Blood Pressure Genetic Risk Score Predicts Blood Pressure Responses to Dietary Sodium and Potassium: The GenSalt Study (Genetic Epidemiology Network of Salt Sensitivity).
ABSTRACT: We examined the association between genetic risk score (GRS) for blood pressure (BP), based on single nucleotide polymorphisms identified in previous BP genome-wide association study meta-analyses, and salt and potassium sensitivity of BP among participants of the GenSalt study (Genetic Epidemiology Network of Salt Sensitivity). The GenSalt study was conducted among 1906 participants who underwent a 7-day low-sodium (51.3 mmol sodium/d), 7-day high-sodium (307.8 mmol sodium/d), and 7-day high-sodium plus potassium (60 mmol potassium/d) intervention. BP was measured 9× at baseline and at the end of each intervention period using a random zero sphygmomanometer. Associations between systolic BP (SBP), diastolic BP, and mean arterial pressure GRS and respective SBP, diastolic BP, and mean arterial pressure responses to the dietary interventions were assessed using mixed linear regression models that accounted for familial dependencies and adjusted for age, sex, field center, body mass index, and baseline BP. As expected, baseline SBP, diastolic BP, and mean arterial pressure significantly increased per quartile increase in GRS (P=2.7×10-8, 9.8×10-8, and 6.4×10-6, respectively). In contrast, increasing GRS quartile conferred smaller SBP, diastolic BP, and mean arterial pressure responses to the low-sodium intervention (P=1.4×10-3, 0.02, and 0.06, respectively) and smaller SBP responses to the high-sodium and potassium interventions (P=0.10 and 0.05). In addition, overall findings were similar when examining GRS as a continuous measure. Contrary to our initial hypothesis, we identified an inverse relationship between BP GRS and salt and potassium sensitivity of BP. These data may provide novel implications on the relationship between BP responses to dietary sodium and potassium and hypertension.
Project description:In the Genetic Epidemiology Network of Salt Sensitivity (GenSalt) study, we observed that blood pressure (BP) responses to dietary sodium and potassium interventions and the cold pressor test (CPT) varied greatly among individuals. We conducted a replication study to confirm our previous findings among 695 study participants.The dietary intervention included a 7-day low sodium (51.3 mmol/day), a 7-day high sodium (307.8 mmol/day), and a 7-day high sodium with potassium supplementation (307.8 mmol sodium and 60 mmol potassium/day). BP measurements were obtained during the baseline and each intervention phase. During the CPT, BP was measured before and at 0, 1, 2, and 4 minutes after the participants immersed their right hand in ice water for 1 minute.Systolic and diastolic BP responses (mean ± SD (range), mm Hg) were 8.1±8.4 (-39.1 to 18.2) and -3.5±5.1 (-25.1 to 11.1) to low sodium, 9.1±8.4 (-13.3 to 33.1) and 4.0±5.4 (-16.0 to 20.7) to high sodium, and -4.6±5.8 (-31.8 to 11.6) and -1.9±4.3 (-16.9 to 14.2) to potassium supplementation, respectively (all P < 0.0001 for comparison with each former phase). The mean maximum systolic and diastolic BP responses to the CPT were 16.5±10.5 (-15.3 to 63.3) and 7.6±6.1 (-8.7 to 39.3), respectively (all P < 0.0001).Our study indicates that there are large variations in BP responses to dietary sodium and potassium interventions and to the CPT among individuals.
Project description:Genetic factors may influence blood pressure (BP) responses to dietary potassium intake. We examined the association of genetic variants in the apelin-APJ system and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) with BP responses to potassium supplementation.We conducted a 7-day potassium supplementation (60 mmol/day) intervention among 1,906 Chinese adults who participated in the Genetic Epidemiology Network of Salt-Sensitivity (GenSalt) study. Tag single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) based on HapMap data and potential functional SNPs were selected in the APLN, APLNR, and ACE2 genes. Because the ACE2 and APLN genes are located on the X chromosome, men and women were analyzed separately.In women, SNP rs2235306 in the APLN gene was significantly associated with diastolic BP (DBP) response to potassium supplementation (P = 0.0009). The DBP responses (95% confidence interval (CI)) among those with genotypes T/T, T/C, and C/C were -2.22 (-2.74, -1.70), -1.69 (-2.20, -1.19), and -0.81 (-1.54, -0.09) mm Hg, respectively. In men, SNP rs4646174 of the ACE2 gene was significantly associated with systolic BP (SBP), DBP, and mean arterial pressure (MAP) responses to potassium supplementation (P = 0.0001, P = 0.001, and P = 3.0 x 10(-6), respectively). The SBP, DBP, and MAP responses (95% CI) were -0.79 (-2.27, 0.69) vs. -3.53 (-3.94, -3.12), 1.07 (-0.34, 2.49) vs. -1.06 (-1.43, -0.69), and 0.44 (-0.60, 1.48) vs. -1.89 (-2.22, -1.55) mm Hg among men with minor G allele compared to those with major C allele of rs4646174, respectively.Our study indicates that genetic variation of APLN and ACE2 may influence BP response to potassium intake.
Project description:BACKGROUND:To explore how central hemodynamics respond to dietary sodium and potassium interventions, and whether the responses are associated with metabolic traits. METHODS:We conducted a dietary intervention study including a 7-day low-sodium (51.3 mmol sodium/day) intervention, a 7-day high-sodium (307.8 mmol sodium/day) intervention, and a 7-day high-sodium with potassium supplementation (60.0 mmol potassium/day) intervention among 99 northern Chinese subjects aged 18-60 years. Five metabolic traits included abdominal obesity, high triglycerides, low HDL cholesterol, raised blood pressure (BP), and high glucose. Central hemodynamics were measured at baseline and during each intervention. RESULTS:Central systolic BP (SBP), diastolic BP (DBP), pulse pressure (PP), and augmentation index (AIx@75) significantly decreased during low-sodium intervention, increased during high-sodium intervention, and then decreased during potassium supplementation. We observed potential linear trends toward significance of central SBP and PP responses to low-sodium intervention, and significant linear trends of responses to high-sodium intervention as the number of metabolic traits grows. For example, among participants with 0 or 1, 2 or 3, and 4 or 5 metabolic traits, central SBP responses to high-sodium intervention were 8.8 [95% confidence interval (5.8, 11.8)], 9.3 (7.1, 11.6), and 14.0 (11.6, 16.3) mmHg, respectively (P for trend = 0.009). Significant linear trends of central SBP and DBP responses to potassium supplementation were also observed. CONCLUSIONS:Central BP and AIx@75 were lowered by sodium reduction and potassium supplementation, and elevated by sodium-loading. The responses of central BP were pronounced among individuals with metabolic traits clustering. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION:Trial Number NCT00721721 (The current study is registered on ClinicalTrials.gov; https://clinicaltrials.gov).
Project description:We examined the association between genetic variants in the apelin system and blood pressure (BP) responses to low-sodium and high-sodium interventions in the GenSalt Study.A 7-day low-sodium intervention (51.3 mmol sodium per day) followed by a 7-day high-sodium intervention (307.8 mmol sodium per day) was conducted among 1906 participants from 637 Han Chinese families. BP measurements were obtained at baseline and following each intervention using a random-zero sphygmomanometer. Twenty-three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), including both tag and functional SNPs, were selected from three candidate genes (APLN, APLNR, and ACE2). Single marker and haplotype analyses were conducted using the Family Based Association Test program. The false discovery rate method was used to correct for multiple testing.SNPs rs2282623 and rs746886 of the APLNR gene were significantly associated with DBP (both P = 0.002) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) (P = 0.001 and 0.005, respectively) responses to low-sodium intervention. Six SNPs of the ACE2 gene were significantly associated with SBP, DBP, or MAP responses to low-sodium intervention. Three of them, rs1514283, rs1514282, and rs4646176, were also significantly associated with MAP response to high-sodium intervention (all P <or= 0.006). Haplotype analysis indicated the A-T-T haplotype of APLNR SNPs rs721608-rs2282623-rs746886 was associated with decreased DBP and MAP responses to low-sodium intervention (P = 0.001 and 0.003, respectively), whereas G-C-C was associated with increased SBP and MAP responses to high-sodium intervention (P = 0.004 and 0.01, respectively).This large family-based study indicates that genetic variants in the APLNR and ACE2 genes are significantly associated with BP responses to dietary sodium intervention.
Project description:Gene-environmental interaction analysis can identify novel genetic factors for blood pressure (BP). We performed genome-wide analyses to identify genomic loci that interact with potassium to influence BP using single-marker (1 and 2 df joint tests) and gene-based tests among Chinese participants of the GenSalt study (Genetic Epidemiology Network of Salt Sensitivity).Among 1876 GenSalt participants, the average of 3 urine samples was used to estimate potassium excretion. Nine BP measurements were taken using a random-zero sphygmomanometer. A total of 2.2 million single nucleotide polymorphisms were imputed using Affymetrix 6.0 genotype data and the Chinese Han of Beijing and Japanese of Tokyo HapMap reference panel. Promising findings (P<1.00×10-4) from GenSalt were evaluated for replication among 775 Chinese participants of the MESA (Multi-ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis). Single nucleotide polymorphism and gene-based results were meta-analyzed across the GenSalt and MESA studies to determine genome-wide significance. The 1 df tests identified interactions for ARL15 rs16882447 on systolic BP (P=2.83×10-9) and RANBP3L rs958929 on pulse pressure (P=1.58×10-8). The 2 df tests confirmed the ARL15 rs16882447 signal for systolic BP (P=1.15×10-9). Genome-wide gene-based analysis identified CC2D2A (P=2.59×10-7) at 4p15.32 and BNC2 (P=4.49×10-10) at 9p22.2 for systolic BP, GGNBP1 (P=1.18×10-8), and LINC00336 (P=1.36×10-8) at 6p21 for diastolic BP, DAB1 (P=1.05×10-13) at 1p32.2, and MIR4466 (P=5.34×10-8) at 6q25.3 for pulse pressure. The BNC2 (P=3.57×10-8) gene was also significant for mean arterial pressure.We identified 2 novel BP loci and 6 genes through the examination of single nucleotide polymorphism- and gene-based interactions with potassium.
Project description:We performed genome-wide analyses to identify genomic loci that interact with sodium to influence blood pressure (BP) using single-marker-based (1 and 2 df joint tests) and gene-based tests among 1876 Chinese participants of the Genetic Epidemiology Network of Salt-Sensitivity (GenSalt) study. Among GenSalt participants, the average of 3 urine samples was used to estimate sodium excretion. Nine BP measurements were taken using a random zero sphygmomanometer. A total of 2.05 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms were imputed using Affymetrix 6.0 genotype data and the Chinese Han of Beijing and Japanese of Tokyo HapMap reference panel. Promising findings (P<1.00×10(-4)) from GenSalt were evaluated for replication among 775 Chinese participants of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Single-nucleotide polymorphism and gene-based results were meta-analyzed across the GenSalt and MESA studies to determine genome-wide significance. The 1 df tests identified interactions for UST rs13211840 on diastolic BP (P=3.13×10(-9)). The 2 df tests additionally identified associations for CLGN rs2567241 (P=3.90×10(-12)) and LOC105369882 rs11104632 (P=4.51×10(-8)) with systolic BP. The CLGN variant rs2567241 was also associated with diastolic BP (P=3.11×10(-22)) and mean arterial pressure (P=2.86×10(-15)). Genome-wide gene-based analysis identified MKNK1 (P=6.70×10(-7)), C2orf80 (P<1.00×10(-12)), EPHA6 (P=2.88×10(-7)), SCOC-AS1 (P=4.35×10(-14)), SCOC (P=6.46×10(-11)), CLGN (P=3.68×10(-13)), MGAT4D (P=4.73×10(-11)), ARHGAP42 (P?1.00×10(-12)), CASP4 (P=1.31×10(-8)), and LINC01478 (P=6.75×10(-10)) that were associated with at least 1 BP phenotype. In summary, we identified 8 novel and 1 previously reported BP loci through the examination of single-nucleotide polymorphism and gene-based interactions with sodium.
Project description:Previous studies have shown that genetic factors might have an important role in blood pressure (BP) responses to dietary salt or potassium intake. The aim of this study was to assess the association of common genetic variants of the adiponectin gene with BP responses to controlled dietary sodium or potassium interventions. Subjects (n=334) from 124 families in rural areas of Northern China were recruited. After a 3-day baseline observation, participants sequentially maintained a 7-day low-sodium diet (NaCl, 3?g per day; or sodium, 51.3?mmol per day), followed by a 7-day high-sodium diet (NaCl, 18?g per day; or sodium, 307.8?mmol per day) and a 7-day high-sodium plus potassium supplementation intervention (KCl, 4.5?g per day; or potassium, 60?mmol per day). A total of seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the adiponectin gene were selected as the study sites. After adjustment for multiple testing, the adiponectin SNP rs16861205 was significantly associated with the diastolic BP (DBP) response to low-salt intervention, and the DBP and mean arterial pressure (MAP) responses to high-salt intervention (P=0.028, 0.023 and 0.027, respectively). SNP rs822394 was associated with the DBP and MAP responses to low-salt intervention and the DBP response to high-salt intervention (P=0.023, 0.030 and 0.033 respectively). Meanwhile, significant association also existed between SNP rs16861194 and the systolic BP response to potassium supplementation intervention (P=0.026). In addition, SNP rs822394 was significantly associated with basal DBP after adjustment for multiple testing (P=0.033). Our study indicated that the genetic polymorphisms in the adiponectin gene are significantly associated with BP responses to dietary sodium and potassium intake.
Project description:We examined the association between 12 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the alpha-adducin (ADD1) and guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein) beta-polypeptide 3 (GNB3) genes and systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP), and mean arterial (MAP) pressure responses to salt intake.A 7-day low-sodium (51.3 mmol sodium/day) followed by a 7-day high-sodium intervention (307.8 mmol sodium/day) was conducted among 1,906 Han participants from rural North China. Blood pressure (BP) measurements were obtained at baseline and at the end of each intervention period using a random-zero sphygmomanometer.We identified a significant association between a rare ADD1 variant rs17833172 and SBP, DBP, and MAP responses to high sodium (P values <0.0001) and DBP response to low sodium (P value = 0.002). Participants homozygous for the variant A allele of this marker had SBP, DBP, and MAP responses (95% confidence interval) to high salt of 1.6 (-1.8, 4.9), -0.8 (-5.6, 4.0), and -0.1 (-4.0, 3.9) mm Hg, respectively, vs. corresponding responses of 4.6 (2.5, 6.6), 1.7 (-0.2, 3.6), and 2.7 (0.9, 4.4) mm Hg, respectively, for those who were heterozygous or homozygous for the G allele. In addition, participants with at least one copy of the A allele of SNP rs1129649 of the GNB3 gene had significantly decreased MAP response to low salt compared to homozygotes for the C allele (P value = 0.004) with responses of -3.4 (-3.8, -3.0) vs. -4.2 (-4.6, -3.8) mm Hg, respectively.These data support a role for the ADD1 and GNB3 genes in BP salt sensitivity. Future studies aimed at replicating these novel findings are warranted.
Project description:BACKGROUND We examined the association between 14 endothelial system genes and salt-sensitivity of blood pressure (BP). METHODS After a 3-day baseline examination, during which time the usual diet was consumed, 1,906 Chinese participants received a 7-day low-sodium diet (51.3 mmol of sodium/day) followed by a 7-day high-sodium diet (307.8 mmol of sodium/day). BP measurements were obtained at baseline and at the end of each intervention using a random-zero sphygmomanometer. RESULTS The DDAH1 rs11161637 variant was associated with reduced BP salt sensitivity, conferring attenuated systolic BP (SBP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) decreases from baseline to the low-sodium intervention (both P = 2×10(-4)). Examination of genotype-sex interactions revealed that this relation was driven by the strong associations observed in men (P for interactions = 1.10×10(-4) and 0.008, respectively). When switching from the low- to high-sodium intervention, increases in diastolic BP (DBP) and MAP were attenuated by the COL18A1 rs2838944 minor A allele (P = 1.41×10(-4) and 1.55×10(-4), respectively). Conversely, the VWF rs2239153 C variant was associated with increased salt sensitivity, conferring larger DBP and MAP reductions during low-sodium intervention (P = 1.22×10(-4) and 4.44×10(-5), respectively). Ten variants from 3 independent SELE loci displayed significant genotype-sex interactions on DBP and MAP responses to low-sodium (P for interaction = 1.56×10(-3) to 1.00×10(-4)). Among men, minor alleles of 4 correlated markers attenuated BP responses to low-sodium intake, whereas minor alleles of another 4 correlated markers increased BP responses. No associations were observed in women for these variants. Further, qualitative interactions were shown for 2 correlated SELE markers. CONCLUSIONS These data support a role for the endothelial system genes in salt sensitivity.
Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4>To evaluate the effects of a low-sodium and high-potassium salt-substitute on lowering blood pressure (BP) among Tibetans living at high altitude (4300 meters).<h4>Method</h4>The study was a patient-blinded randomized controlled trial conducted between February and May 2009 in Dangxiong County, Tibetan Autonomous Region, China. A total of 282 Tibetans aged 40 or older with known hypertension (systolic BP?140 mmHg) were recruited and randomized to intervention (salt-substitute, 65% sodium chloride, 25% potassium chloride and 10% magnesium sulfate) or control (100% sodium chloride) in a 1: 1 allocation ratio with three months' supply. Primary outcome was defined as the change in BP levels measured from baseline to followed-up with an automated sphygmomanometer. Per protocol (PP) and intention to treat (ITT) analyses were conducted.<h4>Results</h4>After the three months' intervention period, the net reduction in SBP/DBP in the intervention group in comparison to the control group was -8.2/-3.4 mmHg (all p<0.05) in PP analysis, after adjusting for baseline BP and other variables. ITT analysis showed the net reduction in SBP/DBP at -7.6/-3.5 mmHg with multiple imputations (all p<0.05). Furthermore, the whole distribution of blood pressure showed an overall decline in SBP/DBP and the proportion of patients with BP under control (SBP/DBP<140 mmHg) was significantly higher in salt-substitute group in comparison to the regular salt group (19.2% vs. 8.8%, p?=?0.027).<h4>Conclusion</h4>Low sodium high potassium salt-substitute is effective in lowering both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and offers a simple, low-cost approach for hypertension control among Tibetans in China.<h4>Trial registration</h4>ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01429246.