Cardiovascular Outcomes of Patients With Pulmonary Hypertension Undergoing Noncardiac Surgery.
ABSTRACT: Pulmonary hypertension (PH), defined by a mean pulmonary artery pressure of >25mm Hg at rest, is strongly associated with morbidity and mortality in the perioperative period. The prevalence and outcomes of PH among patients referred for major noncardiac surgery in the United States are unknown. Patients ?18 years of age hospitalized for noncardiac surgery were identified from Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project's National Inpatient Sample data from 2004 to 2014. Pulmonary hypertension was defined by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision diagnosis codes. The primary outcome was perioperative major adverse cardiovascular events (MACCE), defined as in-hospital death, myocardial infarction, or ischemic stroke. Among 17,853,194 hospitalizations for major noncardiac surgery, 143,846 (0.81%) had PH. MACCE occurred in 8.3% of hospitalizations with any diagnosis of PH in comparison to 2.0% of those without PH (p <0.001), driven by an increased frequency of death (4.4% vs 1.1%, p <0.001) and nonfatal myocardial infarction (3.2% vs 0.6%, p <0.001). After adjusting for demographics, clinical covariates, and surgery type, PH remained independently associated with MACCE (aOR 1.43, 95% CI 1.40 to 1.46). In conclusion, PH is associated with perioperative major adverse cardiovascular events. Careful patient selection, recognition of perioperative risks, and appropriate intraoperative hemodynamic monitoring may improve perioperative cardiovascular outcomes.
Project description:Importance:Major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) are a significant source of perioperative morbidity and mortality following noncardiac surgery. Objective:To evaluate national trends in perioperative cardiovascular outcomes and mortality after major noncardiac surgery and to identify surgical subtypes associated with cardiovascular events using a large administrative database of United States hospital admissions. Design, Setting, Participants:Patients who underwent major noncardiac surgery from January 2004 to December 2013 were identified using the National Inpatient Sample. Main Outcomes and Measures:Perioperative MACCE (primary outcome), defined as in-hospital, all-cause death, acute myocardial infarction (AMI), or acute ischemic stroke, were evaluated over time. Results:Among 10?581?621 hospitalizations (mean [SD] patient age, 65.74 [12.32] years; 5?975?798 female patients 56.60%]) for major noncardiac surgery, perioperative MACCE occurred in 317?479 hospitalizations (3.0%), corresponding to an annual incidence of approximately 150?000 events after applying sample weights. Major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events occurred most frequently in patients undergoing vascular (7.7%), thoracic (6.5%), and transplant surgery (6.3%). Between 2004 and 2013, the frequency of MACCE declined from 3.1% to 2.6% (P for trend <.001; adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.95; 95% CI, 0.94-0.97) driven by a decline in frequency of perioperative death (aOR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.77-0.81) and AMI (aOR, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.84-0.89) but an increase in perioperative ischemic stroke from 0.52% in 2004 to 0.77% in 2013 (P for trend <.001; aOR 1.79; CI 1.73-1.86). Conclusions and Relevance:Perioperative MACCE occurs in 1 of every 33 hospitalizations for noncardiac surgery. Despite reductions in the rate of death and AMI among patients undergoing major noncardiac surgery in the United States, perioperative ischemic stroke increased over time. Additional efforts are necessary to improve cardiovascular care in the perioperative period of patients undergoing noncardiac surgery.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Perioperative cardiovascular outcomes of transplant surgery are not well defined. We evaluated the incidence of perioperative major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) after non-cardiac transplant surgery from a large database of hospital admissions from the United States.<h4>Methods</h4>Patients ?18?years of age undergoing non-cardiac solid organ transplant surgery from 2004 to 2014 were identified from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project's National Inpatient Sample. The primary outcome was perioperative MACCE, defined as in-hospital death, myocardial infarction (MI), or ischaemic stroke.<h4>Results</h4>A total of 49?978 hospitalizations for transplant surgery were identified. Renal (67.3%), liver (21.6%), and lung (6.7%) transplantation were the most common surgeries. Perioperative MACCE occurred in 1539 transplant surgeries (3.1%). Recipients of organ transplantation were more likely to have perioperative MACCE in comparison to non-transplant, non-cardiac surgery [3.1% vs. 2.0%, P?<?0.001; adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.29, 95% Confidence interval [CI] 1.22-1.36]. Major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events after transplant surgery were driven by increased mortality (1.7% vs. 1.1%, P?<?0.001; aOR 1.15, 95% CI 1.07-1.23) and MI (1.2% vs. 0.6%, P?<?0.001; aOR 2.26, 95% CI 2.09-2.46) vs. non-transplant surgery, with lower rates of stroke (0.3% vs. 0.5%, P?<?0.001; aOR 0.56, 95% CI 0.47-0.65). Among patients hospitalized for renal, liver, and lung transplantation, MACCE occurred in 1.7%, 5.6%, and 7.5%, respectively, with no difference in the frequency of MI by surgery type.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Cardiovascular outcomes of transplant surgery vary by surgical subtype and are largely driven by increased perioperative death and MI. Efforts to reduce cardiovascular risks of non-cardiac organ transplant surgery are necessary.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is a major cardiovascular complication of noncardiac surgery. We aimed to evaluate the frequency, causes, and outcomes of 30-day hospital readmission after perioperative AMI. METHODS:Patients who were diagnosed with AMI during hospitalization for major noncardiac surgery were identified using the 2014 US Nationwide Readmission Database. Rates, causes, and costs of 30-day readmissions after noncardiac surgery with and without perioperative AMI were identified. RESULTS:Among 3?807?357 hospitalizations for major noncardiac surgery, 8085 patients with perioperative AMI were identified. A total of 1135 patients (14.0%) with perioperative AMI died in-hospital during the index admission. Survivors of perioperative AMI were more likely to be readmitted within 30 days than surgical patients without perioperative AMI (19.1% versus 6.5%, P<0.001). The most common indications for 30-day rehospitalization were management of infectious complications (30.0%), cardiovascular complications (25.3%), and bleeding (10.4%). In-hospital mortality during hospital readmission in the first 30 days after perioperative AMI was 11.3%. At 6 months, the risk of death was 17.6% and ?1 hospital readmission was 36.2%. CONCLUSIONS:Among patients undergoing noncardiac surgery who develop a perioperative MI, ?1 in 3 suffer from in-hospital death or hospital readmission in the first 30 days after discharge. Strategies to improve outcomes of surgical patients early after perioperative AMI are warranted.
Project description:Patients undergoing noncardiac surgery frequently have diabetes mellitus (DM) and an elevated risk of cardiovascular disease. It is unknown whether temporal declines in the frequency of perioperative major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCEs) apply to patients with DM.Patients ≥45 years of age who underwent noncardiac surgery from January 2004 to December 2013 were identified using the U.S. National Inpatient Sample. DM was identified using ICD-9 diagnosis codes. Perioperative MACCEs (in-hospital all-cause mortality, acute myocardial infarction, or acute ischemic stroke) by DM status were evaluated over time.The final study sample consisted of 10,581,621 hospitalizations for major noncardiac surgery; DM was present in ∼23% of surgeries and increased over time (P for trend <0.001). Patients with DM experienced MACCEs in 3.3% of surgeries vs. 2.8% of surgeries for patients without DM (P < 0.001). From 2004 to 2013, the odds of perioperative MACCEs after multivariable adjustment increased by 6% (95% CI 2-9) for DM patients, compared with an 8% decrease (95% CI -10 to -6) for patients without DM (P for interaction <0.001). Trends for individual end points were all less favorable for patients with DM versus those without DM.In an analysis of >10.5 million noncardiac surgeries from a large U.S. hospital admission database, perioperative MACCEs were more common among patients with DM versus those without DM. Perioperative MACCEs increased over time and individual end points were all less favorable for patients with DM. Our findings suggest that a substantial unmet need exists for strategies to reduce the risk of perioperative cardiovascular events among patients with DM.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Preoperative risk prediction in patients at elevated cardiovascular risk shows limited accuracy. Platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR) and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) indicate systemic inflammation. Both have been investigated for outcome prediction in the field of oncology and cardiovascular medicine, as well as risk prediction of adverse cardiovascular events in non-surgical patients at increased cardiovascular risk. METHODS:For this post-hoc analysis, we included all 38 coronary heart disease patients from the Leukocytes and Cardiovascular Perioperative Events cohort-1 study scheduled for elective non-cardiac surgery. We evaluated preoperative differential blood counts for association with major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) defined as the composite endpoint of death, myocardial ischemia, myocardial infarction, myocardial injury after non-cardiac surgery, or embolic or thrombotic stroke within 30?days after surgery. We used Youden's index to calculate cut-off values for PLR and NLR. Additive risk-predictive values were assessed using receiver operating characteristic curve and net reclassification (NRI) improvement analyses. RESULTS:Patients with the composite endpoint MACCE had higher PLR and NLR (309 [206; 380] vs. 160 [132; 203], p?=?0.001; 4.9 [3.5; 8.1] vs. 2.6 [2.2; 3.4]), p?=?0.001). Calculated cut-offs for PLR >?204.4 and NLR >?3.1 were associated with increased risk of 30-day MACCE (OR 7, 95% CI [1.2; 44.7], p?=?0.034; OR 36, 95% CI [1.8; 686.6], p?=?0.001). Furthermore, NLR improved risk prediction in coronary heart disease patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery when combined with hs-cTnT or NT-proBNP (NRI total?=?0.23, p?=?0.008, NRI total?=?0.26, p?=?0.005). CONCLUSIONS:Both PLR and NLR were associated with perioperative cardiovascular adverse events in coronary heart disease patients. NLR proved to be of additional value for preoperative risk stratification. Both PLR and NLR could be used as inexpensive and broadly available tools for perioperative risk assessment. TRIAL REGISTRATION:NCT02874508, August 22, 2016.
Project description:Stroke is a serious complication of noncardiac surgery. Congenital defects of the interatrial septum may be a potent risk factor for perioperative stroke. The aim of the present study was to determine the association between atrial septal defect (ASD) or patent foramen ovale (PFO) and in-hospital perioperative ischemic stroke after non-cardiac surgery in a large nationwide cohort of patients hospitalized in the United States. Patients undergoing noncardiac surgery between 2004 and 2014 were identified using the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project's National Inpatient Sample. Patients without an in-hospital echocardiogram were excluded. The presence of an ostium secundum-type ASD or PFO was identified by ICD-9 diagnosis code 745.5. The primary study outcome was perioperative acute ischemic stroke. Between 2004 and 2014, there were 639,985 admissions for noncardiac surgery with an in-hospital echocardiogram. An ASD or PFO was documented in 9,041 (1.4%) hospitalizations. Perioperative ischemic stroke occurred more frequently in patients with an ASD or PFO compared with those without an ASD or PFO (35.1% vs 6.0%, p <0.001). The association between ASD or PFO and ischemic stroke persisted after adjustment for demographics and clinical covariates (adjusted odds ratio 6.30, 95% confidence interval, 5.59 to 7.10) and in all non-cardiac surgery subtypes. In conclusion, in a large, nationwide analysis of patients undergoing noncardiac surgery, a diagnosis of ASD or PFO was associated with an increased risk of acute ischemic stroke overall and in all surgical subtypes. Additional measures are necessary to mitigate stroke risk in patients with septal defects who are planned for non-cardiac surgery.
Project description:Patients undergoing noncardiac surgery after coronary stent implantation are at an increased risk of thrombotic complications. Volatile anesthetics are reported to have organ-protective effects against ischemic injury. Propofol has an anti-inflammatory action that can mitigate ischemia-reperfusion injury. However, the association between anesthetic agents and the risk of major adverse cardiovascular and cerebral event (MACCE) has never been studied before. In the present study, a total of 1630 cases were reviewed. Four different propensity score matchings were performed to minimize selection bias (propofol-based total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) vs. volatile anesthetics; TIVA vs. sevoflurane; TIVA vs. desflurane; and sevoflurane vs. desflurane). The incidence of MACCE in these four propensity score-matched cohorts was compared. As a sensitivity analysis, a multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to identify independent predictors for MACCE during the postoperative 30 days both in total and matched cohorts (TIVA vs. volatile agent). MACCE occurred in 6.0% of the patients. Before matching, there was a significant difference in the incidence of MACCE between TIVA and sevoflurane groups (TIVA 5.1% vs. sevoflurane 8.2%, p = 0.006). After matching, there was no significant difference in the incidence of MACCE between the groups of any pairs (TIVA 6.5% vs. sevoflurane 7.7%; p = 0.507). The multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed no significant association of the volatile agent with MACCE (odds ratio 1.48, 95% confidence interval 0.92-2.37, p = 0.104). In conclusion, the choice of anesthetic agent for noncardiac surgery did not significantly affect the development of MACCE in patients with previous coronary stent implantation. However, further randomized trials are needed to confirm our results.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with an increased cardiovascular (CV) burden similar to that of diabetes mellitus (DM). This risk may warrant preoperative CV assessment as is performed for patients with DM. We aimed to determine whether the risks of perioperative death and CV events among patients with RA differed from those among unaffected controls and patients with DM. METHODS:We used 1998-2002 data from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) database of the Healthcare Cost Utilization Project (HCUP) to identify hospitalizations of patients undergoing elective noncardiac surgery. Using established guidelines, surgical procedures were categorized as either low risk, intermediate risk, or high risk of having CV events. Logistic models provided the adjusted odds of study end points in patients with RA, DM, or both relative to patients with neither condition. RESULTS:Among 7,756,570 patients undergoing a low-risk, intermediate-risk, or high-risk noncardiac procedure, 2.34%, 0.51%, and 2.12%, respectively, had a composite CV event, and death occurred in 1.47%, 0.50%, and 2.59%, respectively. Among those undergoing an intermediate-risk procedure, death was less likely in RA patients than in DM patients (0.30% versus 0.65%; P < 0.001), but the difference in mortality rates among those undergoing low-risk versus high-risk procedures was not significant. Patients with RA were less likely to have a CV event than were patients with DM for procedures of low risk (3.38% versus 5.30%; P < 0.001) and intermediate risk (0.34% versus 1.07%; P < 0.001). In adjusted models, RA was not independently associated with an increased risk of perioperative death or a CV event. CONCLUSION:RA was not associated with adverse perioperative CV risk or mortality risk, which suggests that current perioperative clinical care does not need to be changed in this regard.
Project description:Hospital hyperglycemia, in individuals with and without diabetes, has been identified as a marker of poor clinical outcome in cardiac surgery patients. However, the impact of perioperative hyperglycemia on clinical outcome in general and noncardiac surgery patients is not known.This was an observational study with the aim of determining the relationship between pre- and postsurgery blood glucose levels and hospital length of stay (LOS), complications, and mortality in 3,184 noncardiac surgery patients consecutively admitted to Emory University Hospital (Atlanta, GA) between 1 January 2007 and 30 June 2007.The overall 30-day mortality was 2.3%, with nonsurvivors having significantly higher blood glucose levels before and after surgery (both P < 0.01) than survivors. Perioperative hyperglycemia was associated with increased hospital and intensive care unit LOS (P < 0.001) as well as higher numbers of postoperative cases of pneumonia (P < 0.001), systemic blood infection (P < 0.001), urinary tract infection (P < 0.001), acute renal failure (P = 0.005), and acute myocardial infarction (P = 0.005). In multivariate analysis (adjusted for age, sex, race, and surgery severity), the risk of death increased in proportion to perioperative glucose levels; however, this association was significant only for patients without a history of diabetes (P = 0.008) compared with patients with known diabetes (P = 0.748).Perioperative hyperglycemia is associated with increased LOS, hospital complications, and mortality after noncardiac general surgery. Randomized controlled trials are needed to determine whether perioperative diabetes management improves clinical outcome in noncardiac surgery patients.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Increased postoperative cardiac troponin (cTn) independently predicts short-term mortality. Previous studies suggest that preoperative cTn also predicts major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) and mortality after noncardiac surgery. The value of preoperative and perioperative changes in cTn as a prognostic tool for adverse outcomes has been sparsely investigated. METHODS AND FINDINGS:A systematic review and meta-analysis of the prognostic value of cTns for adverse outcome was conducted. Adverse outcome was defined as short-term (in-hospital or <30 days) and long-term (>30 days) MACE and/or all-cause mortality, in adult patients undergoing noncardiac surgery. The study protocol (CRD42018094773) was registered with an international prospective register of systematic reviews (PROSPERO). Preoperative cTn was a predictor of short- (OR 4.3, 95% CI 2.9-6.5, p<0.001, adjusted OR 5.87, 95% CI 3.24-10.65, p<0.001) and long-term adverse outcome (OR 4.2, 95% CI 1.0-17.3, p = 0.05, adjusted HR 2.0, 95% CI 1.4-3.0, p<0.001). Perioperative change in cTn was a predictor of short-term adverse outcome (OR 10.1, 95% CI 3.2-32.3, p<0.001). It was not possible to conduct pooled analyses for adjusted estimates of perioperative change in cTn as predictor of short- (a single study identified) and long-term (no studies identified) adverse outcome. Further, it was not possible to conduct pooled analyses for unadjusted estimates of perioperative change in cTn as predictor of long-term adverse outcome, since only one study was identified. Bivariate analysis of sensitivities and specificities were performed, and overall prognostic performance was summarized using summary receiver operating characteristic (SROC) curves. The pooled sensitivity and specificity for preoperative cTn and short-term adverse outcome was 0.43 and 0.86 respectively (area under the SROC curve of 0.68). There were insufficient studies to construct SROCs for perioperative changes in cTn and for long-term adverse outcome. CONCLUSION:Our study indicates that although preoperative cTn and perioperative change in cTn might be valuable predictors of MACE and/or all-cause mortality in adult noncardiac surgical patients, its overall prognostic performance remains uncertain. Future large, representative, high-quality studies are needed to establish the potential role of cTns in perioperative cardiac risk stratification.