MicroRNA-155 inhibition restores Fibroblast Growth Factor 7 expression in diabetic skin and decreases wound inflammation.
ABSTRACT: Treatment for chronic diabetic foot ulcers is limited by the inability to simultaneously address the excessive inflammation and impaired re-epithelization and remodeling. Impaired re-epithelization leads to significantly delayed wound closure and excessive inflammation causes tissue destruction, both enhancing wound pathogen colonization. Among many differentially expressed microRNAs, miR-155 is significantly upregulated and fibroblast growth factor 7 (FGF7) mRNA (target of miR-155) and protein are suppressed in diabetic skin, when compared to controls, leading us to hypothesize that topical miR-155 inhibition would improve diabetic wound healing by restoring FGF7 expression. In vitro inhibition of miR-155 increased human keratinocyte scratch closure and topical inhibition of miR-155 in vivo in wounds increased murine FGF7 protein expression and significantly enhanced diabetic wound healing. Moreover, we show that miR-155 inhibition leads to a reduction in wound inflammation, in accordance with known pro-inflammatory actions of miR-155. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, that topical miR-155 inhibition increases diabetic wound fibroblast growth factor 7 expression in diabetic wounds, which, in turn, increases re-epithelization and, consequently, accelerates wound closure. Topical miR-155 inhibition targets both excessive inflammation and impaired re-epithelization and remodeling, being a potentially new and effective treatment for chronic diabetic foot ulcers.
Project description:Vascular precursor cells with angiogenic potentials are important for tissue repair, which is impaired in diabetes mellitus. MicroRNAs are recently discovered key regulators of gene expression, but their role in vascular precursor cell-mediated angiogenesis in diabetes mellitus is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that the microRNA miR-27b rescues impaired bone marrow-derived angiogenic cell (BMAC) function in vitro and in vivo in type 2 diabetic mice.BMACs from adult male type 2 diabetic db/db and from normal littermate db/+ mice were used. miR-27b expression was decreased in db/db BMACs. miR-27b mimic improved db/db BMAC function, including proliferation, adhesion, tube formation, and delayed apoptosis, but it did not affect migration. Elevated thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) protein in db/db BMACs was suppressed on miR-27b mimic transfection. Inhibition of miR-27b in db/+ BMACs reduced angiogenesis, which was reversed by TSP-1 small interfering RNA (siRNA). miR-27b suppressed the pro-oxidant protein p66(shc) and mitochondrial oxidative stress, contributing to its protection of BMAC function. miR-27b also suppressed semaphorin 6A to improve BMAC function in diabetes mellitus. Luciferase binding assay suggested that miR-27b directly targeted TSP-1, TSP-2, p66(shc), and semaphorin 6A. miR-27b improved topical cell therapy of diabetic BMACs on diabetic skin wound closure, with a concomitant augmentation of wound perfusion and capillary formation. Normal BMAC therapy with miR-27b inhibition demonstrated reduced efficacy in wound closure, perfusion, and capillary formation. Local miR-27b delivery partly improved wound healing in diabetic mice.miR-27b rescues impaired BMAC angiogenesis via TSP-1 suppression, semaphorin 6A expression, and p66shc-dependent mitochondrial oxidative stress and improves BMAC therapy in wound healing in type 2 diabetic mice.
Project description:There is an unmet clinical need for novel wound healing strategies to treat full thickness skin defects, especially in diabetic patients. We hypothesized that a scaffold could perform dual roles of a biomechanical support and a favorable biochemical environment for stem cells. Human umbilical cord perivascular cells (HUCPVCs) have been recently reported as a type of mesenchymal stem cell that can accelerate early wound healing in skin defects. However, there are only a limited number of studies that have incorporated these cells into natural scaffolds for dermal tissue engineering. The aim of the present study was to promote angiogenesis and accelerate wound healing by using HUCPVCs and decellularized dermal matrix (DDM) in a rat model of diabetic wounds. The DDM scaffolds were prepared from harvested human skin samples and histological, ultrastructural, molecular and mechanical assessments were carried out. In comparison with the control (without any treatment) and DDM alone group, full thickness excisional wounds treated with HUCPVCs-loaded DDM scaffolds demonstrated an accelerated wound closure rate, faster re-epithelization, more granulation tissue formation and decreased collagen deposition. Furthermore, immunofluorescence analysis showed that the VEGFR-2 expression and vascular density in the HUCPVCs-loaded DDM scaffold treated group were also significantly higher than the other groups at 7days post implantation. Since the rates of angiogenesis, re-epithelization and formation of granulation tissue are directly correlated with full thickness wound healing in patients, the proposed HUCPVCs-loaded DDM scaffolds may fulfil a role neglected by current treatment strategies. This pre-clinical proof-of-concept study warrants further clinical evaluation.The aim of the present study was to design a novel tissue-engineered system to promote angiogenesis, re-epithelization and granulation of skin tissue using human umbilical cord perivascular stem cells and decellularized dermal matrix natural scaffolds in rat diabetic wound models. The authors of this research article have been working on stem cells and tissue engineering scaffolds for years. According to our knowledge, there is a lack of an efficient system for the treatment of skin defects using tissue engineering strategy. Since the rates of angiogenesis, re-epithelization and granulation tissue are directly correlated with full thickness wound healing, the proposed HUCPVCs-loaded DDM scaffolds perfectly fills the niche neglected by current treatment strategies. This pre-clinical study demonstrates the proof-of-concept that necessitates clinical evaluations.
Project description:Diabetic patients are frequently afflicted with impaired wound healing where linear progression of molecular and cellular events compromised. Despite of meaningful progress in diabetic treatment, management of diabetic chronic wounds is still challenging. Jamun (Syzygium cumini) honey may be a promising candidate for diabetic wound healing and need to explore in detail. So present study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of Jamun honey (JH) for diabetic wound healing in in vitro wound (primary fibroblasts) model and in in vivo of diabetic mice (Streptozotocin induced) model. The fibroblast cell model was studied for migratory behaviour and myofibrolasts infiltration under honey interventions via scratch/migration assay, immuno-cytochemistry and western blot. We applied FDA approved Manuka honey (MH) as positive control and JH as test honey to evaluate wound re-epithelialization, sub-epithelial connective tissue modification and angiogenesis via histo-pathological and immuno-histochemical analysis. JH (0.1% v/v) dilution has notably improved wound closure, migration with concomitant ?-SMA expressions in vitro. Topical application of JH in diabetic mice model showed significant (*p ? 0.05) wound closure, reepithelialization, collagen deposition (I/III) and balanced the myofibroblasts formation. It also modulated vital angiogenic markers (viz HIF-1?, VEGF, VEGF R-II) significantly (*p ? 0.05). All these observations depicted that JH promotes sequential stages of wound healing in diabetic mice model. The results of the present study established Jamun honey as good as Manuka honey considering wound closure, re-epithelialization, collagen deposition and pro-angiogenic potential.