An Ophthalmic Targeted Exome Sequencing Panel as a Powerful Tool to Identify Causative Mutations in Patients Suspected of Hereditary Eye Diseases.
ABSTRACT: Purpose:We evaluate the power of a next-generation sequencing-based ophthalmic targeted sequencing panel (NGS-based OTSP) as a genetics-testing tool for patients suspected of a wide range of hereditary eye diseases. Methods:NGS-based OTSP encompasses 126 genes with identified mutations that account for the majority of Chinese families with hereditary eye diseases. A total of 568 probands suspected of having hereditary eye diseases underwent genetic testing by OTSP with targeted phenotype-driven analysis. Results:NGS-based OTSP detected 329 potential pathogenic variants in 62 genes. These mutations might represent the genetic cause in 52% (293/568) of probands suspected of having hereditary eye diseases. Within the disease subgroups, the detection rates were 61% (124/202) for retinal degeneration disease, 53% (35/66) for eye tumors, 49% (53/108) for retinal vessel disease, 46% (13/28) for retinal detachment, 33% (19/58) for significant refractive error, 35% (16/46) for optic atrophy, 48% (11/23) for anterior segment dysgenesis, and 59% (22/37) for other hereditary eye diseases. These detection rates are comparable to those obtained in our previous study performed with whole exome sequencing. Mutations in the same gene were detected in different forms of hereditary eye diseases. The average turnaround time for OTSP is 30 days, and the average cost is 139 USD per patient. Conclusions:NGS-based OTSP is a powerful tool for routine clinical genetic diagnostic testing in patients suspected of having hereditary eye diseases. Translational Relevance:NGS-based OTSP can be used as a routine clinical test to improve the genetic counseling and medical care of patients suspected of having hereditary eye diseases.
Project description:Purpose:Achromatopsia is a congenital autosomal recessive cone disorder, and it has been found to be associated with six genes. However, pathogenic variants in these six genes have been identified in patients with various retinal dystrophies with the exception of achromatopsia. Thus, this study aims to investigate the contribution of these genes in hereditary retinal diseases and the potential genotype-phenotype correlations. Methods:Biallelic variants in six achromatopsia-related genes, namely, CNGA3, CNGB3, GNAT2, ATF6, PDE6C, and PDE6H, were analyzed based on data obtained from 7,195 probands with different eye conditions. A systematic genotype-phenotype analysis of these genes was performed based on these data, along with the data reported in the literature. Results:Biallelic potential pathogenic variants (PPVs) in five of the six genes were identified in 119 probands with genetic eye diseases. The variants in CNGA3 were the most common and accounted for 81.5% (97/119). Of the 119 probands, 62.2% (74/119) have cone-rod dystrophy, whereas only 25.2% (30/119) have achromatopsia. No biallelic pathogenic variants in these genes were identified in patients with rod-dominant degeneration. A systematic review of genotypes and phenotypes revealed certain characteristics of each of the six genes, providing clues for the pathogenicity evaluation of the variants of the genes. Conclusions:PPVs in the six genes were identified in various inherited retinal degeneration diseases, most of which are cone-dominant diseases but no rod-dominant diseases based on the data from a cohort of 7,195 probands with different eye conditions. The systematic genotype-phenotype analysis of these genes will be useful in drafting guidelines for the clinical genetic diagnostic application for the investigated genes.
Project description:The National Ophthalmic Disease Genotyping and Phenotyping Network (eyeGENE(®)) was established in an effort to facilitate basic and clinical research of human inherited eye disease. In order to provide high quality genetic testing to eyeGENE(®)'s enrolled patients which potentially aids clinical diagnosis and disease treatment, we carried out a pilot study and performed Next-generation sequencing (NGS) based molecular diagnosis for 105 Retinitis Pigmentosa (RP) patients randomly selected from the network. A custom capture panel was designed, which incorporated 195 known retinal disease genes, including 61 known RP genes. As a result, disease-causing mutations were identified in 52 out of 105 probands (solving rate of 49.5%). A total of 82 mutations were identified, and 48 of them were novel. Interestingly, for three probands the molecular diagnosis was inconsistent with the initial clinical diagnosis, while for five probands the molecular information suggested a different inheritance model other than that assigned by the physician. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that NGS target sequencing is efficient and sufficiently precise for molecular diagnosis of a highly heterogeneous patient cohort from eyeGENE(®).
Project description:Hereditary eye diseases of animals serve as excellent models of human ocular disorders and assist in the development of gene and drug therapies for inherited forms of blindness. Several primary hereditary eye conditions affecting various ocular tissues and having different rates of progression have been documented in domestic cats. Gene therapy for canine retinopathies has been successful, thus the cat could be a gene therapy candidate for other forms of retinal degenerations. The current study investigates a hereditary, autosomal recessive, retinal degeneration specific to Persian cats. A multi-generational pedigree segregating for this progressive retinal atrophy was genotyped using a 63 K SNP array and analyzed via genome-wide linkage and association methods. A multi-point parametric linkage analysis localized the blindness phenotype to a ~1.75 Mb region with significant LOD scores (Z ? 14, ? = 0.00) on cat chromosome E1. Genome-wide TDT, sib-TDT, and case-control analyses also consistently supported significant association within the same region on chromosome E1, which is homologous to human chromosome 17. Using haplotype analysis, a ~1.3 Mb region was identified as highly associated for progressive retinal atrophy in Persian cats. Several candidate genes within the region are reasonable candidates as a potential causative gene and should be considered for molecular analyses.
Project description:Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is the most common inherited retinal disease. It is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorder, which is why it is particularly challenging to diagnose. The aim of this study was to establish a targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) approach for the comprehensive, rapid, and cost-effective clinical molecular diagnosis of RP. A specific hereditary eye disease enrichment panel (HEDEP) based on exome capture technology was used to collect the protein coding regions of 371 targeted hereditary eye disease genes, followed by high-throughput sequencing on the Illumina HiSeq2000 platform. From a cohort of 34 Chinese RP families, 13 families were successfully diagnosed; thus, the method achieves a diagnostic rate of approximately 40%. Of 16 pathogenic mutations identified, 11 were novel. Our study demonstrates that targeted capture sequencing offers a rapid and effective method for the molecular diagnosis of RP, which helps to provide a more accurate clinical diagnosis and paves the way for genetic counseling, family planning, and future gene-targeted treatment.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Alport syndrome (AS) is a hereditary disease caused by mutations in COL4A3-5 genes. Recently, comprehensive genetic analysis has become the first-line diagnostic tool for AS. However, no reports comparing mutation identification rates between conventional sequencing and comprehensive screening have been published. METHODS:In this study, 441 patients clinically suspected of having AS were divided into two groups and compared. The initial mutational analysis method involved targeted exome sequencing using next-generation sequencing (NGS) (n = 147, NGS group) or Sanger sequencing for COL4A3/COL4A4/COL4A5 (n = 294, Sanger group). RESULTS:In the NGS group, 126 patients (86%) were diagnosed with AS by NGS, while two had pathogenic mutations in other genes, NPHS1 and EYA1. Further, 239 patients (81%) were diagnosed with AS by initial analysis in the Sanger group. Thirteen patients who were negative for mutation detection in the Sanger group were analyzed by NGS; three were diagnosed with AS. Two had mutations in CLCN5 or LAMB2. The final variant detection rate was 90%. DISCUSSION:Our results reveal that Sanger sequencing and targeted exome sequencing have high diagnostic ability. NGS also has the advantage of detecting other inherited kidney diseases and pathogenic mutations missed by Sanger sequencing.
Project description:Purpose:Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) and autosomal dominant optic atrophy (ADOA) are the two commonest forms of hereditary optic neuropathy. The aim of this study was to comprehensively investigate the incidence and spectrum of mutations in patients with suspected hereditary optic neuropathy by combining mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genome-wide and targeted exon sequencing. Methods:A cohort of 1101 subjects were recruited to participate in the study, comprising 177 families (177 probands and their family members, a total of 537 subjects, including 254 patients) and 164 sporadic cases with suspected hereditary optic neuropathy, and 400 unrelated control subjects for genetic analysis: all subjects (including control subjects) underwent a comprehensive ophthalmologic examination and were subjected to sequencing analysis of mtDNA genome-wide and targeted exon. Overall, targeted exon sequencing was used to screen 792 genes associated with common hereditary eye diseases, and the mtDNA genome-wide were screened by next-generation sequencing. Results:We found variants detected in 168 (40.2%, 168/418) of the 418 patients screened. Among these, 132 cases (78.6%, 132/168) were detected with known LHON disease-causing mtDNA variants; 40 cases (23.8%, 40/168) were detected with nuclear DNA (ntDNA) variants, which included 36 cases (21.4%, 36/168) with detected OPA1 mutations, 4 patients (2.4%, 4/168) with detected OPA3 mutations, and 2 patients (1.2%, 2/168) with detected TMEM126A homozygous mutation. Coexistence variation (mtDNA/mtDNA [n = 16], ntDNA/ntDNA [n = 4], mtDNA/ntDNA [n = 7]) was found in 27 patients (16.4%, 27/165), including mtDNA/ntDNA coexistence variation that was detected in seven patients. Among these ntDNA mutations, 38 distinct disease-causing variants, including autosomal recessive heterozygous mutations, were detected, which included 22 novel variants and two de novo variants. Total haplogroup distribution showed that 34.5% (29/84) and 28.6% (24/84) of the affected subjects with m.11778G>A belonged to haplogroup D and M, with a high frequency of subhaplogroups D4, D5, and M7. Conclusions:The LHON-mtDNA mutations are the commonest genetic defects in this Chinese cohort, followed by the OPA1 mutations. To our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive study of LHON, ADOA, and autosomal recessive optic atrophy combined with mtDNA genome-wide and targeted exon sequencing, as well as haplogroup analysis, in a large cohort of Chinese patients with suspected hereditary optic neuropathy. Our findings provide a powerful basis for genetic counseling in patients with suspected hereditary optic neuropathy. Translational Relevance:We applied mtDNA genome-wide sequencing combined with panel-based targeted exon sequencing to explore the pathogenic variation spectrum and genetic characteristics of patients with suspected hereditary optic neuropathy, providing a comprehensive research strategy for clinical assistant diagnosis, treatment, and genetic counseling.
Project description:To assess the clinical utility of targeted Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) for the diagnosis of Inherited Retinal Dystrophies (IRDs), a total of 109 subjects were enrolled in the study, including 88 IRD affected probands and 21 healthy relatives. Clinical diagnoses included Retinitis Pigmentosa (RP), Leber Congenital Amaurosis (LCA), Stargardt Disease (STGD), Best Macular Dystrophy (BMD), Usher Syndrome (USH), and other IRDs with undefined clinical diagnosis. Participants underwent a complete ophthalmologic examination followed by genetic counseling. A custom AmpliSeq™ panel of 72 IRD-related genes was designed for the analysis and tested using Ion semiconductor Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS). Potential disease-causing mutations were identified in 59.1% of probands, comprising mutations in 16 genes. The highest diagnostic yields were achieved for BMD, LCA, USH, and STGD patients, whereas RP confirmed its high genetic heterogeneity. Causative mutations were identified in 17.6% of probands with undefined diagnosis. Revision of the initial diagnosis was performed for 9.6% of genetically diagnosed patients. This study demonstrates that NGS represents a comprehensive cost-effective approach for IRDs molecular diagnosis. The identification of the genetic alterations underlying the phenotype enabled the clinicians to achieve a more accurate diagnosis. The results emphasize the importance of molecular diagnosis coupled with clinic information to unravel the extensive phenotypic heterogeneity of these diseases.
Project description:Inherited retinal disease (IRD) is a category of genetic disorders affecting retina. Understanding the molecular basis of IRD is vital for clinical and genetic classification of patients. Uyghur people is an isolated ethnic group mainly residing in northwestern China with genetic admixture from Europeans and East Asians. The genetic etiology of IRD in this specific population still remains unknown. Here, by next-generation sequencing (NGS), we screened mutations in over 200 known retinal disease genes in a cohort of 12 unrelated Uyghur IRD probands. Out of the 12 probands, six are solved with high confidence, two with low confidence, while the remaining four are unsolved. We identified known disease-causing alleles in this cohort that suggest ancient Uyghur migration and also discovered eight novel disease-associated variants. Our results showed NGS-based mutation screening as a reliable approach for molecular diagnosis. In addition, this approach can also be applied to reveal the genetic history of a specific ethnic group.
Project description:von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease is a hereditary cancer syndrome in which the patients develop retinal and central nervous system hemangioblastomas, pheochromocytomas and clear-cell renal tumors. The autosomal dominant disease is caused by mutations in the VHL gene.VHL mutational analysis was carried out by sequencing of the coding sequence and by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification analysis. The functional consequence of the variants was investigated using in silico prediction tools.A total of 289 probands suspected of having VHL syndrome have been screened for mutations in the VHL gene. Twenty-six different VHL mutations were identified in 36 families including one in-frame duplication, two frame-shift mutations, four nonsense mutations, twelve missense mutations, three intronic mutations and four large genomic rearrangements. Three of these mutations (c.319?C > T, c.342_343dupGGT and c.520_521dupAA) were novel.In this study we report the VHL germ-line mutations found in Danish families. We found three novel VHL mutations where two were classified as pathogenic and the latter was classified as a variant of unknown significance. Together, our findings contribute to the interpretation of the potential pathogenicity of VHL germ-line mutations.
Project description:Hereditary retinal dystrophies (RD) constitute a group of blinding diseases that are characterized by clinical variability and pronounced genetic heterogeneity. The different forms of RD can be caused by mutations in >100 genes, including >1600 exons. Consequently, next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies are among the most promising approaches to identify mutations in RD. So far, NGS is not routinely used in gene diagnostics. We developed a diagnostic NGS pipeline to identify mutations in 170 genetically and clinically unselected RD patients. NGS was applied to 105 RD-associated genes. Underrepresented regions were examined by Sanger sequencing. The NGS approach was successfully established using cases with known sequence alterations. Depending on the initial clinical diagnosis, we identified likely causative mutations in 55% of retinitis pigmentosa and 80% of Bardet-Biedl or Usher syndrome cases. Seventy-one novel mutations in 40 genes were newly associated with RD. The genes USH2A, EYS, ABCA4, and RHO were more frequently affected than others. Occasionally, cases carried mutations in more than one RD-associated gene. In addition, we found possible dominant de-novo mutations in cases with sporadic RD, which implies consequences for counseling of patients and families. NGS-based mutation analyses are reliable and cost-efficient approaches in gene diagnostics of genetically heterogeneous diseases like RD.