The regulation of hepatic Pon1 by a maternal high-fat diet is gender specific and may occur through promoter histone modifications in neonatal rats.
ABSTRACT: The antioxidant (AOX) defense system is critical for combating whole-body oxidative stress, and the present study aimed to determine the consequences of a maternal high-fat (HF) diet on neonatal hepatic lipid accumulation, oxidative stress, the expression of AOX genes, as well as epigenetic histone modifications within Pon1, an AOX enzyme. Hepatic thiobarbituric acid reactive substances were significantly increased and nonesterified fatty acids decreased in offspring of HF-fed dams, while triglycerides increased in male but not female HF offspring when compared to controls (C). Pon1, Pon2, Pon3 and Sod2 were significantly increased in offspring of HF-fed dams when compared to C. However, the increase in Pon1 and Pon3 was only significant in male but not female offspring. When compared to C, the hepatic Pon1 promoter of male and female HF offspring had significantly more acetylated histone H4 as well as dimethylated histone H3 at lysine residue 4, which are both involved in transcriptional activation. Trimethylation of histone H3 at lysine residue 9, which is involved in transcriptional repression, was only associated with genes in females. Results from the present study reveal that a maternal HF diet affects hepatic metabolism in the neonate in a gender-specific manner, and these differences, in association with epigenetic modification of histones, may contribute to the known gender differences in oxidative balance.
Project description:The effects of maternal prenatal folic acid supplementation (FAS) on offspring lipid metabolism in adulthood remains unclear, although prenatal FAS is compulsively suggested in many countries. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with control (CON) or FAS diets before and during pregnancy. Male offspring of CON and FAS dams were further divided into two groups at seven weeks for CON and high-fat (HF) diet interventions for eight weeks in adulthood (n = 10). The interactive effects of maternal prenatal FAS and offspring HF in adulthood on lipid metabolism and DNA methylation of genes involved in lipids metabolism were assessed. The male offspring of FAS dams had elevated serum and liver triglyceride level when fed with HF compared to the male offspring of CON dams. The mRNA and protein expression levels of hepatic ATGL and adipose LPL were significantly decreased in offspring of FAS dams than in offspring of CON dams. Furthermore, maternal prenatal FAS resulted in elevated DNA methylation levels in the promoter and first exon region of hepatic ATGL and adipose LPL in offspring. Maternal FAS exacerbated the adverse effects of HF on lipid metabolism in offspring through inducing aberrant DNA methylation levels of hepatic ATGL and adipose LPL.
Project description:Paraoxonase-1 (PON1), an esterase/lactonase primarily associated with plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL), was the first member of this family of enzymes to be characterized. Its name was derived from its ability to hydrolyze paraoxon, the toxic metabolite of the insecticide parathion. Related enzymes PON2 and PON3 were named from their evolutionary relationship with PON1. Mice with each PON gene knocked out were generated at UCLA and have been key for elucidating their roles in organophosphorus (OP) metabolism, cardiovascular disease, innate immunity, obesity, and cancer. PON1 status, determined with two-substrate analyses, reveals an individual's functional Q192R genotype and activity levels. The three-dimensional structure for a chimeric PON1 has been useful for understanding the structural properties of PON1 and for engineering PON1 as a catalytic scavenger of OP compounds. All three PONs hydrolyze microbial N-acyl homoserine lactone quorum sensing factors, quenching Pseudomonas aeruginosa's pathogenesis. All three PONs modulate oxidative stress and inflammation. PON2 is localized in the mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum. PON2 has potent antioxidant properties and is found at 3- to 4-fold higher levels in females than males, providing increased protection against oxidative stress, as observed in primary cultures of neurons and astrocytes from female mice compared with male mice. The higher levels of PON2 in females may explain the lower frequency of neurological and cardiovascular diseases in females and the ability to identify males but not females with Parkinson's disease using a special PON1 status assay. Less is known about PON3; however, recent experiments with PON3 knockout mice show them to be susceptible to obesity, gallstone formation and atherosclerosis. Like PONs 1 and 2, PON3 also appears to modulate oxidative stress. It is localized in the endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria and on HDL. Both PON2 and PON3 are upregulated in cancer, favoring tumor progression through mitochondrial protection against oxidative stress and apoptosis.
Project description:Obesity in pregnancy significantly increases the risk of the offspring developing obesity after birth. The aims of this study were to test the hypothesis that maternal obesity increases oxidative stress during fetal development, and to determine whether administration of an antioxidant supplement to pregnant Western diet-fed rats would prevent the development of adiposity in the offspring.Female Sprague Dawley rats were started on the designated diet at 4 weeks of age. Four groups of animals were studied: control chow (control); control + antioxidants (control+Aox); Western diet (Western); and Western diet + antioxidants (Western+Aox). The rats were mated at 12 to 14 weeks of age, and all pups were weaned onto control diet.Offspring from dams fed the Western diet had significantly increased adiposity as early as 2 weeks of age as well as impaired glucose tolerance compared with offspring of dams fed a control diet. Inflammation and oxidative stress were increased in preimplantation embryos, fetuses, and newborns of Western diet-fed rats. Gene expression of proadipogenic and lipogenic genes was altered in fat tissue of rats at 2 weeks and 2 months of age. The addition of an antioxidant supplement decreased adiposity and normalized glucose tolerance. CONCLUSIONS; Inflammation and oxidative stress appear to play a key role in the development of increased adiposity in the offspring of Western diet-fed pregnant dams. Restoration of the antioxidant balance during pregnancy in the Western diet-fed dam is associated with decreased adiposity in offspring.
Project description:Maternal or paternal high fat (HF) diet can modify the epigenome in germ cells and fetal somatic cells leading to an increased susceptibility among female offspring of multiple generations to develop breast cancer. We determined if combined treatment with broad spectrum DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) inhibitor hydralazine and histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor valproic acid (VPA) will reverse this increased risk. C57BL/6 mouse dams were fed either a corn oil-based HF or control diet during pregnancy. Starting at age 7 weeks, female offspring were administered 3 doses of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) to initiate mammary cancer. After last dose, offspring started receiving VPA/hydralazine administered via drinking water: no adverse health effects were detected. VPA/hydralazine reduced mammary tumor multiplicity and lengthened tumor latency in HF offspring when compared with non-treated HF offspring. The drug combination inhibited DNMT3a protein levels and increased expression of the tumor suppressor gene Cdkn2a/p16 in mammary tumors of HF offspring. In control mice not exposed to HF diet in utero, VPA/hydralazine increased mammary tumor incidence and burden, and elevated expression of the unfolded protein response and autophagy genes, including HIF-1?, NFkB, PERK, and SQSTM1/p62. Expression of these genes was already upregulated in HF offspring prior to VPA/hydralazine treatment. These findings suggest that breast cancer prevention strategies with HDAC/DNMT inhibitors need to be individually tailored.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Metabolic and endocrine environment during early life is crucial for metabolic imprinting. When dams were fed a high fat diet (HF diet), rat offspring developed hypothalamic leptin resistance with lean phenotype when weaned on a normal diet. Interestingly, when grown on the HF diet, they appeared to be protected against the effects of HF diet as compared to offspring of normally fed dams. The mechanisms involved in the protective effect of maternal HF diet are unclear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We thus investigated the impact of maternal high fat diet on offspring subjected to normal or high palatable diet (P diet) on metabolic and endocrine parameters. We compared offspring born to dams fed P or HF diet. Offspring born to dams fed control or P diet, when fed P diet exhibited a higher body weight, altered hypothalamic leptin sensitivity and metabolic parameters suggesting that maternal P diet has no protective effect on offspring. Whereas, maternal HF diet reduces body weight gain and circulating triglycerides, and ameliorates corpulence index of offspring, even when subjected to P diet. Interestingly, this protective effect is differently expressed in male and female offspring. Male offspring exhibited higher energy expenditure as mirrored by increased hypothalamic UCP-2 and liver AdipoR1/R2 expression, and a profound change in the arcuate nucleus astrocytic organization. In female offspring, the most striking impact of maternal HF diet is the reduced hypothalamic expression of NPY and POMC. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: HF diet given during gestation and lactation protects, at least partially, offspring from excessive weight gain through several mechanisms depending upon gender including changes in arcuate nucleus astrocytic organization and increased hypothalamic UCP-2 and liver AdipoR1/2 expression in males and reduced hypothalamic expression of NPY and POMC in females. Taken together our results reveal new mechanisms involved in the protective effect of maternal HF diet.
Project description:Atorvastatin δ-lactone, a major, pharmacologically inactive metabolite, has been associated with toxicity. In a previous study we showed that polymorphisms of UGT1A3 influence atorvastatin δ-lactone formation. Here we investigated the reverse reaction, atorvastatin δ-lactone hydrolysis, in a human liver bank. Screening of microarray data revealed paraoxonases PON1 and PON3 among 17 candidate esterases. Microsomal δ-lactone hydrolysis was significantly correlated to PON1 and PON3 protein (r(s) = 0.60; r(s) = 0.62, respectively; P < 0.0001). PON1 and PON3 were strongly correlated to each other (r(s) = 0.60) but PON1 was shown to be more extensively glycosylated than PON3. In addition a novel splice-variant of PON3 was identified. Genotyping of 40 polymorphisms within the PON-locus identified PON1 promoter polymorphisms (-108T > C, -832G > A, -1741G > A) and a tightly linked group of PON3 polymorphisms (-4984A > G, -4105G > A, -1091A > G, -746C > T, and F21F) to be associated with changes in atorvastatin δ-lactone hydrolysis and expression of PON1 but not PON3. However, carriers of the common PON1 polymorphisms L55M or Q192R showed no difference in δ-lactone hydrolysis or PON expression. Haplotype analysis revealed decreased δ-lactone hydrolysis in carriers of the most common haplotype *1 compared to carriers of haplotypes *2, *3, *4, and *7. Analysis of non-genetic factors showed association of hepatocellular and cholangiocellular carcinoma with decreased PON1 and PON3 expression, respectively. Increased C-reactive protein and γ-glutamyl transferase levels were associated with decreased protein expression of both enzymes, and increased bilirubin levels, cholestasis, and presurgical exposure to omeprazole or pantoprazole were related to decreased PON3 protein. In conclusion, PON-locus polymorphisms affect PON1 expression whereas non-genetic factors have an effect on PON1 and PON3 expression. This may influence response to therapy or adverse events in statin treatment.
Project description:Oxidative damage to lipids and lipoproteins is implicated in the development of atherosclerotic vascular diseases, including peripheral artery disease (PAD). The paraoxonases (PON) are a group of antioxidant enzymes, termed PON1, PON2, and PON3 that protect lipoproteins and cells from peroxidation and, as such, may be involved in protection against the atherosclerosis process. PON1 inhibits the production of chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) in endothelial cells incubated with oxidized lipoproteins. PON1 and CCL2 are ubiquitously distributed in tissues, and this suggests a joint localization and combined systemic effect. The aim of the present study has been to analyze the quantitative immunohistochemical localization of PON1, PON3, CCL2 and CCL2 receptors in a series of patients with severe PAD. Portions of femoral and/or popliteal arteries from 66 patients with PAD were obtained during surgical procedures for infra-inguinal limb revascularization. We used eight normal arteries from donors as controls. PON1 and PON3, CCL2 and the chemokine-binding protein 2, and Duffy antigen/chemokine receptor, were increased in PAD patients. There were no significant changes in C-C chemokine receptor type 2. Our findings suggest that paraoxonases and chemokines play an important role in the development and progression of atherosclerosis in peripheral artery disease.
Project description:One carbon metabolism is regulated by the availability of nutrients known as methyl donors, and disruption of this pathway can affect multiple physiological systems. DNA methylation, critical for the regulation of gene expression, is linked to one carbon metabolism, and can be altered by perinatal diet. In this study, dams (n = 12/group) were fed HF or standard control (SC) diet through pregnancy and lactation, and male and female offspring were then fed either SC or methyl donor-supplemented diet (MDS) between 3 and 6 weeks of age (n = 20-26/group). Concentration of one carbon intermediates and other related metabolites were assessed within brain tissue (prefrontal cortex, PFC) through the use of mass spectrometry at 6 weeks of age. In addition, the expression of target genes and enzymes that participate in DNA methylation or are relevant to one carbon metabolism were measured. We found that MDS increases the concentration of folate intermediates in the PFC, and that this increase is blunted in male offspring from dams fed a HF diet. In addition, perinatal HF diet increased the concentration of cysteine in the PFC of both male and female offspring, consistent with oxidative stress. Furthermore, both maternal HF diet and postnatal MDS altered global DNA methylation in the PFC in males but not females. Collectively, these data demonstrate sex differences in changes in one carbon metabolites in the prefrontal cortex in response to early life high fat diet and methyl donor supplementation. Read the Editorial Highlight for this article on page 358.
Project description:The present study investigated whether early life exposure to high levels of animal fat increases breast cancer risk in adulthood in rats. Dams consumed a lard-based high-fat (HF) diet (60% fat-derived energy) or an AIN93G control diet (16% fat-derived energy) during gestation or gestation and lactation. Their 7-week-old female offspring were exposed to 7,12-dimethyl-benzo[a]anthracene to induce mammary tumors. Pregnant dams consuming an HF diet had higher circulating leptin levels than pregnant control dams. However, compared to the control offspring, significantly lower susceptibility to mammary cancer development was observed in the offspring of dams fed an HF diet during pregnancy (lower tumor incidence, multiplicity and weight), or pregnancy and lactation (lower tumor multiplicity only). Mammary epithelial elongation, cell proliferation (Ki67) and expression of NF?B p65 were significantly lower and p21 expression and global H3K9me3 levels were higher in the mammary glands of rats exposed to an HF lard diet in utero. They also tended to have lower Rank/Rankl ratios (P=.09) and serum progesterone levels (P=.07) than control offspring. In the mammary glands of offspring of dams consuming an HF diet during both pregnancy and lactation, the number of terminal end buds, epithelial elongation and the BCL-2/BAX ratio were significantly lower and serum leptin levels were higher than in the controls. Our data confirm that the breast cancer risk of offspring can be programmed by maternal dietary intake. However, contrary to our expectation, exposure to high levels of lard during early life decreased later susceptibility to breast cancer.
Project description:Experimental studies showed that paraoxonase-3 (PON3) retards lipoprotein oxidation. Our objective was to describe a new assay to measure serum PON3 concentrations and report their reference values in a population-based study. The influence of PON3 promoter polymorphisms and their relationships with PON1 and lipid profile were also studied. We generated an anti-PON3 antibody by inoculating rabbits with a synthetic peptide specific to mature PON3. This antibody was used to develop an ELISA. The average regression line of standard plots (n = 8) was y = 0.9587 (0.3392) log(10)x + 1.9466 (0.0861) [r(2) = 0.924 (0.0131); P < 0.001]. There was no cross reaction with PON1. Detection limit was 0.24 mg/l. Imprecision was ? 13.2%. Reference interval (n = 356) was 1.00-2.47 mg/l. PON3 was observed in HDL particles containing apolipoprotein (apo)A-I and PON1, but not apoA-II or apoE. Serum PON3 concentrations showed a moderate influence (about 10% variation) by PON3 promoter polymorphisms. Our study describes for the first time a method to measure serum PON3 concentrations. This method offers new opportunities in the investigation of the properties and role of PON3 in cardiovascular disease, with possible implications in clinical practice.