Influence of blood meal and age of mosquitoes on susceptibility to pyrethroids in Anopheles gambiae from Western Kenya.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Physiological characteristics (age and blood feeding status) of malaria vectors can influence their susceptibility to the current vector control tools that target their feeding and resting behaviour. To ensure the sustainability of the current and future vector control tools an understanding of how physiological characteristics may contribute to insecticide tolerance in the field is fundamental for shaping resistance management strategies and vector control tools. The aim of this study was to determine whether blood meal and mosquito age affect pyrethroid tolerance in field-collected Anopheles gambiae from western Kenya. METHODS:Wild mosquito larvae were reared to adulthood alongside the pyrethroid-susceptible Kisumu strain. Adult females from the two populations were monitored for deltamethrin resistance when they were young at 2-5 days old and older 14-16 days old and whether fed or unfed for each age group. Metabolic assays were also performed to determine the level of detoxification enzymes. Mosquito specimens were further identified to species level using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. RESULTS:Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto was the predominant species comprising 96% of specimens and 2.75% Anopheles arabiensis. Bioassay results showed reduced pyrethroid induced mortality with younger mosquitoes compared to older ones (mortality rates 83% vs. 98%), independently of their feeding status. Reduced mortality was recorded with younger females of which were fed compared to their unfed counterparts of the same age with a mortality rate of 35.5% vs. 83%. Older blood-fed females showed reduced susceptibility after exposure when compared to unfed females of the same age (mortality rates 86% vs. 98%). For the Kisumu susceptible population, mortality was straight 100% regardless of age and blood feeding status. Blood feeding status and mosquito age had an effect on enzyme levels in both populations, with blood fed individuals showing higher enzyme elevations compared to their unfed counterparts (P < 0.0001). The interaction between mosquito age and blood fed status had significant effect on mosquito mortality. CONCLUSION:The results showed that mosquito age and blood feeding status confers increased tolerance to insecticides as blood feeding may be playing an important role in the toxicity of deltamethrin, allowing mosquitoes to rest on insecticide-treated materials despite treatment. These may have implications for the sustained efficacy of indoor residual spraying and insecticide-treated nets based control programmes that target indoor resting female mosquitoes of various gonotrophic status.
Project description:BACKGROUND:There is substantial concern that the spread of insecticide resistance will render long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs) ineffective. However, there is limited evidence supporting a clear association between insecticide resistance and malaria incidence or prevalence in the field. We suggest that one reason for this disconnect is that the standard WHO assays used in surveillance to classify mosquito populations as resistant are not designed to determine how resistance might impact LLIN efficacy. The standard assays expose young, unfed female mosquitoes to a diagnostic insecticide dose in a single, forced exposure, whereas in the field, mosquitoes vary in their age, blood-feeding status, and the frequency or intensity of LLIN exposure. These more realistic conditions could ultimately impact the capacity of "resistant" mosquitoes to transmit malaria. METHODS:Here, we test this hypothesis using two different assays that allow female mosquitoes to contact a LLIN as they host-seek and blood-feed. We quantified mortality after both single and multiple exposures, using seven different strains of Anopheles ranging in pyrethroid resistance intensity. RESULTS:We found that strains classified as 1×-resistant to the pyrethroid insecticide deltamethrin in the standard WHO assay exhibited >?90% mortality over 24 h following more realistic LLIN contact. Mosquitoes that were able to blood-feed had increased survival compared to their unfed counterparts, but none of the 1×-resistant strains survived for 12 days post-exposure (the typical period for malaria parasite development within the mosquito). Mosquitoes that were 5×- and 10×-resistant (i.e. moderate or high intensity resistance based on the WHO assays) survived a single LLIN exposure well. However, only about 2-3% of these mosquitoes survived multiple exposures over the course of 12 days and successfully blood-fed during the last exposure. CONCLUSIONS:These results suggest that the standard assays provide limited insight into how resistance might impact LLIN efficacy. In our laboratory setting, there appears little functional consequence of 1×-resistance and even mosquitoes with moderate (5×) or high (10×) intensity resistance can suffer substantial reduction in transmission potential. Monitoring efforts should focus on better characterizing intensity of resistance to inform resistance management strategies and prioritize deployment of next generation vector control products.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Since the World Health Organization (WHO) adopted the use of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) as a principal strategy for effective malaria prevention and control, pyrethroids have been the only class of insecticides used for LLINs. The dramatic success of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) and LLINs in African countries, however, has been threatened by the rapid development of pyrethroid resistance in vector mosquitoes. ITNs and LLINs are still used as effective self-protection measures, but there have been few studies on the effectiveness of ITNs and LLINs in areas where vector mosquitoes are pyrethroid-resistant. METHODS: To investigate the behavioral pattern of mosquitoes in the houses where LLINs were used, indoor mosquito trappings of Anopheles gambiae s.s., An. arabiensis, and An. funestus s.s. were performed with Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) miniature light trap equipped with a collection bottle rotator at 2-hour intervals between 4:00?pm and 8:00?am. The trapped female mosquitoes were identified and classified as unfed, blood fed, and gravid. The abdominal contents of fed female mosquitoes were used for DNA extractions to identify the blood source. RESULTS: A large proportion of human blood feeding of An. arabiensis and An. funestus s.s. (but not An. gambiae s.s.) took place during the time people were active outside LLINs. However, during the hours when people were beneath LLINs, these provided protective efficacy as indicated by reduced human blood feeding rates. CONCLUSION: LLINs provided effective protection against pyrethroid-resistant malaria vector populations during bedtime hours. However, protection of LLINs was insufficient during the hours when people were active outside of the bed nets. Such limitation of LLINs will need to be intensively addressed in African countries in the near future.
Project description:Insecticide resistance monitoring in malaria mosquitoes is essential for guiding the rational use of insecticides in vector control programs. Resistance bioassay is the first step for insecticide monitoring and it lays an important foundation for molecular examination of resistance mechanisms. In the literature, various mosquito sample collection and preparation methods have been used, but how mosquito sample collection and preparation methods affect insecticide susceptibility bioassay results is largely unknown. The objectives of this study were to determine whether mosquito sample collection and preparation methods affected bioassay results, which may cause incorrect classification of mosquito resistance status.The study was conducted in Anopheles sinensis mosquitoes in two study sites in central China. Three mosquito sample collection and preparation methods were compared for insecticide susceptibility, kdr frequencies and metabolic enzyme activities: 1) adult mosquitoes collected from the field; 2) F1 adults from field collected, blood-fed mosquitoes; and 3) adult mosquitoes reared from field collected larvae.Mosquito sample collection and preparation methods significantly affected mortality rates in the standard WHO tube resistance bioassay. Mortality rate of field-collected female adults was 10-15% higher than in mosquitoes reared from field-collected larvae and F1 adults from field collected blood-fed females. This pattern was consistent in mosquitoes from the two study sites. High kdr mutation frequency (85-95%) with L1014F allele as the predominant mutation was found in our study populations. Field-collected female adults consistently exhibited the highest monooxygenase and GST activities. The higher mortality rate observed in the field-collected female mosquitoes may have been caused by a mixture of mosquitoes of different ages, as older mosquitoes were more susceptible to deltamethrin than younger mosquitoes.Female adults reared from field-collected larvae in resistance bioassays are recommended to minimize the effect of confounding factors such as mosquito age and blood feeding status so that more reliable and reproducible mortality may be obtained.
Project description:Recent successes in malaria control have been largely attributable to the deployment of insecticide-based vector control tools such as bed nets and indoor residual spraying. Pyrethroid-treated bed nets are acutely neurotoxic to mosquitoes, inducing symptoms such as loss of coordination, paralysis, and violent spasms. One result of pyrethroid exposure often seen in laboratory tests is mosquito leg loss, a condition that has thus far been assumed to equate to mortality, as females are not expected to blood feed. However, whilst limb loss is unlikely to be adaptive, females with missing limbs may play a role in the propagation of both their species and pathogens. To test the hypothesis that leg loss inhibits mosquitoes from biting and reproducing, mosquitoes with one, two, or six legs were evaluated for their success in feeding upon a human. These experiments demonstrated that insecticide-induced leg loss had no significant effect upon blood feeding or egg laying success. We conclude that studies of pyrethroid efficacy should not discount mosquitoes that survive insecticide exposure with fewer than six legs, as they may still be capable of biting humans, reproducing, and contributing to malaria transmission.
Project description:Royal Guard is a new insecticide-treated bed-net incorporated with a mixture of alpha-cypermethrin and pyriproxyfen (an insect growth regulator). We assessed its efficacy and wash-resistance in laboratory and experimental hut studies following WHO guidelines. Mosquitoes that survived exposure to the net were kept in separate oviposition chambers and observed for the reproductive effects of pyriproxyfen. In laboratory assays, Royal Guard induced?>?80% mortality and?>?90% blood-feeding inhibition of An. gambiae sl mosquitoes before and after 20 standardised washes and sterilised blood-fed mosquitoes which remained alive after exposure to the net. In an experimental hut trial against wild free-flying pyrethroid-resistant An. gambiae sl in Cové Benin, Royal Guard through the pyrethroid component induced comparable levels of mortality and blood-feeding inhibition to a standard pyrethroid-only treated net before and after 20 washes and sterilised large proportions of surviving blood-fed female mosquitoes through the pyriproxyfen component; Royal Guard induced 83% reduction in oviposition and 95% reduction in offspring before washing and 25% reduction in oviposition and 50% reduction in offspring after 20 washes. Royal Guard has the potential to improve malaria vector control and provide better community protection against clinical malaria in pyrethroid-resistant areas compared to standard pyrethroid-only LLINs.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The effectiveness of insecticide-treated nets in preventing malaria is threatened by developing resistance against pyrethroids. Little is known about how strongly this affects the effectiveness of vector control programmes. METHODS: Data from experimental hut studies on the effects of long-lasting, insecticidal nets (LLINs) on nine anopheline mosquito populations, with varying levels of mortality in World Health Organization susceptibility tests, were used to parameterize malaria models. Both simple static models predicting population-level insecticidal effectiveness and protection against blood feeding, and complex dynamic epidemiological models, where LLINs decayed over time, were used. The epidemiological models, implemented in OpenMalaria, were employed to study the impact of a single mass distribution of LLINs on malaria, both in terms of episodes prevented during the effective lifetime of the batch of LLINs, and in terms of net health benefits (NHB) expressed in disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) averted during that period, depending on net type (standard pyrethroid-only LLIN or pyrethroid-piperonyl butoxide combination LLIN), resistance status, coverage and pre-intervention transmission level. RESULTS: There were strong positive correlations between insecticide susceptibility status and predicted population level insecticidal effectiveness of and protection against blood feeding by LLIN intervention programmes. With the most resistant mosquito population, the LLIN mass distribution averted up to about 40% fewer episodes and DALYs during the effective lifetime of the batch than with fully susceptible populations. However, cost effectiveness of LLINs was more sensitive to the pre-intervention transmission level and coverage than to susceptibility status. For four out of the six Anopheles gambiae sensu lato populations where direct comparisons between standard LLINs and combination LLINs were possible, combination nets were more cost effective, despite being more expensive. With one resistant population, both net types were equally effective, and with one of the two susceptible populations, standard LLINs were more cost effective. CONCLUSION: Despite being less effective when compared to areas with susceptible mosquito populations, standard and combination LLINs are likely to (still) be cost effective against malaria even in areas with strong pyrethroid resistance. Combination nets are likely to be more cost effective than standard nets in areas with resistant mosquito populations.
Project description:Malaria control today is threatened by widespread insecticide resistance in vector populations. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends the use of a mixture of unrelated insecticides for indoor residual spraying (IRS) and long-lasting insecticidal nets (LNs) or as a combination of interventions for improved vector control and insecticide resistance management. Studies investigating the efficacy of these different strategies are necessary.The efficacy of Interceptor® G2 LN, a newly developed LN treated with a mixture of chlorfenapyr (a pyrrole) and alpha-cypermethrin (a pyrethroid), was compared to a combined chlorfenapyr IRS and Interceptor® LN (a standard alpha-cypermethrin LN) intervention in experimental huts in Cove Southern Benin, against wild, free-flying, pyrethroid-resistant Anopheles gambiae s.l. A direct comparison was also made with a pyrethroid-only net (Interceptor® LN) alone and chorfenapyr IRS alone.WHO resistance bioassays performed during the trial demonstrated a pyrethroid resistance frequency of >90% in the wild An. gambiae s.l. from the Cove hut site. Mortality in the control (untreated net) hut was 5%. Mortality with Interceptor® LN (24%) was lower than with chlorfenapyr IRS alone (59%, P < 0.001). The combined Interceptor® LN and chlorfenapyr IRS intervention and the mixture net (Interceptor® G2 LN) provided significantly higher mortality rates (73 and 76%, respectively) and these did not differ significantly between both treatments (P = 0.15). Interceptor LN induced 46% blood-feeding inhibition compared to the control untreated net, while chlorfenapyr IRS alone provided none. Both mixture/combination strategies also induced substantial levels of blood-feeding inhibition (38% with combined interventions and 30% with Interceptor® G2 LN). A similar trend of improved mortality of pyrethroid-resistant An. gambiae s.l. from Cove was observed with Interceptor® G2 LN (79%) compared to Interceptor LN (42%, P < 0.001) in WHO tunnel tests.The use of chlorfenapyr and alpha-cypermethrin together as a mixture on nets (Interceptor® G2 LN) or a combined chlorfenapyr IRS and pyrethroid LN intervention provides improved control of pyrethroid-resistant malaria vectors by inducing significantly higher levels of mortality through the chlorfenapyr component and providing personal protection through the pyrethroid component. Both strategies are comparable in their potential to improve the control of malaria transmitted by pyrethroid resistant mosquito vectors.
Project description:LLINs containing an insecticide plus the synergist, piperonyl butoxide (PBO) have been designed for increased efficacy against pyrethroid-resistant malaria vectors. In this study, two LLINs with PBO, PermaNet® 3.0 and Olyset® Plus, and a pyrethroid-only LLIN, Yorkool®, were evaluated in experimental huts against a free-flying, wild population of Anopheles gambiae s.l. in Kolokopé, a cotton cultivated area of Togo. WHO susceptibility tube tests and subsequent molecular assays determine the An. gambiae s.l. populations to be resistant to pyrethroids and DDT with both target site kdr and metabolic resistance mechanisms involved in the resistance observed. Anopheles gambiae s.s. and An. coluzzi were present in sympatry though the kdr (L1014F) mutation was observed at a higher frequency in An. gambiae s.s. The experimental hut results showed that both PermaNet® 3.0 and Olyset® Plus nets induced similar levels of deterrence, exophily, and reduced blood feeding rate against wild An. gambiae s.l. in contrast to the pyrethroid only LLIN, Yorkool®. The proportion of wild An. gambiae s.l. killed by unwashed PermaNet® 3.0 was significantly higher than unwashed Olyset® Plus (corrected mortality 80.5% compared to 66.6%). Similar blood feeding inhibition rates were observed for unwashed PermaNet® 3.0 and Olyset® Plus; however, PermaNet® 3.0 washed 20 times demonstrated significantly higher blood feeding inhibition rate than Olyset® Plus washed 20 times (91.1% compared with 85.6% respectively). Yorkool® performed the worst for all the parameters evaluated. In an area of pyrethroid resistance of An. gambiae s.l involving kdr target site and metabolic resistance mechanisms, LLINs with PBO can provide additional protection in terms of reduction in blood feeding and increase in mosquito mortality compared to a pyrethroid-only net, and should be considered in malaria vector control strategies.
Project description:The mosquito Aedes aegypti (L.) is vector of several arboviruses including dengue, yellow fever, chikungunya, and more recently zika. Previous transcriptomic studies have been performed to elucidate altered pathways in response to viral infection. However, the intrinsic coupling between alimentation and infection were unappreciated in these studies. Feeding is required for the initial mosquito contact with the virus and these events are highly dependent. Addressing this relationship, we reinterrogated datasets of virus-infected mosquitoes with two different diet schemes (fed and unfed mosquitoes), evaluating the metabolic cross-talk during both processes. We constructed coexpression networks with the differentially expressed genes of these comparison: virus-infected versus blood-fed mosquitoes and virus-infected versus unfed mosquitoes. Our analysis identified one module with 110 genes that correlated with infection status (representing ~0.7% of the A. aegypti genome). Furthermore, we performed a machine-learning approach and summarized the infection status using only four genes (AAEL012128, AAEL014210, AAEL002477, and AAEL005350). While three of the four genes were annotated as hypothetical proteins, AAEL012128 gene is a membrane amino acid transporter correlated with viral envelope binding. This gene alone is able to discriminate all infected samples and thus should have a key role to discriminate viral infection in the A. aegypti mosquito. Moreover, validation using external datasets found this gene as differentially expressed in four transcriptomic experiments. Therefore, these genes may serve as a proxy of viral infection in the mosquito and the others 106 identified genes provides a framework to future studies.
Project description:Background: Despite high coverage of indoor interventions like insecticide-treated nets, mosquito-borne infections persist, partly because of outdoor-biting, early-biting and insecticide-resistant vectors. Push-pull systems, where mosquitoes are repelled from humans and attracted to nearby lethal targets, may constitute effective complementary interventions. Methods: A partially randomized cross-over design was used to test efficacy of push-pull in four experimental huts and four local houses, in an area with high pyrethroid resistance in Tanzania. The push-pull system consisted of 1.1% or 2.2% w/v transfluthrin repellent dispensers and an outdoor lure-and-kill device (odour-baited mosquito landing box). Matching controls were set up without push-pull. Adult male volunteers collected mosquitoes attempting to bite them outdoors, but collections were also done indoors using exit traps in experimental huts and by volunteers in the local houses. The collections were done hourly (1830hrs-0730hrs) and mosquito catches compared between push-pull and controls. An. gambiae s.l. and An. funestus s.l. were assessed by PCR to identify sibling species, and ELISA to detect Plasmodium falciparum and blood meal sources. Results: Push-pull in experimental huts reduced outdoor-biting for An. arabiensis and Mansonia species by 30% and 41.5% respectively. However, the reductions were marginal and insignificant for An. funestus (12.2%; p>0.05) and Culex (5%; p>0.05). Highest protection against all species occurred before 2200hrs. There was no significant difference in number of mosquitoes inside exit traps in huts with or without push-pull. In local households, push-pull significantly reduced indoor and outdoor-biting of An. arabiensis by 48% and 25% respectively, but had no effect on other species. Conclusion: This push-pull system offered modest protection against outdoor-biting An. arabiensis, without increasing indoor mosquito densities. Additional experimentation is required to assess how transfluthrin-based products affect mosquito blood-feeding and mortality in push-pull contexts. This approach, if optimised, could potentially complement existing malaria interventions even in areas with high pyrethroid resistance.