Triple A syndrome: two siblings with a novel mutation in the AAAS gene.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:Triple A syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the AAAS gene on chromosome 12q13. Its main clinical features are alacrima, achalasia, and adrenal insufficiency, with most patients also having neurological symptoms and autonomic dysfunction. The neurologic manifestations are less well-understood, especially in children. Here, we examine two siblings who were found to have a novel mutation in the AAAS gene and who were found to have subtle, but important, neurologic findings. DESIGN:This is a case report of two siblings. RESULTS:We discuss two siblings exhibiting different signs of the disorder including neurologic dysfunction found at varying ages. Genetic analysis revealed that both patients have the same compound heterozygous mutations in the AAAS gene consisting of one novel mutation (c.500 C>A, A167E) and one previously described mutation (c.1331+1G> A/IVS14+1 G>A). A diagnosis of triple A syndrome was reached based on their clinical and genetic findings. CONCLUSIONS:The unique characteristic of these two cases is the novel mutation in the AAAS gene, which is likely pathogenic. In addition, they showcase the genotype-phenotype variability of the disease, as well as the importance of early identification of the neurologic abnormalities, which can result in early intervention and possibly improved outcomes.
Project description:Triple A syndrome (or Allgrove syndrome) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by alacrima, achalasia, adrenal insufficiency and autonomic/neurological abnormalities. The majority of cases are caused by mutations in the AAAS gene located on chromosome 12q13. However, the clinical picture as well as genetic testing may be complex since symptomatology is variable and mutations cannot be identified in all clinically diagnosed patients. We present two unrelated patients with triple-A syndrome illustrating the importance of alacrima as an early clinical sign.A 3.5 year old girl presented with repeated hypoglycaemic myoclonic events. Adrenal insufficiency was diagnosed. In addition, alacrima, obvious since early infancy, was incidentally reported by the mother and finally lead to the clinical diagnosis of triple A syndrome. This was confirmed by positive mutation analysis of the AAAS gene. The second patient, an 8 months old boy was presented because of anisocoria and unilateral optic atrophy. MRI revealed cerebellar vermis hypotrophy. Psychomotor retardation, failure to thrive, and frequent vomiting lead to further diagnostic work-up. Achalasia was diagnosed radiologically. In addition, the mother mentioned absence of tears since birth leading to the clinical diagnosis of triple A syndrome. In contrast to the first cases genetic testing was negative.These two patients illustrate the heterogeneity of triple A syndrome in both terms, clinical expression and genetic testing. We particularly aim to stress the importance of alacrima, which should be considered as a red flag symptom. Further differential diagnosis is required in every child affected by alacrima.
Project description:Triple A (Allgrove) syndrome was first described by Allgrove in 1978 in two pairs of siblings. Since then, about 100 cases have been reported, all of them displaying an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance. Clinical picture is characterized by achalasia, alacrimia and ACTH-resistant adrenal failure. A progressive neurological syndrome including central, peripheral and autonomic nervous system impairment, and mild mental retardation is often associated. The triple A syndrome gene, designated AAAS, is localized on chromosome 12q13. It consists of 16 exons, encoding for a 546 aminoacid protein called ALADIN (Alacrimia-Achalasia-aDrenal Insufficiency Neurologic disorder).
Project description:BACKGROUND: Triple-A syndrome (Allgrove syndrome) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by adrenal insufficiency, alacrima, achalasia, and - occasionally - autonomic instability. Mutations have been found in the AAAS gene on 12q13. CASE PRESENTATION: We present the case of a 12 year-old boy with classic systemic features of triple-A syndrome and several prominent ophthalmic features, including: accommodative spasm, dry eye, superficial punctate keratopathy, and pupillary hypersensitivity to dilute pilocarpine. MRI showed small lacrimal glands bilaterally. DNA sequencing of PCR-amplified fragments from the 16 exons of the AAAS gene revealed compound heterozygosity for a new, out-of-frame 5-bp deletion in exon 15, c1368-1372delGCTCA, and a previously-described nonsense mutation in exon 9, c938C>T, R286X. CONCLUSIONS: In addition to known ophthalmic manifestations, triple-A syndrome can present with accommodative dysregulation and ocular signs of autonomic dysfunction.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Allgrove syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by the triad of achalasia, alacrimia and adrenal insufficiency. It is caused by the mutations of the AAAS gene located on chromosome 12q13. The c.1331?+?1G?>?A mutation is one of the most common described in North Africa including Tunisia, Algeria and Libya. We report here the clinical and genetic profile of a Moroccan family with Allgrove syndrome. CASE PRESENTATION:A Moroccan sister and brother born to consanguineous parents were found, at the ages of twelve and fifteen months old respectively, to have alacrimia and isolated glucocorticoid deficiency. Later, they developed achalasia whereupon Allgrove syndrome was diagnosed clinically and confirmed by DNA sequencing which revealed a c.1331?+?1G?>?A mutation in the AAAS gene. CONCLUSION:This finding reinforces previous studies in demonstrating the geographic expansion of the ancestral mutation c.1331?+?1G?>?A in North African patients and thus enabling targeted genetic counseling. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the AAAS gene mutation in Moroccan patients.
Project description:Triple A syndrome is a rare genetic disorder caused by mutations in the achalasia-addisonianism-alacrima syndrome (AAAS) gene which encodes a tryptophan aspartic acid (WD) repeat-containing protein named alacrima-achalasia-adrenal insufficiency neurologic disorder (ALADIN). Northern blot analysis shows that the 2.1 kb AAAS mRNA is expressed in various tissues with stronger expression in testis and pancreas. We show that human ALADIN is a protein with an apparent molecular weight of 60 kDa, and expressed in the adrenal gland, pituitary gland and pancreas. Furthermore, biochemical analysis using anti-ALADIN antibody supports the previous finding of the localization of ALADIN in the nuclear membrane. The mutations S544G and S544X show that alteration of S544 residue affects correct targeting of ALADIN to the nuclear membrane.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) is a group of rare disorders characterized by spastic paraparesis and other symptoms. Often, other diseases can mimic HSP, which may delay diagnosis and treatment. METHODS:Whole exome sequencing was performed in families with clinically suspected HSP without a genetic diagnosis. RESULTS:We report three patients from two families who presented with lower limb spasticity, muscular atrophy, and other neurological symptoms, who were clinically diagnosed with complicated HSP. Whole exome sequencing revealed bi-allelic AAAS nonsense mutations; one individual was homozygous for the p.(Arg478*) mutation, and two siblings were homozygous for the p.(Arg286*) mutation, leading to the diagnosis of triple A syndrome. This rare syndrome is typically characterized by a triad of symptoms: achalasia, adrenal insufficiency, and alacrima, and is often accompanied by other neurological abnormalities. CONCLUSIONS:Our findings suggest that triple A syndrome should be suspected in complicated HSP patients without a known genetic cause, especially if at least one of the main triad of triple A syndrome symptoms is present.
Project description:Triple A syndrome is a rare, autosomal recessive cause of adrenal failure. Additional features include alacrima, achalasia of the esophageal cardia, and progressive neurodegenerative disease. The AAAS gene product is the nuclear pore complex protein alacrima-achalasia-adrenal insufficiency neurological disorder (ALADIN), of unknown function. Triple A syndrome patient dermal fibroblasts appear to be more sensitive to oxidative stress than wild-type fibroblasts. To provide an adrenal and neuronal-specific disease model, we established AAAS-gene knockdown in H295R human adrenocortical tumor cells and SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells by lentiviral short hairpin RNA transduction. AAAS-knockdown significantly reduced cell viability in H295R cells. This effect was exacerbated by hydrogen peroxide treatment and improved by application of the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine. An imbalance in redox homeostasis after AAAS knockdown was further suggested in the H295R cells by a decrease in the ratio of reduced to oxidized glutathione. AAAS-knockdown SH-SY5Y cells were also hypersensitive to oxidative stress and responded to antioxidant treatment. A further impact on function was observed in the AAAS-knockdown H295R cells with reduced expression of key components of the steroidogenic pathway, including steroidogenic acute regulatory and P450c11β protein expression. Importantly a significant reduction in cortisol production was demonstrated with AAAS knockdown, which was partially reversed with N-acetylcysteine treatment.Our in vitro data in AAAS-knockdown adrenal and neuronal cells not only corroborates previous studies implicating oxidative stress in this disorder but also provides further insights into the pathogenic mechanisms in triple A syndrome.
Project description:Allgrove syndrome (AS) is an autosomal recessive congenital disease, caused by mutations in the AAAS gene, and is characterized by the triad of Addison's disease, achalasia and alacrima. The present study describes three newly diagnosed cases of AS, in which genetic analysis of the AAAS gene was used to identify AAAS gene mutations, to enhance the understanding of the pathogenesis and clinical manifestations of AS in the Chinese population. Two of the cases exhibited homozygous mutations of c.771delG (p.Arg258GlyfsX33) in exon 8 and one case exhibited a homozygous mutation of c.1366C>T (p.Q456X) in exon 15. A review of the current literature suggests that the AAAS c.771delG mutation has only been reported in the Chinese population. Genetic analysis of the AAAS gene in Chinese AS patients at a young age may facilitate an earlier diagnosis and the timely initiation of the appropriate treatment, ultimately improving the patient outcome.
Project description:Triple A syndrome is a human autosomal recessive disorder characterized by adrenal insufficiency, achalasia, alacrima, and neurological abnormalities affecting the central, peripheral, and autonomic nervous systems. In humans, this disease is caused by mutations in the AAAS gene, which encodes ALADIN, a protein that belongs to the family of WD-repeat proteins and localizes to nuclear pore complexes. To analyze the function of the gene in the context of the whole organism and in an attempt to obtain an animal model for human triple A syndrome, we generated mice lacking a functional Aaas gene. The Aaas-/- animals were found to be externally indistinguishable from their wild-type littermates, although their body weight was on the average lower than that of wild-type mice. Histological analysis of various tissues failed to reveal any differences between Aaas-/- and wild-type mice. Aaas-/- mice exhibit unexpectedly mild abnormal behavior and only minor neurological deficits. Our data show that the lack of ALADIN in mice does not lead to a triple A syndrome-like disease. Thus, in mice either the function of ALADIN differs from that in humans, its loss can be readily compensated for, or additional factors, such as environmental conditions or genetic modifiers, contribute to the disease.
Project description:To study genotype-phenotype spectrum of triple A syndrome (TAS).Retrospective chart analysis of Indian TAS patients (cohort 1, n = 8) and review of genotyped TAS cases reported in world literature (cohort 2, n = 133, 68 publications).Median age at presentation was 4.75 years (range: 4-10) and 5 years (range: 1-42) for cohorts 1 and 2, respectively. Alacrima, adrenal insufficiency (AI), achalasia and neurological dysfunction (ND) were seen in 8/8, 8/8, 7/8 and 4/8 patients in cohort 1, and in 99, 91, 93 and 79% patients in cohort 2, respectively. In both cohorts, alacrima was present since birth while AI and achalasia manifested before ND. Mineralocorticoid deficiency (MC) was uncommon (absent in cohort 1, 12.5% in cohort 2). In cohort 1, splice-site mutation in exon 1 (p.G14Vfs*45) was commonest, followed by a deletion in exon 8 (p.S255Vfs*36). Out of 65 mutations in cohort 2, 14 were recurrent and five exhibited regional clustering. AI was more prevalent, more often a presenting feature, and was diagnosed at younger age in T group (those with truncating mutations) as compared to NT (non-truncating mutations) group. ND was more prevalent, more common a presenting feature, with later age at onset in NT as compared to T group.Clinical profile of our patients is similar to that of patients worldwide. Alacrima is the earliest and most consistent finding. MC deficiency is uncommon. Some recurrent mutations show regional clustering. p.G14Vfs*45 and p.S255Vfs*36 account for majority of AAAS mutations in our cohort. Phenotype of T group differs from that of NT group and merits future research.