Combination Therapy of Chloroquine and C₂-Ceramide Enhances Cytotoxicity in Lung Cancer H460 and H1299 Cells.
ABSTRACT: Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a type of malignant cancer, and 85% of metastatic NSCLC patients have a poor prognosis. C₂-ceramide induces G2/M phase arrest and cytotoxicity in NSCLC cells. In this study, the autophagy-inducing effect of C₂-ceramide was demonstrated, and cotreatment with the autophagy inhibitor chloroquine (CQ) was investigated in NSCLC H460 and H1299 cells. The results suggested that C₂-ceramide exhibited dose-dependent anticancer effects in H460 and H1299 cells and autophagy induction. Zebrafish-based acridine orange staining confirmed the combined effects in vivo. Importantly, the combination of a sublethal dose of C₂-ceramide and CQ resulted in additive cytotoxicity and autophagy in both cell lines. Alterations of related signaling factors, including Src and SIRT1 inhibition and activation of the autophagic regulators LAMP2 and LC3-I/II, contributed to the autophagy-dependent apoptosis. We found that C₂-ceramide continuously initiated autophagy; however, CQ inhibited autophagosome maturation and degradation during autophagy progression. Accumulated and non-degraded autophagosomes increased NSCLC cell stress, eventually leading to cell death. This study sheds light on improvements to NSCLC chemotherapy to reduce the chemotherapy dose and NSCLC patient burden.
Project description:Metastasis, which involves the spread of cancer cells to distant tissues and organs, is a major cause of cancer-associated mortality. Although the use of anesthetics and analgesics may affect cancer cell metastasis, the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear. Autophagy is a lysosome-based dynamic intracellular catabolic process that serves a crucial role in cancer cell metastasis. In order to investigate the role of autophagy in the migration of cancer cells treated with analgesics, immunofluorescence, western blotting, wound healing assay and cell invasion assay were performed in the present study. The results from immunofluorescence and western blotting demonstrated that the opioid analgesic sufentanil stimulated LC3 induction in NCI-H460 cells. Furthermore, sufentanil increased LC3 and Beclin1 protein levels, but inhibited the fusion of autophagosomes and lysosomes. In addition, sufentanil decreased cathepsin D protein level and increased p62 protein level. The addition of chloroquine (CQ) to sufentanil did not induce a further increase in LC3-II protein levels in NCI-H460 cells, suggesting the impairment of autophagic degradation. Furthermore, treatment with trehalose stimulated the migration of sufentanil-treated cells, whereas additional treatment with CQ did not further decrease the migration of sufentanil-treated cells. In addition, sufentanil co-treatment with trehalose significantly increased the invasion of lung cancer cells, whereas, additional treatment with CQ did not further reduce the invasion of sufentanil-treated cells. These results indicated that autophagy may be involved in the inhibition of NCI-H460 cell migration by sufentanil, and that sufentanil may be considered as a favorable analgesic for patients with lung cancer.
Project description:To identify a set of genes related to radioresistance, we analyzed the time-series gene expression profiles of radioresistant H1299 and radiosensitive H460 lung cancer cells in response to 2 Gy of ionizing radiation (IR) by performing quadratic regression (QR) analysis. Out of the 21,331 genes, we selected 6,538 genes by QR analysis from the gene expression profile of H460 cells and 6,086 genes from that of H1299 cells. Most of the genes identified in the H460 cells were classified into continuously up- or down-regulated groups, while the major QR groups were transiently changed groups in the H1299 cell line. From gene ontology analysis of the major QR groups, the DNA damage response was commonly enriched in both cell lines. DNA repair-related genes such as ATM, ATR, TP53BP1, BRCA1, MRE11, NBN and RAD50 were particularly up-regulated in H1299 cells. Suppression of these DNA repair-related genes using siRNA made H1299 cells radiosensitive to ionizing radiation. The data suggest that differential responses to DNA damage confer radioresistance to cancer cells, and provide potential novel targets for sensitizing radiotherapy. Overall design: We analyzed the time-series gene expression profiles of radioresistant H1299 and radiosensitive H460 lung cancer cells in response to 2 Gy of ionizing radiation (IR) by performing quadratic regression (QR) analysis to identify genes associated with radioresistance
Project description:To assess the synergistic actions of lidamycin (LDM) and chloroquine (CQ), a lysosomal enzyme inhibitor, in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells, and to elucidate the potential mechanisms.Human NSCLC cell lines A549 and H460 were treated with CQ and/or LDM. Cell proliferation was analyzed using MTT assay, and apoptosis was quantified using flow cytometry. Western blotting was used to detect the protein levels of caspase 3, PARP, Bcl-2, Bax, p53, LC3-I and LC3-II. A H460 cell xenograft model in BALB/c nude mice was used to evaluate the anticancer efficacy of CQ and LDM in vivo.Both LDM and CQ concentration-dependently suppressed the proliferation of A549 and H460 cells in vitro (the IC50 values of LDM were 1.70 ± 0.75 and 0.043 ± 0.026 nmol/L, respectively, while the IC50 values of CQ were 71.3 ± 6.1 and 55.6 ± 12.5 μmol/L, respectively). CQ sensitized both NSCLC cell lines to LDM, and the majority of the coefficients of drug interaction (CDIs) for combination-doses were less than 1. The ratio of apoptosis of H460 cells induced by a combined treatment of CQ and LDM (77.0% ± 5.2%) was significantly higher than those caused by CQ (23.1% ± 4.2%) or by LDM (65.1% ± 4.1%) alone. Furthermore, the combined treatment markedly increased the cleaved PARP and cleaved caspase 3 in H460 cells, which were partly reversed by pretreatment with the caspase inhibitor zVAD.fmk. zVAD.fmk also partially reversed the inhibitory effect of the combination treatment on the proliferation of H460 cells. The combination therapy group had a notable increase in expression of Bax and a very slight decrease in expression of Bcl-2 and p53 protein. LDM alone scarcely affected the level of LC3-II in H460 cells, but slightly reduced CQ-induced LC3-II expression. 3-MA, an autophagy inhibitor also sensitized H460 cells to LDM. In nude mice bearing H460 cell xenograft, administration of LDM (25 μg/kg, iv) and CQ (60 mg/kg, ip) suppressed tumor growth by 57.14% and 73.02%, respectively.The synergistic anticancer effect of LDM and CQ in vitro results from activation of a caspase-dependent and p53-independent apoptosis pathway as well as inhibition of cytoprotective autophagy.
Project description:The aim of the present study was to identify natural compounds that bear significant anti?tumor activity. Thus, the effects of 63 small molecules that were isolated from traditional Chinese medicinal herbs on A549 human non?small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and MCF?7 breast cancer cells were examined. It was found that ursolic acid (UA), a natural pentacyclic triterpenoid, exerted significant inhibitory effect on these cells. Further experiments revealed that UA inhibited the proliferation of various lung cancer cells, including the NSCLC cells, H460, H1975, A549, H1299 and H520, the human small cell lung cancer (SCLC) cells, H82 and H446, and murine Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells. UA induced the apoptosis and autophagy of NSCLC cells. The inhibition of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway, but not the activation of the extracellular signal?regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) signaling pathway contributed to the UA?induced autophagy of NSCLC cells. Moreover, the inhibition of autophagy by chloroquine (CQ) or siRNA for autophagy?related gene 5 (ATG5) enhanced the UA?induced inhibition of cell proliferation and promotion of apoptosis, indicating that UA?induced autophagy is a pro?survival mechanism in NSCLC cells. On the whole, these findings suggest that combination treatment with autophagy inhibitors may be a novel strategy with which enhance the antitumor activity of UA in lung cancer.
Project description:Highly effective and attenuated dose schedules are good regimens for drug research and development. Combination chemotherapy is a good strategy in cancer therapy. We evaluated the antitumour effects of dihydroberberine combined with sunitinib (DCS) on the human non-small cell lung cancer cell lines (NSCLC), A549, NCI-H460, and NCI-H1299 in vitro and in vivo. DCS showed synergic effects on NCI-H460 cell proliferation, colony formation and transplantable tumour growth, which suggested dihydroberberine increases the sensitivity of lung carcinoma to sunitinib. Further studies indicated that DCS down-regulated phosphorylation of JNK, p38, and NF-?B in NCI-H460 cells and tumours and suppressed the I?B and COX-2 expression. In addition, DCS reduced the secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-1 (IL-1), in tumours. Inhibition of p38 activation by DCS was a likely contributing factor in IL-1 and COX-2 down-regulation. Consistent with these results, a genomewide microarray analysis found that DCS induced the expression of cell cycle signal molecules that are known to be affected by JNK and p38. The change of cell cycle, in turn, led to down-regulation of JNK and p38, and further reduced IL-1 secretion. Collectively, these findings highlight potential molecular mechanisms of DCS chemotherapeutic activity and suggest that DCS is an efficacious strategy in NSCLC therapy.
Project description:Inhibition of thymidylate synthase (TS) results in a transient compensatory "flare" in thymidine salvage pathway activity measureable with 18F-thymidine (FLT)- positron emission tomography (PET) at 2hrs. of therapy which may predict non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) sensitivity to TS inhibition.Resistance to TS inhibition by pemetrexed was induced in NSCLC cell lines H460 and H1299 through TS overexpression. TS overexpression was confirmed with RT-PCR and Western blotting and pemetrexed resistance confirmed with IC50 assays. The presence of a pemetrexed-induced thymidine salvage pathway "flare" was then measured using 3H-thymidine in both pemetrexed sensitive (H460 and H1299) and resistant (H460R, H1299R, CALU-6, H522, H650, H661, H820, H1838) lines in vitro, and validated with FLT-PET in vivo using H460 and H460R xenografts.Overexpression of TS induced pemetrexed resistance with IC50 for H460, H1299, H460R and H1299R measured as 0.141 ?M, 0.656 ?M, 22.842 ?M, 213.120 ?M, respectively. Thymidine salvage pathway 3H-thymidine "flare" was observed following pemetrexed in H460 and H1299 but not H460R, H1299R, CALU-6, H522, H650, H661, H820 or H1838 in vitro. Similarly, a FLT "flare" was observed in vivo following pemetrexed therapy in H460 but not H460R tumor-bearing xenografts.Imaging of TS inhibition is predictive of NSCLC sensitivity to pemetrexed.
Project description:Costunolide being a sesquiterpene lactone, is known to have anticancer properties. The present study investigated the anticancer effects of costunolide against the H1299 human non?small?cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell line. Inhibition of cell viability by costunolide was assessed via a MTT assay. Furthermore, the apoptotic rate was detected using Annexin V/propidium iodide labeling. A colony forming cell assay was performed to investigate the antiproliferative effects of costunolide. Wound healing and Transwell assays were performed to determine the inhibitory effects of costunolide on migration and invasion, respectively. Western blot analysis was undertaken to determine protein expression, and reverse transcription?quantitative PCR was performed to assess mRNA expression levels. The results demonstrated that costunolide inhibited the viability of H1299 cells, with a half maximal inhibitory concentration value of 23.93±1.67 µM and induced cellular apoptosis in a dose?dependent manner. Furthermore, the colony formation, migrative and invasive abilities of the H1299 cells were inhibited in a dose? or time?dependent manner. The protein expression levels of E?cadherin increased and those of N?cadherin decreased following treatment with costunolide, which suggested that costunolide inhibited epithelial?to?mesenchymal transition. The mRNA levels of B?Raf, E?cadherin, N?cadherin, integrins ?2 and ?1, as well as matrix metalloproteinases 2 were also found to be regulated costunolide. These findings indicate the potential of costunolide in the treatment of NSCLC.
Project description:Transcription profile of cancer stem cells isolated from human non-small cells lung cancer (NSCLC) H460 cells. The profile of H460 cells that were made resistant to cisplatin after a single treatment with the drug was also determined. Both profiles were finally compared. Each microarray contained one of these comparative experiments (two-channels): H460C (H460 derived CSCs) vs H460 and H460R (cisplatin-resistant H460 cells) vs H460. Technical replicates were made with dye-swap-based design. Total biological replicates per cell type (H460C and H460R): 2.
Project description:Micheliolide (MCL) has shown promising anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor efficacy. However, whether and how MCL enhances the sensitivity of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) to radiotherapy are still unknown. In the present paper, we found that MCL exerted a tumor cell killing effect on NSCLC cells in a dose-dependent manner, and MCL strongly sensitized p53-deficient NSCLC cells, but not the cells with wild-type p53 to irradiation (IR). Meanwhile, MCL markedly inhibited the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?) after IR and hypoxic exposure in H1299 and Calu-1 cells rather than in H460 cells. Consistently, radiation- or hypoxia-induced expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was also significantly inhibited by MCL in H1299 and Calu-1 cells, but not in H460 cells. Therefore, inhibition of the HIF-1? pathway might, at least in part, contribute to the radiosensitizing effect of MCL. Further study showed that MCL could accelerate the degradation of HIF-1? through the ubiquitin-proteosome system. In addition, the transfection of wild-type p53 into p53-null cells (H1299) attenuated the effect of MCL on inhibiting HIF-1? expression. These results suggest MCL effectively sensitizes p53-deficient NSCLC cells to IR in a manner of inhibiting the HIF-1? pathway via promoting HIF-1? degradation, and p53 played a negative role in MCL-induced HIF-1? degradation.
Project description:The standard of care for unresectable lung cancer is chemoradiation. However, therapeutic options are limited and patients are rarely cured. We have previously shown that vitamin D and vitamin D analogs such as EB 1089 can enhance the response to radiation in breast cancer through the promotion of a cytotoxic form of autophagy. In A549 and H460 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells, 1,25-D3 (the hormonally active form of vitamin D) and EB 1089 prolonged the growth arrest induced by radiation alone and suppressed proliferative recovery, which translated to a significant reduction in clonogenic survival. In H838 or H358 NSCLC cells, which lack VDR/vitamin D receptor or functional TP53, respectively, 1,25-D3 failed to modify the extent of radiation-induced growth arrest or suppress proliferative recovery post-irradiation. Sensitization to radiation in H1299 NSCLC cells was evident only when TP53 was induced in otherwise tp53-null H1299 NSCLC cells. Sensitization was not associated with increased DNA damage, decreased DNA repair or an increase in apoptosis, necrosis, or senescence. Instead sensitization appeared to be a consequence of the conversion of the cytoprotective autophagy induced by radiation alone to a novel cytostatic form of autophagy by the combination of 1,25-D3 or EB 1089 with radiation. While both pharmacological and genetic suppression of autophagy or inhibition of AMPK phosphorylation sensitized the NSCLC cells to radiation alone, inhibition of the cytostatic autophagy induced by the combination treatment reversed sensitization. Evidence for selectivity was provided by lack of radiosensitization in normal human bronchial cells and cardiomyocytes. Taken together, these studies have identified a unique cytostatic function of autophagy that appears to be mediated by VDR, TP53, and possibly AMPK in the promotion of an enhanced response to radiation by 1,25-D3 and EB 1089 in NSCLC.