C5L2 Regulates DMP1 Expression during Odontoblastic Differentiation.
ABSTRACT: The presence of stem cells within the dental-pulp tissue as well as their differentiation into a new generation of functional odontoblast-like cells constitutes an important step of the dentin-pulp regeneration. Recent investigations demonstrated that the complement system activation participates in 2 critical steps of dentin-pulp regeneration: pulp progenitor's recruitment and pulp nerve sprouting. Surprisingly, its implication in odontoblastic differentiation has not been addressed yet. Since the complement receptor C5a receptor-like 2 (C5L2) is expressed by different stem cells, the aim of this study is to investigate if the dental pulp stem cells express C5L2 and if this receptor participates in odontoblastic differentiation. Immunohistochemistry performed on human third molar pulp sections showed a perivascular co-localization of the mesenchymal stem cell markers STRO1 and C5L2. In vitro immunofluorescent staining confirmed that hDPSCs express C5L2. Furthermore, we determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction that the expression of C5L2 is highly modulated in human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) undergoing odontoblastic differentiation. Moreover, we showed that this odontogenesis-regulated expression of C5L2 is specifically potentiated by the proinflammatory cytokine TNF?. Using a C5L2-siRNA silencing strategy, we provide direct evidence that C5L2 constitutes a negative regulator of the dentinogenic marker DMP1 (dentin matrix protein 1) expression by hDPSCs. Our findings suggest a direct correlation between the odontoblastic differentiation and the level of C5L2 expression in hDPSCs and identify C5L2 as a negative regulator of DMP1 expression by hDPSCs during the odontoblastic differentiation and inflammation processes. This work is the first to demonstrate the involvement of C5L2 in the biological function of stem cells, provides an important knowledge in understanding odontoblastic differentiation of dental pulp stem cells, and may be useful in future dentin-pulp engineering strategies.
Project description:Dentin-pulp complex regeneration is a promising alternative treatment for the irreversible pulpitis caused by tooth trauma or dental caries. This process mainly relies on the recruitment of endogenous or the transplanted dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) to guide dentin-pulp tissue formation. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), a well-known potent mitogenic, angiogenic, and chemoattractive agent, has been widely used in tissue regeneration. However, the mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effects of PDGF on dentin-pulp complex regeneration are still unclear. In this study, we tested the effect of PDGF-BB on dentin-pulp tissue regeneration by establishing PDGF-BB gene-modified human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) using a lentivirus. Our results showed that PDGF-BB can significantly enhance hDPSC proliferation and odontoblastic differentiation. Furthermore, PDGF-BB and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secreted by hDPSCs enhanced angiogenesis. The chemoattractive effect of PDGF-BB on hDPSCs was also confirmed using a Transwell chemotactic migration model. We further determined that PDGF-BB facilitates hDPSCs migration via the activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway. In vivo, CM-DiI-labeled hDPSCs were injected subcutaneously into mice, and our results showed that more labeled cells were recruited to the sites implanted with calcium phosphate cement scaffolds containing PDGF-BB gene-modified hDPSCs. Finally, the tissue-engineered complexes were implanted subcutaneously in mice for 12 weeks, the Lenti-PDGF group generated more dentin-like mineralized tissue which showed positive staining for the DSPP protein, similar to tooth dentin tissue, and was surrounded by highly vascularized dental pulp-like connective tissue. Taken together, our data demonstrated that the PDGF-BB possesses a powerful function in prompting stem cell-based dentin-pulp tissue regeneration. Stem Cells Translational Medicine 2017;6:2126-2134.
Project description:We developed a novel dentin-pulp-like organoid. It has both stem-cell and odontoblast characteristics using a mesenchymal cell lineage of human dental-pulp stem cells (hDPSCs). The mixture of hDPSCs and Matrigel was transferred into the maintenance medium (MM) and divided into four different groups according to how long they were maintained in the odontogenic differentiation medium (ODM). All organoids were harvested at 21 days and analyzed to find the optimal differentiation condition. To assess the re-fabrication of dentin-pulp-like organoid, after dissociation of the organoids, it was successfully regenerated. Additionally, its biological activity was confirmed by analyzing changes of relevant gene expression and performing a histology analysis after adding Biodentine® into the ODM. The organoid was cultured for 11 days in the ODM (ODM 11) had the most features of both stem cells and differentiated cells (odontoblasts) as confirmed by relevant gene expression and histology analyses. Micro-computed tomography and an electron microscope also showed mineralization and odontoblastic differentiation. Finally, ODM 11 demonstrated a biologically active response to Biodentine® treatment. In conclusion, for the first time, we report the fabrication of a dentin-pulp-like organoid using mesenchymal stem cells. This organoid has potential as a future therapeutic strategy for tooth regeneration.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Increasing evidence has revealed that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) exert critical roles in biological mineralization. As a critical process for dentin formation, odontoblastic differentiation is regulated by complex signaling networks. The present study aimed to investigate the biological role and regulatory mechanisms of lncRNA-H19 (H19) in regulating the odontoblastic differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs). METHODS:We performed lncRNA microarray assay to reveal the expression patterns of lncRNAs involved in odontoblastic differentiation. H19 was identified and verified as a critical factor by qRT-PCR. The gain- and loss-of-function studies were performed to investigate the biological role of H19 in regulating odontoblastic differentiation of hDPSCs in vitro and in vivo. Odontoblastic differentiation was evaluated through qRT-PCR, Western blot, and Alizarin Red S staining. Bioinformatics analysis identified that H19 could directly interact with miR-140-5p, which was further verified by luciferase reporter assay. After overexpression of miR-140-5p in hDPSCs, odontoblastic differentiation was determined. Moreover, the potential target genes of miR-140-5p were investigated and the biological functions of BMP-2 and FGF9 in hDPSCs were verified. Co-transfection experiments were conducted to validate miR-140-5p was involved in H19-mediated odontoblastic differentiation in hDPSCs. RESULTS:The expression of H19 was significantly upregulated in hDPSCs undergoing odontoblastic differentiation. Overexpression of H19 stimulated odontoblastic differentiation in vitro and in vivo, whereas downregulation of H19 revealed the opposite effect. H19 binds directly to miR-140-5p and overexpression of miR-140-5p inhibited odontoblastic differentiation of hDPSCs. H19 acted as a miR-140-5p sponge, resulting in regulated the expression of BMP-2 and FGF9. Overexpression of H19 abrogated the inhibitory effect of miR-140-5p on odontoblastic differentiation. CONCLUSION:Our data revealed that H19 plays a positive regulatory role in odontoblastic differentiation of hDPSCs through miR-140-5p/BMP-2/FGF9 axis, suggesting that H19 may be a stimulatory regulator of odontogenesis.
Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4>The odontoblastic differentiation of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) contributes to tertiary dentin formation. Our previous study indicated that epiregulin (EREG) enhanced odontogenesis potential of dental pulp. Here, we explored the effects of EREG during DPSC odontoblastic differentiation.<h4>Methods</h4>The changes in EREG were detected during tertiary dentin formation. DPSCs were treated with recombinant human EREG (rhEREG), EREG receptor inhibitor gefitinib and short hairpin RNAs. The odontoblastic differentiation was assessed with ALP staining, ALP activity assay, alizarin red S staining and real-time RT-PCR of DSPP, OCN, RUNX2 and OSX. Western blot was conducted to examine the levels of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (Erk1/2). The expression of EREG and odontoblastic differentiation-related markers was investigated in human dental pulp from teeth with deep caries and healthy teeth.<h4>Results</h4>Epiregulin was upregulated during tertiary dentin formation. rhEREG enhanced the odontoblastic differentiation of DPSCs following upregulated p38 MAPK and Erk1/2 phosphorylation, but not JNK, whereas depletion of EREG suppressed DPSC differentiation. Gefitinib decreased odontoblastic differentiation with decreased phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and Erk1/2. And suppression of p38 MAPK and Erk1/2 pathways attenuated DPSC differentiation. In human dental pulp tissue, EREG upregulation in deep caries correlates with odontoblastic differentiation enhancement.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Epiregulin is released during tertiary dentin formation. And EREG enhanced DPSC odontoblastic differentiation via MAPK pathways.
Project description:Odontoblasts are post-mitotic cells responsible for maintenance of the dentin, and are therefore important for dental health. In some cases, irreversible pulpitis leads to necrosis and consequently death of odontoblasts. Regenerative endodontics (RE) uses the concept of tissue engineering to restore the root canals to a healthy state, allowing for continued development of the root and surrounding tissue. Human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) have been successfully used in RE to restore odontoblast function. Surface microgeometry is one of the most important factors involved in the induction of differentiation of hDPSCs into odontoblast-like cells. Although different authors have demonstrated the importance of a dentin-like surface with accessible dentin tubules to induce differentiation of hDPSCs, the ultrastructural characteristics of the cells and the secreted extracellular matrix have not been studied in depth. Here, we used an acellular dentin scaffold containing dentin tubules in different spatial geometries, which regulated their accessibility to cells. hDPSCs were cultured on the scaffolds for up to 6 weeks. Systematic characterization of differentiated cells was performed using both optical (hematoxylin and eosin, Masson trichrome, and immunohistochemical determination of dentin sialoprotein [DSSP]) and transmission electron microscopy. The results presented here indicated that cells grown on the dentin surface containing accessible dentin tubules developed a characteristic odontoblastic phenotype, with cellular processes similar to native odontoblasts. The cell organization and characteristics of secreted extracellular matrix were also similar to those of native dentin tissue. Cells grown on non-accessible dentin tubule surfaces secreted a more abundant and dense extracellular matrix, and developed a different phenotype consisting of secretory flat cells organized in layers. Cells grown far from the scaffold, i.e., directly on the culture well surface, developed a secretory phenotype probably influenced by biochemical factors released by the dentin scaffold or differentiated cells. The results presented here support the use of hDPSCs to regenerate dentin and show the utility of scaffold microgeometry for determining the differentiation and secretory phenotype of cultured cells.
Project description:Dental pulp tissue contains many undifferentiated mesenchymal cells, which retain the ability to differentiate into mature cells. Induced pluripotent stem cells have been developed from various cell sources, including dental pulp-derived stem cells, and evaluated for potential application to regenerative therapy. Dental pulp tissues overexpress CD44, a cell-adhesion factor involved in the induction of mineralization. In this study, we investigated the effects of hyaluronan-a known CD44 ligand-on dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs).DPSC CD44 expression was analyzed using immunofluorescence staining, flow cytometry, and western blotting. Cell proliferation was evaluated using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Effects of hyaluronan on the cell cycle were analyzed by flow cytometry. Alkaline phosphatase activity was employed as marker of mineralization and measured by fluorometric quantification and western blotting. Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2, BMP-4, dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP), and dentin matrix acidic phosphoprotein 1 (DMP-1) levels were measured using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Odontoblastic differentiation and the close cell signaling examination of DPSC differentiation were determined using western blotting.Hyaluronan induced expression of the odontoblastic differentiation markers DMP-1 and DSPP. Moreover, the odontoblastic differentiation induced by hyaluronan was mediated by CD44-but not by Akt, Smad1 or MAPK signaling.Our results indicate that hyaluronan induces odontoblastic differentiation of DPSCs via CD44. This suggests that hyaluronan plays a crucial role in the induction of odontoblastic differentiation from DPSCs. Our findings may aid the development of new, inexpensive, and effective conservative treatments for dental pulp repair.
Project description:Dental pulp cells can differentiate toward an odontoblastic phenotype to produce reparative dentin beneath caries lesions. However, the mechanisms involved in pulp cell differentiation under pro-inflammatory stimuli have not been well-explored. Thus, we hypothesized that the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) could be a mediator involved in dental pulp cell differentiation toward an odontoblastic phenotype. We observed that TNF-alpha-challenged pulp cells exhibited increased mineralization and early and increased expression of dentin phosphoprotein (DPP), dentin sialoprotein (DSP), dentin matrix protein-1, and osteocalcin during a phase of reduced matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression. We investigated whether these events were related and found that p38, a mitogen-activated protein kinase, differentially regulated MMP-1 and DSP/DPP expression and mediated mineralization upon TNF-alpha treatment. These findings indicate that TNF-alpha stimulates differentiation of dental pulp cells toward an odontoblastic phenotype via p38, while negatively regulating MMP-1 expression.
Project description:Inflammatory response in the dental pulp can alter the collagen matrix formation by dental pulp stem cells and lead to a delay or poor healing of the pulp. This inflammatory response is mediated by cytokines, including interleukin-1? and tumor necrosis factor-?. In this study, it is hypothesized that suppressing the actions of these inflammatory cytokines by knocking down the activity of transcription factor Nuclear Factor-?B will lead to dental pulp stem cell differentiation into odontoblasts and the production of collagen. Here, the role of Nuclear Factor-?B signaling and its reduction was examined during odontogenic behavior in the presence of these cytokines. The results showed a significant increase in Nuclear Factor-?B gene expression and p65 protein expression by interleukin-1? and tumor necrosis factor-?. Nuclear Factor-?B activation in the presence of these cytokines decreased significantly in a dose-dependent manner by a Nuclear Factor-?B inhibitor (MG132) and p65 siRNA. Down-regulation of Nuclear Factor-?B activity also enhanced the gene expression of the odontoblastic markers (dentin sialophosphoprotein, Nestin, and alkaline phosphatase) and displayed an odontoblastic cell morphology indicating the promotion of odontogenic differentiation of dental pulp stem cells. Finally, dental pulp stem cells exposed to reduced Nuclear Factor-?B activity resulted in a significant increase in collagen (I)-?1 expression in the presence of these cytokines. In conclusion, a decrease in Nuclear Factor-?B in dental pulp stem cells in the presence of inflammatory cytokines enhanced odontoblastic differentiation and collagen matrix formation.
Project description:ATF6 is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane-bound transcription factor that regulates various cellular functions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of ATF6 in odontoblast differentiation. Rat tooth germs were isolated, changes in gene expression were evaluated over time, and localization of ATF6 was determined by immunohistochemistry. Human dental pulp cells (HDPCs) were cultured with 50 µg/mL ascorbic acid and 5 mmol/L β-glycerophosphate or 100 ng/mL bone morphogenetic protein 2 to induce differentiation. Translocation of ATF6 was observed by immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy. Overexpression of ATF6 was performed with an adenoviral vector. Matrix mineralization was evaluated by alizarin red staining. Immunoreactivity to anti-ATF6 was observed in the odontoblastic layer of the molar tooth germ, and expressions of ATF6, dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) and dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) increased gradually during tooth germ development. When HDPCs were cultured in differentiation media, ATF6, DSPP, and DMP1 expression increased with the expression of unfolded protein response (UPR) markers, BiP and CHOP. Immunofluorescence results showed that ATF6 protein moved from cytoplasm to nucleus when cells were exposed to differentiation media. Notably, overexpression of ATF6 increased DSPP and DMP1 expression, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and matrix mineralization in HDPC cultures. Inhibition of ATF6 decreased ALP activity and mineralization. These results suggest that ER membrane-bound transcriptional factor ATF6 may be involved in odontoblastic differentiation.
Project description:Dental pulp infection and necrosis are widespread diseases. Conventional endodontic treatments result in a devitalized and weakened tooth. In this work, we synthesized novel star-shaped polymer to self-assemble into unique nanofibrous spongy microspheres (NF-SMS), which were used to carry human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) into the pulp cavity to regenerate living dental pulp tissues. It was found that NF-SMS significantly enhanced hDPSCs attachment, proliferation, odontogenic differentiation and angiogenesis, as compared to control cell carriers. Additionally, NF-SMS promoted vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression of hDPSCs in a 3D hypoxic culture. Hypoxia-primed hDPSCs/NF-SMS complexes were injected into the cleaned pulp cavities of rabbit molars for subcutaneous implantation in mice. After 4 weeks, the hypoxia group significantly enhanced angiogenesis inside the pulp chamber and promoted the formation of ondontoblast-like cells lining along the dentin-pulp interface, as compared to the control groups (hDPSCs alone group, NF-SMS alone group, and hDPSCs/NF-SMS group pre-cultured under normoxic conditions). Furthermore, in an in situ dental pulp repair model in rats, hypoxia-primed hDPSCs/NF-SMS were injected to fully fill the pulp cavity and regenerate pulp-like tissues with a rich vasculature and a histological structure similar to the native pulp.Vascularization is key to the regeneration of many vital tissues. However, it is challenging to create a suitable microenvironment for stem cells to regenerate vascularized tissue structure. This manuscript reports a novel star-shaped block copolymer that self-assembles into unique nanofibrous spongy microspheres, which as an injectable scaffold recapitulate the cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions in development. Using a clinically-relevant surgical procedure and a hypoxic treatment, the nanofibrous spongy microspheres were used to deliver stem cells and successfully regenerate dental pulp with a rich vasculature and a complex histologic structure similar to that of the native dental pulp. The novel microspheres can likely be used to regenerate many other vascularized tissues.