Prevalence and characteristics of psoriasis in Denmark: findings from the Danish skin cohort.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Wide-ranging psoriasis prevalence estimates have been reported, possibly due to methodological differences. OBJECTIVES:To assess the prevalence of psoriasis in Denmark and to validate the use of questionnaire-based data to identify patients with psoriasis. METHODS:We used data from the Danish Skin Cohort, a prospective cohort comprising general population adults, as well as patients with dermatologist-verified psoriasis and atopic dermatitis, respectively. The general population cohort was interviewed to assess the psoriasis prevalence in Denmark, and validation of the questions was performed. RESULTS:From 3490 general population participants, 7.9% (n=275) were found to have self-reported psoriasis. Of these, 221 (prevalence 6.3%) had their disease diagnosed by a physician (the dermatologist-diagnosed prevalence was 4.3%), whereas 54 (prevalence 1.6%) were not diagnosed by a physician. A total of 176 (5%) had active psoriasis within the last 12 months. More than half of patients had at least one disease flare in the last 12 months, and 44.4% of patients with psoriasis had at least one family member with psoriasis, whereas this was only the case for 13.7% of non-psoriasis individuals. Validation of the psoriasis diagnosis yielded a high sensitivity and specificity, with little incremental value of limiting diagnoses to those diagnosed by a physician. CONCLUSION:The lifetime-prevalence of self-reported psoriasis was found to be 7.9%, whereas the 1-year prevalence (ie, currently active psoriasis) was 5.0%. If used appropriately, questionnaire-based data may accurately identify patients with psoriasis.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Psoriasis is a common disease frequently studied in large databases. To date the validity of psoriasis information has not been established in The Health Improvement Network (THIN). OBJECTIVES:To investigate the validity of THIN for identifying patients with psoriasis and to determine if the database can be used to determine the natural history of the disease. METHODS:First, we conducted a cross-sectional study to determine if psoriasis prevalence in THIN is similar to expected. Second, we created a cohort of 4900 patients, aged 45-64 years, with a psoriasis diagnostic Read Code and surveyed their general practitioners (GPs) to confirm the diagnosis clinically. Third, we created models to determine if psoriasis descriptors (extent, severity, duration and dermatologist confirmation) could be accurately captured from database records. RESULTS:Psoriasis prevalence was 1·9%, and showed the characteristic age distribution expected. GP questionnaires were received for 4634 of 4900 cohort patients (95% response rate), and psoriasis diagnoses were confirmed in 90% of patients. Duration of disease in the database showed substantial agreement with physician query (? = 0·69). GPs confirmed that the psoriasis diagnosis was corroborated by a dermatologist in 91% of patients whose database records contained a dermatology referral code associated with a psoriasis code. We achieved good discrimination between patients with and without extensive disease based on the number of psoriasis codes received per year (area under curve = 0·8). CONCLUSIONS:THIN is a valid data resource for studying psoriasis and can be used to identify characteristics of the disease such as duration and confirmation by a dermatologist.
Project description:Psoriasis (skin psoriasis, PsO) is a chronic inflammatory condition. In about one-third of cases, the joints are affected (psoriatic arthritis, PsA). Both conditions, especially PsA, profoundly impact patients' health-related quality of life (HRQoL). To describe the impact of psoriasis on HRQoL and patients' contact with the healthcare system in Sweden, Denmark, and Norway, the NORdic PAtient survey of Psoriasis and Psoriatic arthritis (NORPAPP) asked 22,050 adults randomly selected in Sweden, Denmark and Norway if they had psoriasis. 1264 individuals who reported physician-diagnosed PsO/PsA were invited to the full survey; 1221 responded (74.6% diagnosed with PsO alone; 25.4% with PsA ± PsO). Respondents with PsA most frequently consulted a rheumatologist; however, 14.3% had never seen a rheumatologist. Respondents with PsO alone most frequently consulted a general practitioner and 10.7% had never seen a dermatologist (although those with severe symptoms visited dermatologists more often). Negative impacts on HRQoL were reported by 38.1% of respondents with PsO [mostly limitations on clothing (22.6%), sleep disorders (16%), and depression/anxiety (16%)] and by 73% of respondents with PsA [mostly limitations on clothing (41.8%), sports/leisure (44.0%), or daily routine (45.1%) and sleeping disorders]. Absence from work/education was more common with PsA ± PsO (51.9%) than PsO alone (15.1%). In this survey in Sweden, Denmark, and Norway, the impact of psoriasis on the respondents' HRQoL was profound and was greater for PsA than for PsO, as was sickness absence. Sleeping disorders and depression were common and should not be overlooked.
Project description:People diagnosed with psoriasis have an increased risk of premature mortality, but the underlying reasons for this mortality gap are unclear.To investigate whether patients with psoriasis have an elevated risk of alcohol-related mortality.An incident cohort of patients with psoriasis aged 18 years and older was delineated for 1998 through 2014 using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) and linked to Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) and Office for National Statistics (ONS) mortality records. Patients with psoriasis were matched with up to 20 comparison patients without psoriasis on age, sex, and general practice.Alcohol-related deaths were ascertained via the Office for National Statistics mortality records. A stratified Cox proportional hazard model was used to estimate the cause-specific hazard ratio for alcohol-related death, with adjustment for socioeconomic status.The cohort included 55?537 with psoriasis and 854?314 patients without psoriasis. Median (interquartile) age at index date was 47 (27) years; 408?230 of total patients (44.9%) were men. During a median (IQR) of 4.4 (6.2) years of follow-up, the alcohol-related mortality rate was 4.8 per 10?000 person-years (95% CI, 4.1-5.6; n?=?152) for the psoriasis cohort, vs 2.5 per 10?000 (95% CI, 2.4- 2.7; n?=?1118) for the comparison cohort. The hazard ratio for alcohol-related death in patients with psoriasis was 1.58 (95% CI, 1.31-1.91), and the predominant causes of alcohol-related deaths were alcoholic liver disease (65.1%), fibrosis and cirrhosis of the liver (23.7%), and mental and behavioral disorders due to alcohol (7.9%).People with psoriasis have approximately a 60% greater risk of dying due to alcohol-related causes compared with peers of the same age and sex in the general population. This appears to be a key contributor to the premature mortality gap. These findings call for routine screening, identification and treatment, using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-C) in both primary and secondary care to detect alcohol consumption and misuse among people diagnosed with psoriasis.
Project description:Interest has increased in comorbidities associated with psoriasis and their effects on health-related quality of life (HRQoL). This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and psoriatic arthritis (PsA) and to investigate HRQoL and the prevalence of hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), obesity and dyslipidemia. In a cross-sectional design, patients diagnosed with plaque psoriasis answered an interview and standardized questionnaires (Dermatology Life Quality Index questionnaire [DLQI], 36-Item Short Form Health Survey [SF-36] and EuroQol Five-Dimension Questionnaire Three-Level version [EQ-5D-3L]). Physical examination and several tests to assess desired outcomes were performed by a dermatologist and a rheumatologist during three visits. The prevalence of MetS and PsA was 50.0% and 41.8%, respectively. Dyslipidemia was the most prevalent (74.5%) secondary comorbidity, followed by hypertension (61.8%), obesity (52.5%) and T2DM (30.9%). The mean (standard deviation) DLQI score was 6.5 (6.9), and mean physical and mental SF-36 measures were 45.2 (10.4) and 45.5 (12.3), respectively, and for EQ-5D-3L, mean utility index and EQ-VAS scores were 0.68 (0.27) and 72.7 (19.7), respectively. PsA and MetS are important comorbidities; a reduced HRQoL is noted among plaque psoriasis patients with these comorbidities, emphasizing the relevance of diagnosis and treatment beyond the care of skin lesions.
Project description:PURPOSE:Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease that frequently debuts in childhood and adolescence. We wished to determine environmental and genetic risk factors for the development of psoriasis in children and adolescents, as well as to investigate debut type, trigger factors, course of disease, nature and influence of stress related to both child and family and risk factors for comorbidity. The 'Psoriasis in Adolescents' (PIA) cohort will provide data on the relationship between psoriasis and, respectively, genetic disposition, early-life exposures, quality of life and comorbidity. PARTICIPANTS:The PIA cohort is nested in the large general population Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC). We invited 390 adolescents with psoriasis and corresponding maternally predisposed and non-predisposed controls. Participants underwent an interview and a clinical examination consisting of a skin inspection and physical measurements including blood sampling and microbiological swabs. Additionally, four self-administered questionnaires on physical and mental health were completed. FINDINGS TO DATE:The final PIA cohort consists of 81 adolescents with psoriasis, 110 parentally predisposed and 124 non-predisposed psoriasis-free adolescents. The validity of the maternally reported psoriasis status from the DNBC was found to be low on clinical examination (47.5%). In contrast, the self-reported psoriasis status of the DNBC mothers was clinically confirmed in 80.8% of the cases. FUTURE PLANS:The PIA cohort offers the possibility of assessing the clinical characteristics, course of psoriasis and development of comorbidities in adolescents with clinically confirmed disease from a general population. Comparison with predisposed and non-predisposed controls is possible and genetic analyses are scheduled. We plan to invite the participants for a follow-up in 5-10 years. Furthermore, we plan to include newly diagnosed adolescents with psoriasis from the 18-year DNBC follow-up. All information is linkable on the individual level with data from the DNBC and nationwide registries in Denmark.
Project description:We present the largest set of US prevalence data for psoriasis to date, obtained from three prospective cohort studies describing validated clinical phenotypes of psoriasis, including novel data about the prevalence of inverse (intertriginous) psoriasis in these groups. Nonplaque psoriasis phenotypes have been largely unmeasured in observational and interventional studies, and this has led to an under-recognition of this aspect of psoriatic disease.To describe the prevalence of nonplaque psoriasis phenotypes in a large prospective cohort.We included 3179 women and 646 men in the analysis. Participants in the Nurses Health Study (NHS) and Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS) with physician-diagnosed psoriasis completed a validated, self-administered questionnaire to assess plaque and nonplaque subsets of psoriasis.Psoriasis phenotypes were as follows: plaque 55%, scalp 52%, palmar-plantar 14%, nail 23% and inverse 21% in the NHS (n = 1604); plaque 60%, scalp 56%, palmar-plantar 16%, nail 27% and inverse 24% in the second NHS study (NHS II) (n = 1575); and plaque 55%, scalp 45%, palmar-plantar 12%, nail 27% and inverse 30% in the HPFS (n = 646). Scalp, nail, palmar-plantar and inverse disease represent highly prevalent phenotypes of psoriasis in the USA.Scalp, nail, palmar-plantar and inverse disease represent highly prevalent phenotypes of psoriasis.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:To describe the diagnostic properties of thoracoabdominal contrast-enhanced CT (ceCT), when general practitioners (GPs) managed referral to ceCT through the non-specific symptoms or signs of cancer-cancer patient pathway (NSSC-CPP). DESIGN:Retrospective cohort study including patients from a part of Denmark. SETTING:Department of Internal Medicine at a university hospital. PARTICIPANTS:In total, 529 patients underwent ceCT. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOMES:Our primary objective was to estimate the negative and positive likelihood ratios for being diagnosed with cancer within 1?year after ceCT. Our secondary outcomes were prevalence and final diagnoses of malignancy (including temporal trends since implementation of NSSC-CPP in 2012), the prevalence of revision of CT scans and referral patterns based on ceCT results. RESULTS:In total, 529 subjects underwent ceCT and malignancy was identified in 104 (19.7%) patients; 101 (97.1%) during initial workup and 3 patients during the subsequent 12 months follow-up.Eleven patients had a false-negative ceCT, and revision classified the ceCT as 'probable/possible malignancy' in eight (73%) patients. The negative predictive value was 98% and positive predictive value 63%. Negative and positive likelihood ratios for malignancy was 0.1 and 7.9, respectively. CONCLUSION:Our study shows that ceCT as part of GP-coordinated workup has a low negative likelihood ratio for identifying malignancy; this is important since identifying patients for further workup is vital.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Current treatment strategies of psoriasis are not completely satisfactorily. By inhibiting inflammatory cytokines, nicotinamide may enhance the effects of current topical treatments. We investigated whether the combination of topical calcipotriol and nicotinamide is more effective than calcipotriol alone in treatment of psoriasis. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Adult patients with mild to moderate psoriasis were randomized to receive topical calcipotriol 0.005% and nicotinamide 4% in combination or calcipotriol 0.005% alone, twice daily for 12 weeks. Patients were visited by a dermatologist at baseline and then after the first and third month of therapy, and psoriasis severity was evaluated using the modified psoriasis area and severity index (PASI). Also, patient's satisfaction was evaluated at the end of the trial using a 10-point rating scale. RESULTS:Sixty-five patients (35 males, mean age = 36.5 ± 8.5 years) completed the trial. Lesions on both sides were similar regarding baseline PASI score. At the end of the trial, PASI score was more reduced with calcipotriol+nicotinamide compared to calcipotriol alone (83.6 ± 7.9% vs. 77.8 ± 9.7%, P < 0.001). Patients were also more satisfied with the improvement of lesions with calcipotriol+nicotinamide compared with calcipotriol alone (P < 0.001). Side effects included mild erythema and pruritus (4.6%) and moderate burning and sensitivity to light (3.0%). CONCLUSIONS:Nicotinamide can enhance the efficacy of calcipotriol when used in combination for topical psoriasis treatment, and it may be a good adjuvant to the current treatment regimens of psoriasis.
Project description:The risk of psoriasis in patients with breast cancer is largely unknown, as available evidence is limited to case findings. We systematically examined the incidence and risk factors of psoriasis in patients with breast cancer.A Swedish nationwide cohort of 56,235 breast cancer patients (2001-2012) was compared to 280,854 matched reference individuals from the general population to estimate the incidence and hazard ratio (HR) of new-onset psoriasis. We also calculated HRs for psoriasis according to treatment, genetic, and lifestyle factors in a regional cohort of 8987 patients.In the nationwide cohort, 599 patients with breast cancer were diagnosed with psoriasis during a median follow-up of 5.1 years compared to 2795 cases in the matched reference individuals. This corresponded to an incidence rate of 1.9/1000 person-years in breast cancer patients vs. 1.7/1000 person-years in matched reference individuals. Breast cancer patients were at an increased risk of psoriasis (HR = 1.17; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.07-1.28), especially its most common subtype (psoriasis vulgaris; HR = 1.33; 95% CI = 1.17-1.52). The risk of psoriasis vulgaris was highest shortly after diagnosis but remained increased up to 12 years. Treatment-specific analyses indicated a higher risk of psoriasis in patients treated with radiotherapy (HR = 2.44; 95% CI = 1.44-4.12) and mastectomy (HR = 1.54, 95% CI = 1.03-2.31). Apart from treatment-specific effects, we identified genetic predisposition, obesity, and smoking as independent risk factors for psoriasis in breast cancer patients.The incidence of psoriasis is slightly elevated among patients with breast cancer, with treatment, lifestyle, and genetic factors defining the individual risk profile.
Project description:Psoriasis is a systemic inflammatory disorder associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Hypercholesterolemia is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, and patients with psoriasis or psoriatic arthritis (PsA) have been shown to have elevated cholesterol levels. However, it is not known whether hypercholesterolemia is associated with an increased risk of psoriasis or psoriasis with PsA. We undertook this study to determine whether a history of hypercholesterolemia is associated with the risk of developing incident psoriasis and psoriasis with PsA in a cohort of US women.We included a total of 95,540 participants from the Nurses' Health Study II (1991-2005). Information on personal history of physician-diagnosed hypercholesterolemia and related medication use was collected during the followup period. Clinician-diagnosed psoriasis and psoriasis with PsA were ascertained and confirmed using supplementary questionnaires. Hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs).During 1,320,765 person-years of followup, we documented 646 participants with incident psoriasis, 165 of whom had concomitant PsA. Hypercholesterolemia was associated with elevated risks of incident psoriasis (HR 1.25 [95% CI 1.04-1.50]) and psoriasis with PsA (HR 1.58 [95% CI 1.13-2.23]) in multivariate-adjusted models. Participants with hypercholesterolemia lasting for ?7 years were at a higher risk of developing psoriasis (HR 1.29 [95% CI 1.03-1.61]) (P for trend = 0.0002) and psoriasis with PsA (HR 1.68 [95% CI 1.12-2.52]) (P for trend = 0.002). These associations persisted among participants who never took cholesterol-lowering medications. There was no association between cholesterol-lowering drugs and risk of psoriasis or psoriasis with PsA.Our study provides evidence that hypercholesterolemia, a well-known cardiovascular risk factor, is also associated with an elevated risk of psoriasis and psoriasis with PsA.