 °C for 5 weeks and transferred to ambient conditions for subsequent ripening, to study the feasibility of alleviation of chilling injury (CI) and to determine shrink wrapping effect on fruit quality. Shrink wrapped mangoes of 'Banganapalli' and 'Alphonso' cultivars packed in D-955 (15 ?m thickness) film could be stored for 5 weeks at 8 °C in fresh and unripe green condition. After storage, these cultivars respectively lost only 0.5 and 1.4 % mass in case of shrink wrapping as compared to 5.8 and 6.9 % loss in non-wrapped fruit. After removal from low temperature and unwrapping, shrink wrapped mangoes showed normal respiratory behaviour with production of CO2 and ethylene peaks (climacteric peaks) during ripening, whereas non-wrapped fruit did not show any respiratory peaks. Shrink wrapped mangoes ripened normally within a week at ambient temperature (24-32 °C and 60-70 % RH) with good surface yellow colour (reflected by hue and chroma values), edible softness, retention of nutritional quality and acceptable organoleptic quality. These quality parameters were better in fruit wrapped with D-955 film compared to LD-935 and LDPE films. Total carotenoids in terms of ?-carotene content were significantly higher in shrink wrapped fruit when compared to non-wrapped fruit. Among different shrink films, total antioxidant capacity and DPPH radical scavenging abilities were higher in LD-935 wrapped fruit in case of 'Alphonso' cultivar whereas these were on par in LD-935 and D-955 film wrapped fruit in case of 'Banganapalli' cultivar.
Project description:This preliminary publication describes acute temperature effects after manual Khalifa therapy.The goal of this study was to describe temperature distribution and the effects on surface temperature of the knees and feet in patients with completely ruptured anterior cruciate ligament before and immediately after the manual therapy.Ten male patients were investigated with thermal imaging. An infrared camera operating at a wavelength range of 7.5-13 μm was used. Temperature was analyzed at three locations on both knees and in addition on both feet.The study revealed that baseline temperature of the injured knee differed from that of the untreated control knee. After the therapy on the injured knee, the surface temperature was significantly increased on both knees (injured and control). There were no significant changes in the temperature of the feet.Further studies using continuous thermal image recording may help to explain the details concerning the temperature distribution.
Project description:BACKGROUND:For clinical care and research in vitiligo, photographs with the use of ultraviolet (UV) light or Wood's lamp are often made. Conventional cameras are insensitive to UV light. The use of a UV camera (UV photography) might improve image quality and ameliorate the assessment of target lesions in vitiligo. OBJECTIVES:To determine image quality and the validity and reliability of UV photography for the assessment of vitiligo target lesions. METHODS:Images of patients with vitiligo were made with UV photography and a conventional camera, and lesions were drawn on graph paper and transparent sheets. Image quality was scored by vitiligo experts and medical interns. The intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) of the lesion size determined with UV photography combined with digital surface measurement and the other techniques were hypothesized to be above 0.6. The ICCs between UV images taken by the same physician and between two different physicians were calculated for determining inter- and intra-reliability. RESULTS:In total, 31 lesions of 17 patients were included. Image quality was assessed as good or very good for 100% and 26% for UV photography and the conventional camera, respectively. ICCs of UV photography and the conventional camera, drawing the lesions on transparent sheets and graph paper, were 0.984, 0.988 and 0.983, respectively, confirming our hypotheses. The ICCs of the intra-rater and inter-rater were 0.999 and 0.998, respectively. CONCLUSIONS:The results of this study indicate that the use of UV photography for the assessment of vitiligo lesions improves image quality and is valid and reliable.
Project description:Wide-field (WF) imaging paired with reflectance confocal microscopy can noninvasively detect skin cancer with high accuracy. However, two separate devices are required to perform each imaging procedure. We describe a new concept that integrates the two into one device: a miniature WF color camera within the objective lens used for confocal microscopy, providing simultaneous sub-surface cellular imaging and WF surface morphologic imaging. The camera, inserted between a hyperhemisphere front lens and a back lens group of the objective, commands a field of view of 4.0 mm, with a resolution better than 30 ?m, while confocal optical sectioning is preserved at sharper than 2.5 ?m.
Project description:Background: New findings on the potential of wild mangoes from the island of Sumatra as a source of antioxidant helps their conservation effort as it introduces their useful compounds to the public. This study aims to analyze the antioxidant profile and quantification of gallic acid and quercetin content from leaves and bark of Sumatran wild mangoes. Exploration and analysis of phytochemical constituents from 11 Sumatran wild mangoes was performed. Methods: Antioxidant activity of wild mangoes was analysed with 1,1- diphenyl-2-picryl hydroxyl (DPPH), and determination of quercetin and gallic acid content was performed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. Total flavonoid and phenolic analysis was also performed. Curve fitting analysis used a linear regression approach. Results: The highest level of antioxidant activity, phenolic compound and flavonoid compound was found in the leaves and bark of Mangifera sp1. (MBS), the bark of M. foetida3 (var. batu) and leaves of M. torquenda, and the bark and leaves of M. sumatrana, respectively. The content of gallic acid in leaves ranged from 5.23-35.48 mg/g dry weight. Quercetin content of wild mangoes leaves ranged from 0.76 to 1.16 mg/g dry weight with the lowest value in M. foetida2 (var. manis) and the highest in M. laurina. Conclusion: The results obtained are expected to be useful in supporting the development of antidegenerative drugs from natural ingredients that have potential as immunomodulatory agents.
Project description:Currently, blueberry bruising is evaluated by either human visual/tactile inspection or firmness measurement instruments. These methods are destructive, time-consuming, and subjective. The goal of this paper was to develop a non-destructive approach for blueberry bruising detection and quantification. Experiments were conducted on 300 samples of southern highbush blueberry (Camellia, Rebel, and Star) and on 1500 samples of northern highbush blueberry (Bluecrop, Jersey, and Liberty) for hyperspectral imaging analysis, firmness measurement, and human evaluation. An algorithm was developed to automatically calculate a bruise ratio index (ratio of bruised to whole fruit area) for bruise quantification. The spectra of bruised and healthy tissues were statistically separated and the separation was independent of cultivars. Support vector machine (SVM) classification of the spectra from the regions of interest (ROIs) achieved over 94%, 92%, and 96% accuracy on the training set, independent testing set, and combined set, respectively. The statistical results showed that the bruise ratio index was equivalent to the measured firmness but better than the predicted firmness in regard to effectiveness of bruise quantification, and the bruise ratio index had a strong correlation with human assessment (R2?=?0.78?-?0.83). Therefore, the proposed approach and the bruise ratio index are effective to non-destructively detect and quantify blueberry bruising.
Project description:The purpose of this study was to investigate the response of porcine corneal organ cultures to riboflavin/UV-A phototherapy in the injury healing of induced lesions. A porcine corneal organ culture model was established. Corneal alterations in the stroma were evaluated using an assay system, based on an automated image analysis method able to (i) localize the holes and gaps within the stroma and (ii) measure the brightness values in these patches. The analysis has been performed by dividing the corneal section in 24 regions of interest (ROIs) and integrating the data analysis with a "multi-aspect approach." Three group of corneas were analyzed: healthy, injured, and injured-and-treated. Our study revealed a significant effect of the riboflavin/UV-A phototherapy in the injury healing of porcine corneas after induced lesions. The injured corneas had significant differences of brightness values in comparison to treated (p < 0.00) and healthy (p < 0.001) corneas, whereas the treated and healthy corneas showed no significant difference (p = 0.995). Riboflavin/UV-A phototherapy shows a significant effect in restoring the brightness values of damaged corneas to the values of healthy corneas, suggesting treatment restores the injury healing of corneas after lesions. Our assay system may be compared to clinical diagnostic methods, such as optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging, for in vivo damaged ocular structure investigations.
Project description:Skeletal muscle can repair muscle tissue damage, but significant loss of muscle tissue or its long-lasting chronic degeneration makes injured skeletal muscle tissue difficult to restore. It has been demonstrated that non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma (NTP) can be used in many biological areas including regenerative medicine. Therefore, we determined whether NTP, as a non-contact biological external stimulator that generates biological catalyzers, can induce regeneration of injured muscle without biomaterials. Treatment with NTP in the defected muscle of a Sprague Dawley (SD) rat increased the number of proliferating muscle cells 7 days after plasma treatment (dapt) and rapidly induced formation of muscle tissue and muscle cell differentiation at 14 dapt. In addition, in vitro experiments also showed that NTP could induce muscle cell proliferation and differentiation of human muscle cells. Taken together, our results demonstrated that NTP promotes restoration of muscle defects through control of cell proliferation and differentiation without biological or structural supporters, suggesting that NTP has the potential for use in muscle tissue engineering and regenerative therapies.
Project description:Diagnosing a peri-prosthetic joint infection (PJI) remains challenging despite the availability of a variety of clinical signs, serum and synovial markers, imaging techniques, microbiological and histological findings. Moreover, the one and only true definition of PJI does not exist, which is reflected by the existence of at least six different definitions by independent societies. These definitions are composed of major and minor criteria for defining a PJI, but most of them do not include imaging techniques. This paper highlights the pros and cons of available imaging techniques-X-ray, ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), bone scintigraphy, white blood cell scintigraphy (WBC), anti-granulocyte scintigraphy, and fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT), discusses the added value of hybrid camera systems-single photon emission tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT), PET/CT and PET/MRI and reports consensus answers on important clinical questions that were discussed during the Third European Congress on Inflammation/Infection Imaging in Rome, December 2019.