Ruthenium versus platinum: interactions of anticancer metallodrugs with duplex oligonucleotides characterised by electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry.
ABSTRACT: The binding of the ruthenium-based anticancer drug candidates KP1019, NAMI-A and RAPTA-T towards different double-stranded oligonucleotides was probed by electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry and compared with that of the widely used platinum-based chemotherapeutics cisplatin, carboplatin and oxaliplatin. It was found that the extent of adduct formation decreased in the following order: cisplatin > oxaliplatin > NAMI-A > RAPTA-T > carboplatin > KP1019. In addition to the characterisation of the adducts formed with the DNA models, the binding sites of the metallodrugs on the oligonucleotides were elucidated employing top-down tandem mass spectrometry and were found to be similar for all the metallodrugs studied, irrespective of the sequence of the oligonucleotide. A strong preference for guanine residues was established.
Project description:In this review we have showcased the preclinical development of original amphiphilic nanomaterials designed for ruthenium-based anticancer treatments, to be placed within the current metallodrugs approach leading over the past decade to advanced multitarget agents endowed with limited toxicity and resistance. This strategy could allow for new options for breast cancer (BC) interventions, including the triple-negative subtype (TNBC) with poor therapeutic alternatives. BC is currently the second most widespread cancer and the primary cause of cancer death in women. Hence, the availability of novel chemotherapeutic weapons is a basic requirement to fight BC subtypes. Anticancer drugs based on ruthenium are among the most explored and advanced next-generation metallotherapeutics, with NAMI-A and KP1019 as two iconic ruthenium complexes having undergone clinical trials. In addition, many nanomaterial Ru complexes have been recently conceived and developed into anticancer drugs demonstrating attractive properties. In this field, we focused on the evaluation of a Ru(III) complex-named AziRu-incorporated into a suite of both zwitterionic and cationic nucleolipid nanosystems, which proved to be very effective for the in vivo targeting of breast cancer cells (BBC). Mechanisms of action have been widely explored in the context of preclinical evaluations in vitro, highlighting a multitarget action on cell death pathways which are typically deregulated in neoplasms onset and progression. Moreover, being AziRu inspired by the well-known NAMI-A complex, information on non-nanostructured Ru-based anticancer agents have been included in a precise manner.
Project description:Platinum drugs are among the most effective anticancer agents, but their mode of action is still not fully understood. We therefore carried out a systematic investigation on the cellular activities of cisplatin, carboplatin and oxaliplatin in A498 kidney cancer cells. Cytotoxicity was higher for cisplatin and oxaliplatin compared to carboplatin, with induction of apoptosis as the preferred mode of cell death. Gene expression profiling displayed modulation of genes related to DNA damage response/repair, cell cycle regulation and apoptosis which was more pronounced upon oxaliplatin treatment. Furthermore, repression of specific DNA repair genes was restricted to oxaliplatin. Transcriptional level observations were further analyzed on the functional level. Uptake studies revealed low intracellular platinum accumulation and DNA platination upon carboplatin treatment. Removal of overall DNA platination was comparable for the three drugs. However, no processing of oxaliplatin-induced interstrand crosslinks was observed. Cisplatin and carboplatin influenced cell cycle distribution comparably, while oxaliplatin had no effect. Altogether, we found a similar mode of action for cisplatin and carboplatin, while the activity of oxaliplatin appeared to differ. This might be clinically relevant as due to the difference in mode of action oxaliplatin could be active in tumors which show resistance towards cisplatin and carboplatin.
Project description:[ImH][trans-Ru(III)Cl(4)(DMSO)(Im)] (where DMSO is dimethyl sulfoxide and Im is imidazole) (NAMI-A) is an antimetastatic prodrug currently in phase II clinical trials. The mechanisms of action of this and related Ru-based anticancer agents are not well understood, but several cellular targets have been suggested. Although Ru has been observed to bind to DNA following in vitro NAMI-A exposure, little is known about Ru-DNA interactions in vivo and even less is known about how this or related metallodrugs might influence cellular RNA. In this study, Ru accumulation in cellular RNA was measured following treatment of Saccharomyces cerevisiae with NAMI-A. Drug-dependent growth and cell viability indicate relatively high tolerance, with approximately 40% cell death occurring at 6 h for 450 ?M NAMI-A. Significant dose-dependent accumulation of Ru in cellular RNA was observed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry measurements on RNA extracted from yeast treated with NAMI-A. In vitro, binding of Ru species to drug-treated model DNA and RNA oligonucleotides at pH 6.0 and 7.4 was characterized by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry in the presence and absence of the reductant ascorbate. The extent of Ru-nucleotide interactions increases slightly with lower pH and significantly in the presence of ascorbate, with differences in observed species distribution. Taken together, these studies demonstrate the accumulation of aquated and reduced derivatives of NAMI-A on RNA in vitro and in cellulo, and enhanced binding with nucleic acid targets in a tumorlike acidic, reducing environment. To our knowledge, this is also the first study to characterize NAMI-A treatment of S. cerevisiae, a genetically tractable model organism.
Project description:Although chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a dose-limiting side effect of platinum drugs, the mechanisms of this toxicity remain unknown. Previous work in our laboratory suggests that cisplatin-induced CIPN is secondary to DNA damage which is susceptible to base excision repair (BER). To further examine this hypothesis, we studied the effects of cisplatin, oxaliplatin, and carboplatin on cell survival, DNA damage, ROS production, and functional endpoints in rat sensory neurons in culture in the absence or presence of reduced expression of the BER protein AP endonuclease/redox factor-1 (APE1). Using an in situ model of peptidergic sensory neuron function, we examined the effects of the platinum drugs on hind limb capsaicin-evoked vasodilatation. Exposing sensory neurons in culture to the three platinum drugs caused a concentration-dependent increase in apoptosis and cell death, although the concentrations of carboplatin were 10 fold higher than cisplatin. As previously observed with cisplatin, oxaliplatin and carboplatin also increased DNA damage as indicated by an increase in phospho-H2AX and reduced the capsaicin-evoked release of CGRP from neuronal cultures. Both cisplatin and oxaliplatin increased the production of ROS as well as 8-oxoguanine DNA adduct levels, whereas carboplatin did not. Reducing levels of APE1 in neuronal cultures augmented the cisplatin and oxaliplatin induced toxicity, but did not alter the effects of carboplatin. Using an in vivo model, systemic injection of cisplatin (3 mg/kg), oxaliplatin (3 mg/kg), or carboplatin (30 mg/kg) once a week for three weeks caused a decrease in capsaicin-evoked vasodilatation, which was delayed in onset. The effects of cisplatin on capsaicin-evoked vasodilatation were attenuated by chronic administration of E3330, a redox inhibitor of APE1 that serendipitously enhances APE1 DNA repair activity in sensory neurons. These outcomes support the importance of the BER pathway, and particularly APE1, in sensory neuropathy caused by cisplatin and oxaliplatin, but not carboplatin and suggest that augmenting DNA repair could be a therapeutic target for CIPN.
Project description:Cisplatin and its platinum analogs, carboplatin and oxaliplatin, are some of the most widely used cancer chemotherapeutics. Although cisplatin and carboplatin are used primarily in germ cell, breast and lung malignancies, oxaliplatin is instead used almost exclusively to treat colorectal and other gastrointestinal cancers. Here we utilize a unique, multi-platform genetic approach to study the mechanism of action of these clinically established platinum anti-cancer agents, as well as more recently developed cisplatin analogs. We show that oxaliplatin, unlike cisplatin and carboplatin, does not kill cells through the DNA-damage response. Rather, oxaliplatin kills cells by inducing ribosome biogenesis stress. This difference in drug mechanism explains the distinct clinical implementation of oxaliplatin relative to cisplatin, and it might enable mechanistically informed selection of distinct platinum drugs for distinct malignancies. These data highlight the functional diversity of core components of front-line cancer therapy and the potential benefits of applying a mechanism-based rationale to the use of our current arsenal of anti-cancer drugs.
Project description:Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Despite progress in drug discovery, identification of the correct population is the limiting factor to develop new compounds in the clinical setting. Therefore, the aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of a new metallodrug, [RuCl(p-cymene)(N,N-bis(diphenylphosphino)-isopropylamine)][BF4] (pnpRu-14), as a lead pnp-Ru compound by screening and preliminary biochemical and biological studies in different breast cancer subtypes. The results show that complex pnpRu-14 is much more effective in promoting in vitro cytotoxic effects on HER2+ and RH+/HER2- breast cancer than the reference metallodrugs cisplatin, carboplatin, or RAPTA-C. It is important to highlight that pnpRu-14 shows an impressive cytotoxicity against BT474 cells. Caspase-dependent apoptosis is the mechanism of action for these compounds. In addition, treatment of SKBR3, BT474, T47D, and MCF7 cancer cells with pnpRu-14 caused an accumulation of cells in the G0/G1 phase cells. The human serum albumin, DNA, and H1 histones binding properties of the lead compound are reported. Pharmacokinetic and biodistribution studies show a quick absorption of pnpRu-14 in serum with no significant accumulation in any of the tested organs. This work provides evidence to support the preclinical and clinical development of pnpRu-14 in breast cancer.
Project description:The platinum drugs cisplatin, carboplatin, and oxaliplatin are highly utilized in the clinic and as a consequence are extensively studied in the laboratory setting. In this study, we examined the literature and found a significant number of studies (11%-34%) in prominent cancer journals utilizing cisplatin dissolved in DMSO. However, dissolving cisplatin in DMSO for laboratory-based studies results in ligand displacement and changes to the structure of the complex. We examined the effect of DMSO on platinum complexes, including cisplatin, carboplatin, and oxaliplatin, finding that DMSO reacted with the complexes, inhibited their cytotoxicity and their ability to initiate cell death. These results render a substantial portion of the literature on cisplatin uninterpretable. Raising awareness of this significant issue in the cancer biology community is critical, and we make recommendations on appropriate solvation of platinum drugs for research.
Project description:The clinical development of anticancer metallodrugs is often hindered by the elusive nature of their molecular targets. To identify the molecular targets of an antimetastatic ruthenium organometallic complex based on 1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphaadamantane (RAPTA), we employed a chemical proteomic approach. The approach combines the design of an affinity probe featuring the pharmacophore with mass-spectrometry-based analysis of interacting proteins found in cancer cell lysates. The comparison of data sets obtained for cell lysates from cancer cells before and after treatment with a competitive binder suggests that RAPTA interacts with a number of cancer-related proteins, which may be responsible for the antiangiogenic and antimetastatic activity of RAPTA complexes. Notably, the proteins identified include the cytokines midkine, pleiotrophin and fibroblast growth factor-binding protein 3. We also detected guanine nucleotide-binding protein-like 3 and FAM32A, which is in line with the hypothesis that the antiproliferative activity of RAPTA compounds is due to induction of a G2/M arrest and histone proteins identified earlier as potential targets.
Project description:PURPOSE:To investigate the efficiencies of platinum chemotherapeutic drugs (Pt-drugs) in the sensitization of DNA to the direct effects of ionizing radiation and to determine the role of low-energy electrons (LEEs) in this process. METHODS AND MATERIALS:Complexes of supercoiled plasmid DNA covalently bound to either cisplatin, carboplatin, or oxaliplatin were prepared in different molar ratios. Solid films of DNA and DNA modified by Pt-drugs were irradiated with either 10-KeV or 10-eV electrons. Damages to DNA were quantified by gel electrophoresis, and the yields for damage formation were obtained from exposure-response curves. RESULTS:The presence of an average of 2 Pt-drug-DNA adducts (Pt-adducts) in 3199-bp plasmid DNA increases the probability of a double-strand break by factors of 3.1, 2.5, and 2.4 for carboplatin, cisplatin, and oxaliplatin, respectively. Electrons with energies of 10 eV and 10 KeV interact with Pt-adducts to preferentially enhance the formation of cluster lesions. The maximum increase in radiosensitivity per Pt-adduct is found at ratios up to 3.1×10(-4) Pt-adducts per nucleotide, which is equivalent to an average of 2 adducts per plasmid. Carboplatin and oxaliplatin show higher efficiencies than cisplatin in the radiosensitization of DNA. Because carboplatin and cisplatin give rise to identical reactive species that attach to DNA, carboplatin must be considered as a better radiosensitizer for equal numbers of Pt-adducts. CONCLUSION:Platinum chemotherapeutic drugs preferentially enhance the formation of cluster damage to DNA induced by the direct effect of ionizing radiation, and LEEs are the main species responsible for such an enhancement via the formation of electron resonances.
Project description:Peripheral neurotoxicity is the dose-limiting factor for clinical use of platinum derivatives, a class of anticancer drugs which includes cisplatin, carboplatin, and oxaliplatin. In particular cisplatin and oxaliplatin induce a severe peripheral neurotoxicity while carboplatin is less neurotoxic. The mechanisms proposed to explain these drugs' neurotoxicity are dorsal root ganglia alteration, oxidative stress involvement, and mitochondrial dysfunction. Oxaliplatin also causes an acute and reversible neuropathy, supposed to be due by transient dysfunction of the voltage-gated sodium channels of sensory neurons. Recent studies suggest that individual genetic variation may play a role in the pathogenesis of platinum drug neurotoxicity. Even though all these mechanisms have been investigated, the pathogenesis is far from clearly defined. In this review we will summarize the current knowledge and the most up-to-date hypotheses on the mechanisms of platinum drug-induced peripheral neurotoxicity.