The Misclassification of Diffuse Gliomas: Rates and Outcomes.
ABSTRACT: PURPOSE:The integrated histopathologic and molecular diagnoses of the 2016 WHO classification of central nervous system tumors have revolutionized patient care by improving diagnostic accuracy and reproducibility; however, the frequency and consequences of misclassification of histologically diagnosed diffuse gliomas are unknown. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN:Patients with newly diagnosed ICD-O-3 (International Classification of Diseases) histologically encoded diffuse gliomas from 2010-2015 were identified from the National Cancer Database, the misclassification rates and overall survival (OS) of which were assessed by WHO grade and 1p/19q status. In addition, misclassification rates by isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH), ATRX, and p53 statuses were examined in an analogous multi-institutional cohort of registry-encoded diffuse gliomas. RESULTS:Of 74,718 patients with diffuse glioma, only 74.4% and 78.8% of molecularly characterized WHO grade II and III oligodendrogliomas were in fact 1p/19q-codeleted. In addition, 28.9% and 36.8% of histologically encoded grade II and III "oligoastrocytomas", and 6.3% and 8.8% of grade II and III astrocytomas had 1p/19q-codeletion, thus molecularly representing oligodendrogliomas if also IDH mutant. OS significantly depended on accurate WHO grading and 1p/19q status. CONCLUSIONS:On the basis of 1p/19q, IDH, ATRX, and p53, the misclassification rates of histologically encoded oligodendrogliomas, astrocytomas, and glioblastomas are approximately 21%-35%, 6%-9%, and 9%, respectively; with significant clinical implications. Our findings suggest that when compared with historical histology-only classified data, in national registry, as well as, institutional databases, there is the potential for false-positive results in contemporary trials of molecularly classified diffuse gliomas, which could contribute to a seemingly positive phase II trial (based on historical comparison) failing at the phase III stage. Critically, findings from diffuse glioma clinical trials and historical cohorts using prior histology-only WHO schemes must be cautiously reinterpreted.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Diffuse low-grade and intermediate-grade gliomas (which together make up the lower-grade gliomas, World Health Organization grades II and III) have highly variable clinical behavior that is not adequately predicted on the basis of histologic class. Some are indolent; others quickly progress to glioblastoma. The uncertainty is compounded by interobserver variability in histologic diagnosis. Mutations in IDH, TP53, and ATRX and codeletion of chromosome arms 1p and 19q (1p/19q codeletion) have been implicated as clinically relevant markers of lower-grade gliomas. METHODS:We performed genomewide analyses of 293 lower-grade gliomas from adults, incorporating exome sequence, DNA copy number, DNA methylation, messenger RNA expression, microRNA expression, and targeted protein expression. These data were integrated and tested for correlation with clinical outcomes. RESULTS:Unsupervised clustering of mutations and data from RNA, DNA-copy-number, and DNA-methylation platforms uncovered concordant classification of three robust, nonoverlapping, prognostically significant subtypes of lower-grade glioma that were captured more accurately by IDH, 1p/19q, and TP53 status than by histologic class. Patients who had lower-grade gliomas with an IDH mutation and 1p/19q codeletion had the most favorable clinical outcomes. Their gliomas harbored mutations in CIC, FUBP1, NOTCH1, and the TERT promoter. Nearly all lower-grade gliomas with IDH mutations and no 1p/19q codeletion had mutations in TP53 (94%) and ATRX inactivation (86%). The large majority of lower-grade gliomas without an IDH mutation had genomic aberrations and clinical behavior strikingly similar to those found in primary glioblastoma. CONCLUSIONS:The integration of genomewide data from multiple platforms delineated three molecular classes of lower-grade gliomas that were more concordant with IDH, 1p/19q, and TP53 status than with histologic class. Lower-grade gliomas with an IDH mutation either had 1p/19q codeletion or carried a TP53 mutation. Most lower-grade gliomas without an IDH mutation were molecularly and clinically similar to glioblastoma. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health.).
Project description:BACKGROUND:The 2016 World Health Organization (WHO) classification of central nervous system tumors stratifies isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH)-mutant gliomas into 2 major groups depending on the presence or absence of 1p/19q codeletion. However, the grading system remains unchanged and it is now controversial whether it can be still applied to this updated molecular classification. METHODS:In a large cohort of 911 high-grade IDH-mutant gliomas from the French national POLA network (including 428 IDH-mutant gliomas without 1p/19q codeletion and 483 anaplastic oligodendrogliomas, IDH-mutant and 1p/19q codeleted), we investigated the prognostic value of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (CDKN2A) gene homozygous deletion as well as WHO grading criteria (mitoses, microvascular proliferation, and necrosis). In addition, we searched for other retinoblastoma pathway gene alterations (CDK4 amplification and RB1 homozygous deletion) in a subset of patients. CDKN2A homozygous deletion was also searched in an independent series of 40 grade II IDH-mutant gliomas. RESULTS:CDKN2A homozygous deletion was associated with dismal outcome among IDH-mutant gliomas lacking 1p/19q codeletion (P < 0.0001 for progression-free survival and P = 0.004 for overall survival) as well as among anaplastic oligodendrogliomas, IDH-mutant + 1p/19q codeleted (P = 0.002 for progression-free survival and P < 0.0001 for overall survival) in univariate and multivariate analysis including age, extent of surgery, adjuvant treatment, microvascular proliferation, and necrosis. In both groups, the presence of microvascular proliferation and/or necrosis remained of prognostic value only in cases lacking CDKN2A homozygous deletion. CDKN2A homozygous deletion was not recorded in grade II gliomas. CONCLUSIONS:Our study pointed out the utmost relevance of CDKN2A homozygous deletion as an adverse prognostic factor in the 2 broad categories of IDH-mutant gliomas stratified on 1p/19q codeletion and suggests that the grading of these tumors should be refined.
Project description:Oligodendrogliomas are defined by IDH-mutations and codeletions of chromosomal arms 1p and 19q. In the past, case reports and small studies described gliomas with sarcomatous features arising from oligodendrogliomas, so called oligosarcomas. Here, we report a series of 23 IDH-mutant oligosarcomas forming a distinct methylation class. The tumors were recurrences from prior oligodendrogliomas or developed de novo. Precursor tumors of 11 oligosarcomas were histologically and molecularly indistinguishable from conventional oligodendrogliomas. Oligosarcoma tumor cells were embedded in a dens network of reticulin fibers, frequently showing p53 accumulation, positivity for SMA, and gain of H3K27 trimethylation (H3K27me3) as compared to primary lesions. In 5 oligosarcomas no 1p/19q codeletion was detectable, although it was present in the primary lesions. Oligosarcomas harbored an increased chromosomal copy number variation load with frequent CDKN2A/B deletions. Proteomic profiling demonstrated oligosarcomas to be highly distinct from conventional grade 3 oligodendrogliomas with consistent evidence for a smooth muscle differentiation. Expression of several tumor suppressors was reduced with NF1 being lost frequently. In contrast, oncogenic YAP1 was aberrantly overexpressed in oligosarcomas. Panel sequencing revealed mutations in NF1 and TP53 along with IDH1/2 and TERT promoter mutations. Survival of patients was significantly poorer for oligosarcomas than for grade 3 oligodendrogliomas and comparable to that of grade 4 IDH-mutant astrocytomas. These results establish oligosarcoma as a distinct type of IDH-mutant glioma differing from conventional oligodendrogliomas on the histologic, epigenetic, proteomic, molecular and clinical level. Diagnosis can be based on the characteristic DNA methylation profile or the combined evidence of sarcomatous histology, IDH-mutation and an oligodendroglioma-typical molecular alteration as TERT promoter mutation and/or 1p/19q codeletion. Overall design: SNP samples
Project description:IDH-mutant gliomas are classified into astrocytic or oligodendroglial tumors by 1p/19q status in the WHO 2016 classification, with the latter presenting with characteristic morphology and better prognosis in general. However, the morphological and genetic features within each category are varied, and there might be distinguishable subtypes. We analyzed 170 WHO grade II-IV gliomas resected in our institution. 1p/19q status was analyzed by microsatellite analysis, and genetic mutations were analyzed by next-generation sequencing and Sanger sequencing. For validation, the Brain Lower Grade Glioma dataset of The Cancer Genome Atlas was analyzed. Of the 42 grade III IDH-mutated gliomas, 12 were 1p-intact/19q-intact (anaplastic astrocytomas [AA]), 7 were 1p-intact/19q-loss (AA), and 23 showed 1p/19q-codeletion (anaplastic oligodendrogliomas). Of the 88 IDH-wild type glioblastomas (GBMs), 14 showed 1p-intact/19q-loss status. All of the seven 1p-intact/19q-loss AAs harbored TP53 mutation, but no TERT promotor mutation. All 19q-loss AAs had regions presenting oligodendroglioma-like morphology, and were associated with significantly longer overall survival compared to 19q-intact AAs (P = .001). This tendency was observed in The Cancer Genome Atlas Lower Grade Glioma dataset. In contrast, there was no difference in overall survival between the 19q-loss GBM and 19q-intact GBM (P = .4). In a case of 19q-loss AA, both oligodendroglial morphology and 19q-loss disappeared after recurrence, possibly indicating correlation between 19q-loss and oligodendroglial morphology. We showed that there was a subgroup, although small, of IDH-mutated astrocytomas harboring 19q-loss that present oligodendroglial morphology, and also were associated with significantly better prognosis compared to other 19q-intact astrocytomas.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:Isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH)-mutant lower grade gliomas are classified as oligodendrogliomas or diffuse astrocytomas based on 1p/19q-codeletion status. We aimed to test and validate neuroradiologists' performances in predicting the codeletion status of IDH-mutant lower grade gliomas based on simple neuroimaging metrics. MATERIALS AND METHODS:One hundred two IDH-mutant lower grade gliomas with preoperative MR imaging and known 1p/19q status from The Cancer Genome Atlas composed a training dataset. Two neuroradiologists in consensus analyzed the training dataset for various imaging features: tumor texture, margins, cortical infiltration, T2-FLAIR mismatch, tumor cyst, T2* susceptibility, hydrocephalus, midline shift, maximum dimension, primary lobe, necrosis, enhancement, edema, and gliomatosis. Statistical analysis of the training data produced a multivariate classification model for codeletion prediction based on a subset of MR imaging features and patient age. To validate the classification model, 2 different independent neuroradiologists analyzed a separate cohort of 106 institutional IDH-mutant lower grade gliomas. RESULTS:Training dataset analysis produced a 2-step classification algorithm with 86.3% codeletion prediction accuracy, based on the following: 1) the presence of the T2-FLAIR mismatch sign, which was 100% predictive of noncodeleted lower grade gliomas, (n = 21); and 2) a logistic regression model based on texture, patient age, T2* susceptibility, primary lobe, and hydrocephalus. Independent validation of the classification algorithm rendered codeletion prediction accuracies of 81.1% and 79.2% in 2 independent readers. The metrics used in the algorithm were associated with moderate-substantial interreader agreement (? = 0.56-0.79). CONCLUSIONS:We have validated a classification algorithm based on simple, reproducible neuroimaging metrics and patient age that demonstrates a moderate prediction accuracy of 1p/19q-codeletion status among IDH-mutant lower grade gliomas.
Project description:AbstractBackgroundIsocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutation and 1p/19q-codeletion are oncogenetic alterations with a positive prognostic value for diffuse gliomas, especially grade II and III. Some studies have suggested differences in biological behavior as reflected by radiological characteristics. In this paper, the literature regarding radiological characteristics in grade II and III glioma subtypes was systematically evaluated and a meta-analysis was performed.MethodsStudies that addressed the relationship between conventional radiological characteristics and IDH mutations and/or 1p/19q-codeletions in newly diagnosed, grade II and III gliomas of adult patients were included. The “3-group analysis” compared radiological characteristics between the WHO 2016 glioma subtypes (IDH-mutant astrocytoma, IDH-wildtype astrocytoma, and oligodendroglioma), and the “2-group analysis” compared radiological characteristics between 1p/19q-codeleted gliomas and 1p/19q-intact gliomas.ResultsFourteen studies (3-group analysis: 670 cases, 2-group analysis: 1042 cases) were included. IDH-mutated astrocytomas showed more often sharp borders and less frequently contrast enhancement compared to IDH-wildtype astrocytomas. 1p/19q-codeleted gliomas had less frequently sharp borders, but showed a heterogeneous aspect, calcification, cysts, and edema more frequently. For the 1p/19q-codeleted gliomas, a sensitivity of 96% was found for heterogeneity and a specificity of 88.1% for calcification.ConclusionsSignificant differences in conventional radiological characteristics exist between the WHO 2016 glioma subtypes, which may reflect differences in biological behavior. However, the diagnostic value of the independent radiological characteristics is insufficient to reliably predict the molecular genetic subtype.
Project description:TERT promoter mutations are commonly associated with 1p/19q codeletion in IDH-mutated gliomas. However, whether these mutations have an impact on patient survival independent of 1p/19q codeletion is unknown. In this study, we investigated the impact of TERT promoter mutations on survival in IDH-mutated glioma cases. Detailed clinical information and molecular status data were collected for a cohort of 560 adult patients with IDH-mutated gliomas. Among these patients, 279 had both TERT promoter mutation and 1p/19q codeletion, while 30 had either TERT promoter mutation (n?=?24) or 1p/19q codeletion (n?=?6) alone. A univariable Cox proportional hazard analysis for survival using clinical and genetic factors indicated that a Karnofsky performance status score (KPS) of 90 or 100, WHO grade II or III, TERT promoter mutation, 1p/19q codeletion, radiation therapy, and extent of resection (90-100%) were associated with favorable prognosis (p?<?0.05). A multivariable Cox regression model revealed that TERT promoter mutation had a significantly favorable prognostic impact (hazard ratio?=?0.421, p?=?0.049), while 1p/19q codeletion did not have a significant impact (hazard ratio?=?0.648, p?=?0.349). Analyses incorporating patient clinical and genetic information were further conducted to identify subgroups showing the favorable prognostic impact of TERT promoter mutation. Among the grade II-III glioma patients with a KPS score of 90 or 100, those with IDH-TERT co-mutation and intact 1p/19q (n?=?17) showed significantly longer survival than those with IDH mutation, wild-type TERT, and intact 1p/19q (n?=?185) (5-year overall survival, 94% and 77%, respectively; p?=?0.032). Our results demonstrate that TERT promoter mutation predicts favorable prognosis independent of 1p/19q codeletion in IDH-mutated gliomas. Combined with its adverse effect on survival among IDH-wild glioma cases, the bivalent prognostic impact of TERT promoter mutation may help further refine the molecular diagnosis and prognostication of diffuse gliomas.
Project description:Although 1p/19q codeletion is the genetic hallmark defining oligodendrogliomas, approximately 30-40% of oligodendroglial tumors have intact 1p/19q in the literature and they demonstrate a worse prognosis. This group of 1p/19q intact oligodendroglial tumors is frequently suggested to be astrocytic in nature with TP53 and ATRX mutations but actually remains under-investigated. In the present study, we provided evidence that not all 1p/19q intact oligodendroglial tumors are astrocytic through histologic and molecular approaches. We examined 1p/19q status by FISH in a large cohort of 337 oligodendroglial tumors and identified 39.8% lacking 1p/19q codeletion which was independently associated with poor prognosis. Among this 1p/19q intact oligodendroglial tumor cohort, 58 cases demonstrated classic oligodendroglial histology which showed older patient age, better prognosis, association with grade III histology, PDGFRA expression, TERTp mutation, as well as frequent IDH mutation. More than half of the 1p/19q intact oligodendroglial tumors showed lack of astrocytic defining markers, p53 expression and ATRX loss. TP53 mutational analysis was additionally conducted in 45 cases of the 1p/19q intact oligodendroglial tumors. Wild-type TP53 was detected in 71.1% of cases which was associated with classic oligodendroglial histology. Importantly, IDH and TERTp co-occurred in 75% of 1p/19q intact, TP53 wild-type oligodendrogliomas, highlighting the potential of the co-mutations in assisting diagnosis of oligodendrogliomas in tumors with clear cell morphology and non-codeleted 1p/19q status. In summary, our study demonstrated that not all 1p/19q intact oligodendroglial tumors are astrocytic and co-evaluation of IDH and TERTp mutation could potentially serve as an adjunct for diagnosing 1p/19q intact oligodendrogliomas.
Project description:The prediction of clinical outcome for patients with infiltrative gliomas is challenging. Although preoperative hematological markers have been proposed as predictors of survival in glioma and other cancers, systematic investigations that combine these data with other relevant clinical variables are needed to improve prognostic accuracy and patient outcomes. We investigated the prognostic value of preoperative hematological markers, alone and in combination with molecular pathology, for the survival of 592 patients with Grade II-IV diffuse gliomas. On univariate analysis, increased neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), and monocyte-to-lymphocyte ratio (MLR), and decreased albumin-to-globulin ratio (AGR), all predicted poor prognosis in Grade II/III gliomas. Multivariate analysis incorporating tumor status based on the presence of IDH mutations, TERT promoter mutations, and 1p/19q codeletion showed that in lower-grade gliomas, high NLR predicted poorer survival for the triple-negative, IDH mutation only, TERT mutation only, and IDH and TERT mutation groups. NLR was an independent prognostic factor in Grade IV glioma. We therefore propose a prognostic model for diffuse gliomas based on the presence of IDH and TERT promoter mutations, 1p/19q codeletion, and NLR. This model classifies lower-grade gliomas into nine subgroups that can be combined into four main risk groups based on survival projections.
Project description:Glioma is the most common of all primary brain tumors with poor prognosis and high mortality. The 2016 World Health Organization classification of the tumors of central nervous system uses molecular parameters in addition to histology to redefine many tumor entities. The new classification scheme divides diffuse gliomas into low-grade glioma (LGG) and glioblastoma (GBM) as per histology. LGGs are further divided into isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) wild type or mutant, which is further classified into either oligodendroglioma that harbors 1p/19q codeletion or diffuse astrocytoma that has an intact 1p/19q loci but enriched for ATRX loss and TP53 mutation. GBMs are divided into IDH wild type that corresponds to primary or de novo GBMs and IDH mutant that corresponds to secondary or progressive GBMs. To make the 2016 WHO subtypes of diffuse gliomas more robust, we carried out Prediction Analysis of Microarrays (PAM) to develop DNA methylation signatures for these subtypes.In this study, we applied PAM on a training set of diffuse gliomas derived from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and identified DNA methylation signatures to classify LGG IDH wild type from LGG IDH mutant, LGG IDH mutant with 1p/19q codeletion from LGG IDH mutant with intact 1p/19q loci and GBM IDH wild type from GBM IDH mutant with an accuracy of 99-100%. The signatures were validated using the test set of diffuse glioma samples derived from TCGA with an accuracy of 96 to 99%. In addition, we also carried out additional validation of all three signatures using independent LGG and GBM cohorts. Further, the methylation signatures identified a fraction of samples as discordant, which were found to have molecular and clinical features typical of the subtype as identified by methylation signatures.Thus, we identified methylation signatures that classified different subtypes of diffuse glioma accurately and propose that these signatures could complement 2016 WHO classification scheme of diffuse glioma.