Poly(ADP-ribose) drives pathologic ?-synuclein neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease.
ABSTRACT: The pathologic accumulation and aggregation of ?-synuclein (?-syn) underlies Parkinson's disease (PD). The molecular mechanisms by which pathologic ?-syn causes neurodegeneration in PD are not known. Here, we found that pathologic ?-syn activates poly(adenosine 5'-diphosphate-ribose) (PAR) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), and PAR generation accelerates the formation of pathologic ?-syn, resulting in cell death via parthanatos. PARP inhibitors or genetic deletion of PARP-1 prevented pathologic ?-syn toxicity. In a feed-forward loop, PAR converted pathologic ?-syn to a more toxic strain. PAR levels were increased in the cerebrospinal fluid and brains of patients with PD, suggesting that PARP activation plays a role in PD pathogenesis. Thus, strategies aimed at inhibiting PARP-1 activation could hold promise as a disease-modifying therapy to prevent the loss of dopamine neurons in PD.
Project description:Glutamate acting on N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors induces neuronal injury following stroke, through activation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) and generation of the death molecule poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) polymer. Here we identify Iduna, a previously undescribed NMDA receptor-induced survival protein that is neuroprotective against glutamate NMDA receptor-mediated excitotoxicity both in vitro and in vivo and against stroke through interfering with PAR polymer-induced cell death (parthanatos). Iduna's protective effects are independent and downstream of PARP-1 activity. Iduna is a PAR polymer-binding protein, and mutation at the PAR polymer binding site abolishes the PAR binding activity of Iduna and attenuates its protective actions. Iduna is protective in vivo against NMDA-induced excitotoxicity and middle cerebral artery occlusion-induced stroke in mice. To our knowledge, these results define Iduna as the first known endogenous inhibitor of parthanatos. Interfering with PAR polymer signaling could be a new therapeutic strategy for the treatment of neurologic disorders.
Project description:The mitochondrial protein apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) plays a pivotal role in poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1)-mediated cell death (parthanatos), during which it is released from the mitochondria and translocates to the nucleus. We show that AIF is a high-affinity poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR)-binding protein and that PAR binding to AIF is required for parthanatos both in vitro and in vivo. AIF bound PAR at a site distinct from AIF's DNA binding site, and this interaction triggered AIF release from the cytosolic side of the mitochondrial outer membrane. Mutation of the PAR binding site in AIF did not affect its NADH (reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) oxidase activity, its ability to bind FAD (flavin adenine dinucleotide) or DNA, or its ability to induce nuclear condensation. However, this AIF mutant was not released from mitochondria and did not translocate to the nucleus or mediate cell death after PARP-1 activation. These results suggest a mechanism for PARP-1 to initiate AIF-mediated cell death and indicate that AIF's bioenergetic cell survival-promoting functions are separate from its effects as a mitochondrially derived death effector. Interference with the PAR-AIF interaction or PAR signaling may provide notable opportunities for preventing cell death after activation of PARP-1.
Project description:Excessive poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) activation kills cells via a cell-death process designated "parthanatos" in which PAR induces the mitochondrial release and nuclear translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor to initiate chromatinolysis and cell death. Accompanying the formation of PAR are the reduction of cellular NAD(+) and energetic collapse, which have been thought to be caused by the consumption of cellular NAD(+) by PARP-1. Here we show that the bioenergetic collapse following PARP-1 activation is not dependent on NAD(+) depletion. Instead PARP-1 activation initiates glycolytic defects via PAR-dependent inhibition of hexokinase, which precedes the NAD(+) depletion in N-methyl-N-nitroso-N-nitroguanidine (MNNG)-treated cortical neurons. Mitochondrial defects are observed shortly after PARP-1 activation and are mediated largely through defective glycolysis, because supplementation of the mitochondrial substrates pyruvate and glutamine reverse the PARP-1-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction. Depleting neurons of NAD(+) with FK866, a highly specific noncompetitive inhibitor of nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase, does not alter glycolysis or mitochondrial function. Hexokinase, the first regulatory enzyme to initiate glycolysis by converting glucose to glucose-6-phosphate, contains a strong PAR-binding motif. PAR binds to hexokinase and inhibits hexokinase activity in MNNG-treated cortical neurons. Preventing PAR formation with PAR glycohydrolase prevents the PAR-dependent inhibition of hexokinase. These results indicate that bioenergetic collapse induced by overactivation of PARP-1 is caused by PAR-dependent inhibition of glycolysis through inhibition of hexokinase.
Project description:Poly (ADP ribose) (PAR) formation catalyzed by PAR polymerase 1 in response to genotoxic stress mediates cell death due to necrosis and apoptosis. PAR glycohydrolase (PARG) has been thought to be the only enzyme responsible for hydrolysis of PAR in vivo. However, we show an alternative PAR-degradation pathway, resulting from action of ADP ribosyl-acceptor hydrolase (ARH) 3. PARG and ARH3, acting in tandem, regulate nuclear and cytoplasmic PAR degradation following hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) exposure. PAR is responsible for induction of parthanatos, a mechanism for caspase-independent cell death, triggered by apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) release from mitochondria and its translocation to the nucleus, where it initiates DNA cleavage. PARG, by generating protein-free PAR from poly-ADP ribosylated protein, makes PAR translocation possible. A protective effect of ARH3 results from its lowering of PAR levels in the nucleus and the cytoplasm, thereby preventing release of AIF from mitochondria and its accumulation in the nucleus. Thus, PARG release of PAR attached to nuclear proteins, followed by ARH3 cleavage of PAR, is essential in regulating PAR-dependent AIF release from mitochondria and parthanatos.
Project description:Recent findings suggest that Ring finger protein 146 (RNF146), also called iduna, have neuroprotective property due to its inhibition of Parthanatos via binding with Poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR). The Parthanatos is a PAR dependent cell death that has been implicated in many human diseases. RNF146/Iduna acts as a PARsylation-directed E3 ubquitin ligase to mediate tankyrase-dependent degradation of axin, thereby positively regulates Wnt signaling. RNF146/Iduna can also facilitate DNA repair and protect against cell death induced by DNA damaging agents or ?-irradiation. It can translocate to the nucleus after cellular injury and promote the ubiquitination and degradation of various nuclear proteins involved in DNA damage repair. The PARsylation-directed ubquitination mediated by RNF146/Iduna is analogous to the phosphorylation-directed ubquitination catalyzed by Skp1-Cul1-F-box (SCF) E3 ubiquitin complex. RNF146/Iduna has been found to be implicated in neurodegenerative disease and cancer development. Therefore modulation of the PAR-binding and PARsylation dependent E3 ligase activity of RNF146/Iduna could have therapeutic significance for diseases, in which PAR and PAR-binding proteins play key pathophysiologic roles.
Project description:Apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), a mitochondrial oxidoreductase, is released into the cytoplasm to induce cell death in response to poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) activation. How PARP-1 activation leads to AIF release is not known. Here we identify PAR polymer as a cell death signal that induces release of AIF. PAR polymer induces mitochondrial AIF release and translocation to the nucleus. PAR glycohydrolase, which degrades PAR polymer, prevents PARP-1-dependent AIF release. Cells with reduced levels of AIF are resistant to PARP-1-dependent cell death and PAR polymer cytotoxicity. These results reveal PAR polymer as an AIF-releasing factor that plays important roles in PARP-1-dependent cell death.
Project description:Poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) metabolism participates in several biological processes such as DNA damage signaling and repair, which is a thoroughly studied function. PAR is synthesized by Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and hydrolyzed by Poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG). In contrast to human and other higher eukaryotes, Trypanosoma brucei contains only one PARP and PARG. Up to date, the function of these enzymes has remained elusive in this parasite. The aim of this work is to unravel the role that PAR plays in genotoxic stress response.The optimal conditions for the activity of purified recombinant TbPARP were determined by using a fluorometric activity assay followed by screening of PARP inhibitors. Sensitivity to a genotoxic agent, H2O2, was assessed by counting motile parasites over the total number in a Neubauer chamber, in presence of a potent PARP inhibitor as well as in procyclic transgenic lines which either down-regulate PARP or PARG, or over-express PARP. Triplicates were carried out for each condition tested and data significance was assessed with two-way Anova followed by Bonferroni test. Finally, PAR influence was studied in cell death pathways by flow cytometry.Abolition of a functional PARP either by using potent inhibitors present or in PARP-silenced parasites had no effect on parasite growth in culture; however, PARP-inhibited and PARP down-regulated parasites presented an increased resistance against H2O2 treatment when compared to their wild type counterparts. PARP over-expressing and PARG-silenced parasites displayed polymer accumulation in the nucleus and, as expected, showed diminished resistance when exposed to the same genotoxic stimulus. Indeed, they suffered a necrotic death pathway, while an apoptosis-like mechanism was observed in control cultures. Surprisingly, PARP migrated to the nucleus and synthesized PAR only after a genomic stress in wild type parasites while PARG occurred always in this organelle.PARP over-expressing and PARG-silenced cells presented PAR accumulation in the nucleus, even in absence of oxidative stress. Procyclic death pathway after genotoxic damage depends on basal nuclear PAR. This evidence demonstrates that the polymer may have a toxic action by itself since the consequences of an exacerbated PARP activity cannot fully explain the increment in sensitivity observed here. Moreover, the unusual localization of PARP and PARG would reveal a novel regulatory mechanism, making them invaluable model systems.
Project description:Excessive activation of the nuclear enzyme, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) plays a prominent role in various of models of cellular injury. Here, we identify poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) polymer, a product of PARP-1 activity, as a previously uncharacterized cell death signal. PAR polymer is directly toxic to neurons, and degradation of PAR polymer by poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG) or phosphodiesterase 1 prevents PAR polymer-induced cell death. PARP-1-dependent, NMDA excitotoxicity of cortical neurons is reduced by neutralizing antibodies to PAR and by overexpression of PARG. Neuronal cultures with reduced levels of PARG are more sensitive to NMDA excitotoxicity than WT cultures. Transgenic mice overexpressing PARG have significantly reduced infarct volumes after focal ischemia. Conversely, mice with reduced levels of PARG have significantly increased infarct volumes after focal ischemia compared with WT littermate controls. These results reveal PAR polymer as a signaling molecule that induces cell death and suggests that interference with PAR polymer signaling may offer innovative therapeutic approaches for the treatment of cellular injury.
Project description:The poly(adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-ribose) polymerase (PARP) protein family generates ADP-ribose (ADPr) modifications onto target proteins using NAD(+) as substrate. Based on the composition of three NAD(+) coordinating amino acids, the H-Y-E motif, each PARP is predicted to generate either poly(ADPr) (PAR) or mono(ADPr) (MAR). However, the reaction product of each PARP has not been clearly defined, and is an important priority since PAR and MAR function via distinct mechanisms. Here we show that the majority of PARPs generate MAR, not PAR, and demonstrate that the H-Y-E motif is not the sole indicator of PARP activity. We identify automodification sites on seven PARPs, and demonstrate that MAR and PAR generating PARPs modify similar amino acids, suggesting that the sequence and structural constraints limiting PARPs to MAR synthesis do not limit their ability to modify canonical amino-acid targets. In addition, we identify cysteine as a novel amino-acid target for ADP-ribosylation on PARPs.
Project description:Important cellular processes are regulated by poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation. This protein modification is catalyzed mainly by nuclear poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) 1 in response to DNA damage. Cytosolic PARP isoforms have been described, whereas the presence of poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) metabolism in mitochondria is controversial. PAR is degraded by poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG). Recently, ADP-ribosylhydrolase 3 (ARH3) was also shown to catalyze PAR-degradation in vitro. PARG is encoded by a single, essential gene. One nuclear and three cytosolic isoforms result from alternative splicing. The presence and origin of a mitochondrial PARG is still unresolved. We establish here the genetic background of a human mitochondrial PARG isoform and investigate the molecular basis for mitochondrial poly(ADP-ribose) degradation. In common with a cytosolic 60-kDa human PARG isoform, the mitochondrial protein did not catalyze PAR degradation because of the absence of exon 5-encoded residues. In mice, we identified a transcript encoding an inactive cytosolic 52-kDa PARG lacking the mitochondrial targeting sequence and a substantial portion of exon 5. Thus, mammalian PARG genes encode isoforms that do not catalyze PAR degradation. On the other hand, embryonic fibroblasts from ARH3(-/-) mice lack most of the mitochondrial PAR degrading activity detected in wild-type cells, demonstrating a potential involvement of ARH3 in PAR metabolism.