Quantitative contribution of efflux to multi-drug resistance of clinical Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Efflux pumps mediate antimicrobial resistance in several WHO critical priority bacterial pathogens. However, most available data come from laboratory strains. The quantitative relevance of efflux in more relevant clinical isolates remains largely unknown. METHODS:We developed a versatile method for genetic engineering in multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacteria, and used this method to delete tolC and specific antibiotic-resistance genes in 18 representative MDR clinical E. coli isolates. We determined efflux activity and minimal inhibitory concentrations for a diverse set of clinically relevant antibiotics in these mutants. We also deleted oprM in MDR P. aeruginosa strains and determined the impact on antibiotic susceptibility. FINDINGS:tolC deletion abolished detectable efflux activity in 15 out of 18 tested E. coli strains, and modulated antibiotic susceptibility in many strains. However, all mutant strains retained MDR status, primarily because of other, antibiotic-specific resistance genes. Deletion of oprM altered antibiotic susceptibility in a fraction of clinical P. aeruginosa isolates. INTERPRETATION:Efflux modulates antibiotic resistance in clinical MDR isolates of E. coli and P. aeruginosa. However, when other antimicrobial-resistance mechanisms are present, inhibition of MDR efflux pumps alone is often not sufficient to restore full susceptibility even for antibiotics with a dramatic impact of efflux in laboratory strains. We propose that development of novel antibiotics should include target validation in clinical MDR isolates. FUND: Innovative Medicines Initiative of European Union and EFPIA, Schweizerischer Nationalfonds, Swiss National Research Program 72, EU Marie Sk?odowska-Curie program. The funders played no role in design, data collection, data analysis, interpretation, writing of the report, and in the decision to submit the paper for publication.
Project description:MexAB-OprM and MexEF-OprN are Pseudomonas aeruginosa efflux pumps involved in the development of antibiotic resistance. Several studies developed with laboratory strains or using a few clinical isolates have reported that the regulation system of MexEF-OprN is involved in the final levels of MexAB-OprM expression. Therefore, this study was aimed to determine the interplay between MexAB-OprM and MexEF-OprN in 90 out of 190?P. aeruginosa clinical isolates with an efflux pump overexpression phenotype. Regarding oprD, 33% (30/90) of isolates displayed relevant modifications (RM) defined as frameshift or premature stop, both related to carbapenem resistance. On the other hand, 33% of the isolates displayed RM in nalC, nalD or mexR, which were significantly associated with multidrug resistance (MDR), non-susceptibility to carbapenems, OprD alterations and strong biofilm production. Meanwhile, the RM in MexS were associated with presence of pigment (p?=?0.004). Otherwise, when all the regulators were analysed together, the association between RM in MexAB-OprM regulators and MDR was only significant (p?=?0.039) when mexS was the wild type. These data show the modulatory effect of MexEF-OprN on MexAB-OprM in a clinical population of P. aeruginosa. Further studies may contribute to design of novel molecules acting on this interplay to fight against antimicrobial resistance.
Project description:In this study, the correlation between the antibiotic resistance genes and antibiotic susceptibility among the carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative pathogens (CRGNPs) recovered from patients diagnosed with acute pneumonia in Egypt was found. A total of 194 isolates including <i>Klebsiella pneumoniae</i> (89; 46%), <i>Escherichia coli</i> (47; 24%) and <i>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</i> (58; 30%) were recovered. Of these, 34 (18%) isolates were multiple drug resistant (MDR) and carbapenem resistant. For the <i>K. pneumoniae</i> MDR isolates (n = 22), <i>bla</i><sub>NDM</sub> (14; 64%) was the most prevalent carbapenemase, followed by <i>bla</i><sub>OXA-48</sub> (11; 50%) and <i>bla</i><sub>VIM</sub> (4; 18%). A significant association (<i>p</i> value < 0.05) was observed between the multidrug efflux pump (AcrA) and resistance to β-lactams and the aminoglycoside acetyl transferase gene (<i>aac-6'-Ib</i>) gene and resistance to ciprofloxacin, azithromycin and β-lactams (except for aztreonam). For <i>P. aeruginosa</i>, a significant association was noticed between the presence of the <i>bla</i><sub>SHV</sub> gene and the multidrug efflux pump (MexA) and resistance to fluoroquinolones, amikacin, tobramycin, co-trimoxazole and β-lactams and between the <i>aac-6'-Ib</i> gene and resistance to aminoglycosides. All <i>P. aeruginosa</i> isolates (100%) harbored the MexAB-OprM multidrug efflux pump while 86% of the <i>K. pneumoniae</i> isolates harbored the AcrAB-TolC pump. Our results are of great medical importance for the guidance of healthcare practitioners for effective antibiotic prescription.
Project description:Antimicrobial resistance poses a threat in the treatment of infectious diseases in Bangladesh as well as in the world. Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Enterobacteriaceae, the most common cause of one such infectious disease, urinary tract infection (UTI), has contributed to the escalating problem of selecting empiric antibiotics against UTIs. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of the efflux pump in MDR Escherichia coli isolates from UTI in the North-East region of Bangladesh, to isolate and characterize the AcrAB-TolC efflux pump genes of these locally isolated strains and to do mutation analysis of the efflux pump repressor AcrR gene to understand the AcrAB-TolC efflux pump mechanism. In the presence of omeprazole, an efflux pump inhibitor, every MDR E. coli isolate showed increased susceptibility to at least 1 of the 7 antibiotics investigated, indicating that efflux pump might be involved in their antibiotic resistance. Omeprazole decreased the minimum inhibitory concentration of every antibiotics being investigated by 2- to 8-fold. DNA and the deduced amino acid sequences of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products analyzed by bioinformatics tools revealed that the chromosomal AcrAB-TolC and AcrR genes were present in all MDR and antibiotic-susceptible E. coli isolates. However, the deduced amino acid sequences of the amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS) PCR product of the AcrR gene revealed that the substitution of arginine to cysteine at position 45 of AcrR was observed only in the MDR E. coli whose antibiotic susceptibility increased in the presence of omeprazole. Data reported herein support the notion that the increased antibiotic susceptibility of the MDR E. coli isolates in the presence of omeprazole might be due to efflux pump(s) inhibition and the AcrAB-TolC efflux pump might be a contributor to antibiotic resistance when the mutation of arginine to cysteine occurs at position 45 of AcrR.
Project description:Resistance-Nodulation-Division (RND) efflux pumps are responsible for multidrug resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In this study, we demonstrate that CpxR, previously identified as a regulator of the cell envelope stress response in Escherichia coli, is directly involved in activation of expression of RND efflux pump MexAB-OprM in P. aeruginosa. A conserved CpxR binding site was identified upstream of the mexA promoter in all genome-sequenced P. aeruginosa strains. CpxR is required to enhance mexAB-oprM expression and drug resistance, in the absence of repressor MexR, in P. aeruginosa strains PA14. As defective mexR is a genetic trait associated with the clinical emergence of nalB-type multidrug resistance in P. aeruginosa during antibiotic treatment, we investigated the involvement of CpxR in regulating multidrug resistance among resistant isolates generated in the laboratory via antibiotic treatment and collected in clinical settings. CpxR is required to activate expression of mexAB-oprM and enhances drug resistance, in the absence or presence of MexR, in ofloxacin-cefsulodin-resistant isolates generated in the laboratory. Furthermore, CpxR was also important in the mexR-defective clinical isolates. The newly identified regulatory linkage between CpxR and the MexAB-OprM efflux pump highlights the presence of a complex regulatory network modulating multidrug resistance in P. aeruginosa.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Multidrug resistance Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MDR-P. aeruginosa) is a worldwide threat for public health. Hyperexpression of efflux pump systems (MexAB-OprM and MexCD-OprJ), which is a well-known mechanisms for MDR emerging, is controlled by regulatory genes, mexR and nfxB, respectively. The aim of this study was to evaluate point mutations in mexR and nfxB genes in MDR- P. aeruginosa isolated from wound infections. MATERIALS AND METHODS:A total of 34 P. aeruginosa cultures obtained from wound infections were analyzed. Among them eight isolates identified as MDR-P. aeruginosa and were subjected to determination of mutations in mexR and nfxB genes. RESULTS:We detected eight-point mutations in mexR and 12-point mutations in nfxB. The most common mutations were common G327-A (eight isolates), G384-A (eight isolates), G411-A (eight isolates). Mutations in A371-C and A372-C were the predominant substitution which was seen in nfxB. Amino acid substitutions were also found at position 124 and 126 for NfxB and MexR, respectively. CONCLUSIONS:P. aeruginosa isolates with mutation in efflux pump regulatory genes such as mexR and nfxB could be a main factor contributed to antibiotic resistance and must be considered in antibiotic treatment.
Project description:Clinical strains of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia are often highly resistant to multiple antibiotics, although the mechanisms of resistance are generally poorly understood. Multidrug resistant (MDR) strains were readily selected by plating a sensitive reference strain of the organism individually onto a variety of antibiotics, including tetracycline, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, and norfloxacin. Tetracycline-selected MDR strains typically showed cross-resistance to erythromycin and fluoroquinolones and, in some instances, aminoglycosides. MDR mutants selected with the other agents generally displayed resistance to chloramphenicol and fluoroquinolones only, although two MDR strains (e.g., K1385) were also resistant to erythromycin and hypersusceptible to aminoglycosides. Many of the MDR strains expressed either moderate or high levels of a novel outer membrane protein (OMP) of ca. 50 kDa molecular mass, a phenotype typical of MDR strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa hyperexpressing drug efflux systems. Indeed, the 50-kDa OMP of these S. maltophilia MDR strains reacted with antibody to OprM, the outer membrane component of the MexAB-OprM MDR efflux system of P. aeruginosa. Similarly, a ca. 110-kDa cytoplasmic membrane protein of these MDR strains also reacted with antibody to the MexB component of the P. aeruginosa pump. The outer and cytoplasmic membranes of several clinical S. maltophilia strains also reacted with the anti-OprM and anti-MexB antibodies. N-terminal amino acid sequencing of a cyanogen bromide-generated peptide of the 50-kDa OMP of MDR strain K1385, dubbed SmeM (Stenotrophomonas multidrug efflux), revealed it to be very similar to a number of outer membrane multidrug efflux components of P. aeruginosa and Pseudomonas putida. Deletion of the L1 and L2 beta-lactamase genes confirmed that these enzymes were responsible for the bulk of the beta-lactam resistance of K1385 and its parent. Still, overexpression of the MDR efflux mechanism in an L1- and L2-deficient derivative of K1385 did yield a modest increase in resistance to a few beta-lactams. These data are consistent with the MDR efflux mechanism(s) playing a role in the multidrug resistance of S. maltophilia.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:The present study was undertaken to investigate the mutations that are present in mexR gene of multidrug resistant (MDR) isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa collected from a tertiary referral hospital of north east India. METHODS:76 MDR clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa were obtained from the patients who were admitted to or attended the clinics of Silchar medical college and hospital. They were screened phenotypically for the presence of efflux pump activity by an inhibitor based method. Acquired resistance mechanisms were detected by multiplex PCR. Real time PCR was performed to study the expression of mexA gene of MexAB-OprM efflux pump in isolates with increase efflux pump activity. mexR gene of the isolates with overexpressed MexAB-OprM efflux pump was amplified, sequenced and analysed. RESULTS:Out of 76 MDR isolates, 24 were found to exhibit efflux pump activity phenotypically against ciprofloxacin and meropenem. Acquired resistance mechanisms were absent in 11 of them and among those isolates, 8 of them overexpressed MexAB-OprM. All the 8 isolates possessed mutation in mexR gene. 11 transversions, 4 transitions, 2 deletion mutations and 2 insertion mutations were found in all the isolates. However, the most significant observation was the formation of a termination codon at 35th position which resulted in the termination of the polypeptide and leads to overexpression of the MexAB-OprM efflux pump. CONCLUSIONS:This study highlighted emergence of a novel mutation which is probably associated with multi drug resistance. Therefore, further investigations and actions are needed to prevent or at least hold back the expansion and emergence of newer mutations in nosocomial pathogens which may compromise future treatment options.
Project description:Gram-negative bacteria partly rely on efflux pumps to facilitate growth under stressful conditions and to increase resistance to a wide variety of commonly used drugs. In recent years, <i>Escherichia coli</i> sequence type 131 (ST131) has emerged as a major cause of extraintestinal infection frequently exhibiting a multidrug resistance (MDR) phenotype. The contribution of efflux to MDR in emerging <i>E. coli</i> MDR clones, however, is not well studied. We characterized strains from an international collection of clinical MDR <i>E. coli</i> isolates by MIC testing with and without the addition of the AcrAB-TolC efflux inhibitor 1-(1-naphthylmethyl)-piperazine (NMP). MIC data for 6 antimicrobial agents and their reversion by NMP were analyzed by principal-component analysis (PCA). PCA revealed a group of 17 MDR <i>E. coli</i> isolates (<i>n</i> = 34) exhibiting increased susceptibility to treatment with NMP, suggesting an enhanced contribution of efflux pumps to antimicrobial resistance in these strains (termed enhanced efflux phenotype [EEP] strains). Only 1/17 EEP strains versus 12/17 non-EEP MDR strains belonged to the ST131 clonal group. Whole-genome sequencing revealed marked differences in efflux-related genes between EEP and control strains, with the majority of notable amino acid substitutions occurring in AcrR, MarR, and SoxR. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) of multiple efflux-related genes showed significant overexpression of the AcrAB-TolC system in EEP strains, whereas in the remaining strains, we found enhanced expression of alternative efflux proteins. We conclude that a proportion of MDR <i>E. coli</i> strains exhibit an EEP, which is linked to an overexpression of the AcrAB-TolC efflux pump and a distinct array of genomic variations. Members of ST131, although highly successful, are less likely to exhibit the EEP.
Project description:Multidrug membrane transporters (efflux pumps) are responsible for multidrug resistance (MDR) and the low efficacy of therapeutic drugs. Noble metal nanoparticles (NPs) possess a high surface-area-to-volume ratio and size-dependent plasmonic optical properties, enabling them to serve both as imaging probes to study sized-dependent MDR and as potential drug carriers to circumvent MDR and enhance therapeutic efficacy. To this end, in this study, we synthesized three different sizes of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs), 2.4 ± 0.7, 13.0 ± 3.1, and 92.6 ± 4.4 nm, functionalized their surface with a monolayer of 11-amino-1-undecanethiol (AUT), and covalently conjugated them with antibiotics (ofloxacin, Oflx) to prepare antibiotic drug nanocarriers with conjugation ratios of 8.6 × 102, 9.4 × 103, and 6.5 × 105 Oflx molecules per NP, respectively. We purified and characterized the nanocarriers and developed cell culture medium in which the cells grew normally and the nanocarriers were stable (non-aggregated), to quantitatively study the size, dose, and efflux pump (MexAB-OprM) dependent inhibitory effect of the nanocarriers against two strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, WT (normal expression of MexAB-OprM) and ?ABM (deletion of MexAB-OprM). We found that the inhibitory effect of these nanocarriers highly depended on the sizes of NPs, the doses of antibiotic, and the expression of MexAB-OprM. The same amount of Oflx on the largest nanocarriers (92.6 ± 4.4 nm) showed the highest inhibitory effect (the lowest minimal inhibitory concentration) against P. aeruginosa. Surprisingly, the smallest nanocarriers (2.4 ± 0.7 nm) exhibited a lower inhibitory effect than free Oflx. The results suggest that size-dependent multivalent effects, the distribution and localization of Oflx (pharmacodynamics), and the efflux of Oflx all play a role in the inhibitory effects. Control experiments using three sizes of AgMUNH2 NPs (absence of Oflx) showed that these NPs do not exhibit any significant inhibitory activity toward both strains. These new findings demonstrate the need for and possibility of designing optimal sized antibiotic nanocarriers to achieve the highest efficacy against P. aeruginosa.
Project description:Aminoglycosides are widely used to treat infections of <i>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</i>. Genes encoding aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes (AMEs), acquired by horizontal gene transfer, are commonly associated with aminoglycoside resistance, but their effects have not been quantified. The aim of this research was to determine the extent to which AMEs increase the antibiotic tolerance of <i>P. aeruginosa</i>. Bioinformatics analysis identified AME-encoding genes in 48 out of 619 clinical isolates of <i>P. aeruginosa</i>, with <i>ant(2')-Ia</i> and <i>aac(6')-Ib3</i>, which are associated with tobramcyin and gentamicin resistance, being the most common. These genes and <i>aph(3')-VIa</i> (amikacin resistance) were deleted from antibiotic-resistant strains. Antibiotic minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were reduced by up to 64-fold, making the mutated bacteria antibiotic-sensitive in several cases. Introduction of the same genes into four antibiotic-susceptible <i>P. aeruginosa</i> strains increased the MIC by up to 128-fold, making the bacteria antibiotic-resistant in all cases. The cloned genes also increased the MIC in mutants lacking the MexXY-OprM efflux pump, which is an important contributor to aminoglycoside resistance, demonstrating that AMEs and this efflux pump act independently in determining levels of aminoglycoside tolerance. Quantification of the effects of AMEs on antibiotic susceptibility demonstrates the large effect that these enzymes have on antibiotic resistance.