Hypoxia induced hERG trafficking defect linked to cell cycle arrest in SH-SY5Y cells.
ABSTRACT: The alpha subunit of the voltage gated human ether-a-go-go-related (hERG) potassium channel regulates cell excitability in a broad range of cell lines. HERG channels are also expressed in a variety of cancer cells and control cell proliferation and apoptosis. Hypoxia, a common feature of tumors, alters gating properties of hERG currents in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. In the present study, we examined the molecular mechanisms and physiological significance underlying hypoxia-altered hERG currents in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. Hypoxia reduced the surface expression of 150kDa form and increased 125kDa form of hERG protein expression in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The changes in protein expression were associated with ~50% decrease in hERG potassium conductance. ER retention of hERG 125kDa form by CH was due to defective trafficking and was rescued by exposing cells to hypoxia at low temperatures or treatment with E-4031, a hERG channel blocker. Prolonged association of hERG with molecular chaperone Hsp90 resulting in complex oligomeric insoluble aggregates contributed to ER accumulation and trafficking defect. Hypoxia increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and manganese (111) tetrakis (1methyl-4-pyridyl) porphyrin pentachloride, a membrane-permeable antioxidant prevented hypoxia-induced degradation of 150kDa and accumulation of 125kDa forms. Impaired trafficking of hERG by hypoxia was associated with reduced cell proliferation and this effect was prevented by antioxidant treatment. These results demonstrate that hypoxia through increased oxidative stress impairs hERG trafficking, leading to decreased K+ currents resulting in cell cycle arrest in SH-SY5Y cells.
Project description:Neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial pediatric solid tumor. Intermittent hypoxia, which is characterized by cyclic periods of hypoxia and reoxygenation, has been shown to positively modulate tumor development and thereby induce tumor growth, angiogenic processes, and metastasis. Bone is one of the target organs of metastasis in advanced neuroblastoma Neuroblastoma cells produce osteoclast-activating factors that increase bone resorption by the osteoclasts. The present study focuses on how intermittent hypoxia preconditioned SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells modulate osteoclastogenesis in RAW 264.7 cells compared with neuroblastoma cells grown at normoxic conditions.We inhibited HIF-1? and HIF-2? in neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells by siRNA/shRNA approaches. Protein expression of HIF-1?, HIF-2? and MAPKs were investigated by western blotting. Expression of osteoclastogenic factors were determined by real-time RT-PCR. The influence of intermittent hypoxia and HIF-1? siRNA on migration of neuroblastoma cells and in vitro differentiation of RAW 264.7 cells were assessed. Intratibial injection was performed with SH-SY5Y stable luciferase-expressing cells and in vivo bioluminescence imaging was used in the analysis of tumor growth in bone.Upregulation of mRNAs of osteoclastogenic factors VEGF and RANKL was observed in intermittent hypoxia-exposed neuroblastoma cells. Conditioned medium from the intermittent hypoxia-exposed neuroblastoma cells was found to enhance osteoclastogenesis, up-regulate the mRNAs of osteoclast marker genes including TRAP, CaSR and cathepsin K and induce the activation of ERK, JNK, and p38 in RAW 264.7 cells. Intermittent hypoxia-exposed neuroblastoma cells showed an increased migratory pattern compared with the parental cells. A significant increase of tumor volume was found in animals that received the intermittent hypoxia-exposed cells intratibially compared with parental cells.Intermittent hypoxic exposure enhanced capabilities of neuroblastoma cells in induction of osteoclast differentiation in RAW 264.7 cells. Increased migration and intratibial tumor growth was observed in intermittent hypoxia-exposed neuroblastoma cells compared with parental cells.
Project description:This SuperSeries is composed of the following subset Series: GSE24497: ER stress impairs the insulin signaling pathway through mitochondrial damage in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells (part 1) GSE24499: ER stress impairs the insulin signaling pathway through mitochondrial damage in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells (part 2) Refer to individual Series
Project description:Recently, activating mutations of the full length ALK receptor, with two hot spots at positions F1174 and R1275, have been characterized in sporadic cases of neuroblastoma. Here, we report similar basal patterns of ALK phosphorylation between the neuroblastoma IMR-32 cell line, which expresses only the wild-type receptor (ALK(WT)), and the SH-SY5Y cell line, which exhibits a heterozygous ALK F1174L mutation and expresses both ALK(WT) and ALK(F1174L) receptors. We demonstrate that this lack of detectable increased phosphorylation in SH-SY5Y cells is a result of intracellular retention and proteasomal degradation of the mutated receptor. As a consequence, in SH-SY5Y cells, plasma membrane appears strongly enriched for ALK(WT) whereas both ALK(WT) and ALK(F1174L) were present in intracellular compartments. We further explored ALK receptor trafficking by investigating the effect of agonist and antagonist mAb (monoclonal antibodies) on ALK internalization and down-regulation, either in SH-SY5Y cells or in cells expressing only ALK(WT). We observe that treatment with agonist mAbs resulted in ALK internalization and lysosomal targeting for receptor degradation. In contrast, antagonist mAb induced ALK internalization and recycling to the plasma membrane. Importantly, we correlate this differential trafficking of ALK in response to mAb with the recruitment of the ubiquitin ligase Cbl and ALK ubiquitylation only after agonist stimulation. This study provides novel insights into the mechanisms regulating ALK trafficking and degradation, showing that various ALK receptor pools are regulated by proteasome or lysosome pathways according to their intracellular localization.
Project description:Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) inhibitor crizotinib has proven to be effective in the treatment of ALK-mutated neuroblastoma, but crizotinib resistance was commonly observed in patients. We aimed to overcome crizotinib resistance by combining with the MEK inhibitor trametinib or low-dose metronomic (LDM) topotecan in preclinical neuroblastoma models.We selected a panel of neuroblastoma cell lines carrying various ALK genetic aberrations to assess the therapeutic efficacy on cell proliferation in vitro. Downstream signals of ALK activation, including phosphorylation of ERK1/2, Akt as well as HIF-1α expression were evaluated under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Tumor growth inhibition was further assessed in NOD/SCID xenograft mouse models.All NBL cell lines responded to crizotinib treatment but at variable ED50 levels, ranging from 0.25 to 5.58 μM. ALK-mutated cell lines SH-SY5Y, KELLY, LAN-5, and CHLA-20 are more sensitive than ALK wild-type cell lines. In addition, we demonstrated that under hypoxic conditions, all NBL cell lines showed marked decrease of ED50s when compared to normoxia except for KELLY cells. Taking into consideration the hypoxia sensitivity to crizotinib, combined treatment with crizotinib and LDM topotecan demonstrated a synergistic effect in ALKF1174L-mutated SH-SY5Y cells. In vivo, single-agent crizotinib showed limited antitumor activity in ALKF1174L-mutated SH-SY5Y and KELLY xenograft models; however, when combined with topotecan, significantly delayed tumor development was achieved in both SH-SY5Y and KELLY tumor models.Oral metronomic topotecan reversed crizotinib drug resistance in the ALKF1174L-mutated neuroblastoma preclinical model.
Project description:Transglutaminase 2 (TG2) is a multifunctional enzyme and two isoforms, TG2-L and TG2-S, exerting opposite effects in the regulation of cell death and survival, have been revealed in cancer tissues. Notably, in cancer cells a hypoxic environment may stimulate tumor growth, invasion and metastasis. Here we aimed to characterize the role of TG2 isoforms in neuroblastoma cell fate under hypoxic conditions. The mRNA levels of TG2 isoforms, hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1?, p16, cyclin D1 and B1, as well as markers of cell proliferation/death, DNA damage, and cell cycle were examined in SH-SY5Y (non-MYCN-amplified) and IMR-32 (MYCN-amplified) neuroblastoma cells in hypoxia/reoxygenation conditions. The exposure to hypoxia induced the up-regulation of HIF-1? in both cell lines. Hypoxic conditions caused the up-regulation of TG2-S and the reduction of cell viability/proliferation associated with DNA damage in SH-SY5Y cells, while in IMR-32 did not produce DNA damage, and increased the levels of both TG2 isoforms and proliferation markers. Different cell response to hypoxia can be mediated by TG2 isoforms in function of MYCN amplification status. A better understanding of the role of TG2 isoforms in neuroblastoma may open new venues in a diagnostic and therapeutic perspective.
Project description:Recent research has demonstrated that small heat shock protein (sHsp) phosphorylation plays a variety of roles in neural cells. While the phosphorylation of serine 16 (Ser16) is blocked, Hsp20 no longer has neuroprotective effects. To further investigate the mechanism underlying this process, oxygen-glucose deprivation and reperfusion (OGD/R) was used with human SH-SY5Y cells and mouse N2a neuroblastoma cells. When SH-SY5Y and N2a cells were transfected with pEGFP-Hsp20(WT), pEGFP-Hsp20(S16A), and pEGFP-Hsp20(S16D) plasmids, the Golgi apparatus (GA) became more swollen and scattered, and many small fragments formed in the MOCK and S16A groups after OGD/R (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) network was reduced, and the lamellar structure increased. However, these changes were not as obvious in the WT and S16D groups. Additionally, after OGD/R, Golgi Stress related protein contents were increased in the WT and S16D groups compared with the MOCK and S16A groups (P < 0.05). However, ER Stress related protein contents were decreased in the WT and S16D groups compared with the MOCK and S16A groups (P < 0.05). Our study demonstrates that Hsp20 phosphorylation on Ser16 protects against not only OGD/R-induced GA fragmentation in SH-SY5Y cells and N2a cells via Golgi stress but also OGD/R-induced ER structural changes in SH-SY5Y cells via ER stress. These findings suggest that Hsp20 is a potential drug target for ischemia stroke treatment.
Project description:Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of ischemic and neurodegenerative disorders. Treatment of human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells with tunicamycin, an inhibitor of protein glycosylation, rapidly induced the expression of target genes of the unfolded protein response. However, prolonged treatment also triggered a delayed, caspase-dependent cell death. Microarray analysis of gene expression changes during tunicamycin-induced apoptosis revealed that the Bcl-2 homology domain 3-only family member, Bcl-2 binding component 3/p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis (Bbc3/PUMA), was the most strongly induced pro-apoptotic gene. Expression of Bbc3/PUMA correlated with a Bcl-xL-sensitive release of cytochrome c and the activation of caspase-9 and -3. Increased expression of Bbc3/PUMA was also observed in p53-deficient human cells, in response to the ER stressor thapsigargin, and in rat hippocampal neurons after transient forebrain ischemia. Overexpression of Bbc3/PUMA was sufficient to trigger apoptosis in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells, and human cells deficient in Bbc3/PUMA showed dramatically reduced apoptosis in response to ER stress. Our data suggest that the transcriptional induction of Bbc3/PUMA may be sufficient and necessary for ER stress-induced apoptosis.
Project description:In this study we demonstrate that accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is essential for E2F1 mediated apoptosis in ER-E2F1 PC12 pheochromocytoma, and SH-SY5Y and SK-N-JD neuroblastoma stable cell lines. In these cells, the ER-E2F1 fusion protein is expressed in the cytosol; the addition of 4-hydroxytamoxifen (OHT) induces its translocation to the nucleus and activation of E2F1target genes. Previously we demonstrated that, in ER-E2F1 PC12 cells, OHT treatment induced apoptosis through activation of caspase-3. Here we show that caspase-8 activity did not change upon treatment with OHT. Moreover, over-expression of Bcl-xL arrested OHT-induced apoptosis; by contrast, over-expression of c-FLIP, did not have any effect on OHT-induced apoptosis. OHT addition induces BimL expression, its translocation to mitochondria and activation of Bax, which is paralleled by diminished mitochondrial enrichment of Bcl-xL. Treatment with a Bax-inhibitory peptide reduced OHT-induced apoptosis. These results point out the essential role of mitochondria on the apoptotic process driven by E2F1. ROS accumulation followed E2F1 induction and treatment with the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine, inhibited E2F1-induced Bax translocation to mitochondria and subsequent apoptosis. The role of ROS in mediating OHT-induced apoptosis was also studied in two neuroblastoma cell lines, SH-SY5Y and SK-N-JD. In SH-SY5Y cells, activation of E2F1 by the addition of OHT induced ROS production and apoptosis, whereas over-expression of E2F1 in SK-N-JD cells failed to induce either response. Transcriptional profiling revealed that many of the genes responsible for scavenging ROS were down-regulated following E2F1-induction in SH-SY5Y, but not in SK-N-JD cells. Finally, inhibition of GSK3? blocked ROS production, Bax activation and the down regulation of ROS scavenging genes. These findings provide an explanation for the apparent contradictory role of E2F1 as an apoptotic agent versus a cell cycle activator.
Project description:1 The D3 dopamine receptor presumably activates Gi/Go subtypes of G-proteins, like the structurally analogous D2 receptor, but its signalling targets have not been clearly established due to weak functional signals from cloned receptors as heterologously expressed in mostly non-neuronal cell lines. 2 In this study, recombinant human D3 receptors expressed in a human neuroblastoma cell line, SH-SY5Y, produced much greater signals than those expressed in a human embryonic kidney cell line, HEK293. Quinpirole, a prototypic agonist, markedly inhibited forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP production and Ca2+-channel (N-type) currents in SH-SY5Y cells, and enhanced GTPgamma35S binding in isolated membranes, nearly ten times greater than that observed in HEK293 cell membranes. 3 GTPgamma35S-bound Galpha subunits from quinpirole-activated and solubilized membranes were monitored upon immobilization with various Galpha-specific antibodies. Galphao subunits (not Galphai) were highly labelled with GTPgamma35S in SH-SY5Y, but not in HEK293 cell membranes, despite their abundance in the both cell types, as shown with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blots. N-type Ca2+ channels and adenylyl cyclase V (D3-specific effector), on the other hand, exist only in SH-SY5Y cells. 4 More efficient coupling of the D3 receptor to Go subtypes in SH-SY5Y than HEK293 cells may be attributed, at least in part, to the two D3 neuronal effectors only present in SH-SY5Y cells (N-type Ca2+-channels and adenylyl cyclase V). The abundance of Go subtypes in the both cell lines seems to indicate their availability not a limiting factor.
Project description:Glucocorticoid, a major risk factor of Alzheimer's disease (AD), is widely known to promote microtubule dysfunction recognized as the early pathological feature that culminates in memory deficits. However, the exact glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-mediated mechanism of how glucocorticoid triggers microtubule destabilization and following intracellular transport deficits remains elusive. Therefore, we investigated the effect of glucocorticoid on microtubule instability and cognitive impairment using male ICR mice and human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. The mice group that was exposed to corticosteroid, the major glucocorticoid form of rodents, showed reduced trafficking of ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid receptor (AMPAR) 1/2 and mitochondria, which are necessary for memory establishment, into the synapse due to microtubule destabilization. In SH-SY5Y cells, cortisol, the major glucocorticoid form of humans, also decreased microtubule stability represented by reduced acetylated ?-tubulin to tyrosinated ?-tubulin ratio (A/T ratio), depending on the mitochondria GR-mediated pathway. Cortisol translocated the Hsp70-bound GR into mitochondria which thereafter promoted GR-Bcl-2 interaction. Increased ER-mitochondria connectivity via GR-Bcl-2 coupling led to mitochondrial Ca2+ influx, which triggered mTOR activation. Subsequent autophagy inhibition by mTOR phosphorylation increased SCG10 protein levels via reducing ubiquitination of SCG10, eventually inducing microtubule destabilization. Thus, failure of trafficking AMPAR1/2 and mitochondria into the cell terminus occurred by kinesin-1 detachment from microtubules, which is responsible for transporting organelles towards periphery. However, the mice exposed to pretreatment of microtubule stabilizer paclitaxel showed the restored translocation of AMPAR1/2 or mitochondria into synapses and improved memory function compared to corticosterone-treated mice. In conclusion, glucocorticoid enhances ER-mitochondria coupling which evokes elevated SCG10 and microtubule destabilization dependent on mitochondrial GR. This eventually leads to memory impairment through failure of AMPAR1/2 or mitochondria transport into cell periphery.