Radial Artery Versus Right Internal Thoracic Artery Versus Saphenous Vein as the Second Conduit for Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery: A Network Meta-Analysis of Clinical Outcomes.
ABSTRACT: Background There remains uncertainty regarding the second-best conduit after the internal thoracic artery in coronary artery bypass grafting. Few studies directly compared the clinical results of the radial artery ( RA ), right internal thoracic artery ( RITA ), and saphenous vein ( SV ). No network meta-analysis has compared these 3 strategies. Methods and Results MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched for adjusted observational studies and randomized controlled trials comparing the RA , SV , and/or RITA as the second conduit for coronary artery bypass grafting. The primary end point was all-cause long-term mortality. Secondary end points were operative mortality, perioperative stroke, perioperative myocardial infarction, and deep sternal wound infection ( DSWI ). Pairwise and network meta-analyses were performed. A total of 149 902 patients (4 randomized, 31 observational studies) were included ( RA , 16 201, SV , 112 018, RITA, 21 683). At NMA , the use of SV was associated with higher long-term mortality compared with the RA (incidence rate ratio, 1.23; 95% CI , 1.12-1.34) and RITA (incidence rate ratio, 1.26; 95% CI , 1.17-1.35). The risk of DSWI for SV was similar to RA but lower than RITA (odds ratio, 0.71; 95% CI , 0.55-0.91). There were no differences for any outcome between RITA and RA , although DSWI trended higher with RITA (odds ratio, 1.39; 95% CI , 0.92-2.1). The risk of DSWI in bilateral internal thoracic artery studies was higher when the skeletonization technique was not used. Conclusions The use of the RA or the RITA is associated with a similar and statistically significant long-term clinical benefit compared with the SV . There are no differences in operative risk or complications between the 2 arterial conduits, but DSWI remains a concern with bilateral ITA when skeletonization is not used.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Bilateral internal thoracic arteries (BITA) coronary bypass grafting may improve long-term outcomes but is associated with increased deep sternal wound infections (DSWIs). We analyzed whether BITA skeletonization impacts DSWIs and operative mortality (OM) using The Society of Thoracic Surgeons Adult Cardiac Surgery Database.<h4>Methods</h4>Primary, isolated, nonemergent/nonsalvage BITA patients (July 2017 to December 2018) in The Society of Thoracic Surgeons Adult Cardiac Surgery Database were divided into groups based on BITA harvesting technique: both skeletonized (ssBITA) and ?1 nonskeletonized (Non-ssBITA). DSWI and OM observed-to-expected (O/E) ratios were compared using The Society of Thoracic Surgeons Perioperative Risk Models. ssBITA versus Non-ssBITA DSWI and OM adjusted odds ratios were calculated by multivariable logistic regression and corroborated by propensity score matching.<h4>Results</h4>We analyzed 11,269 patients (42.8% ssBITA, 57.2% Non-ssBITA, 770 hospitals, 1448 surgeons). The ssBITA group had a higher incidence of comorbidities and off-pump surgery. Overall incidences of DSWIs and OM were 0.98% (O/E ratio, 5.1) and 1.72% (O/E ratio, 1.4), respectively, and were 28% (P = .129) and 23% (P = .096) lower in ssBITA. The DSWI O/E ratio was highest (5.9) in Non-ssBITA and lowest in ss-BITA (4.1). After multivariable adjustment, ssBITA was associated with a decreased risk of DSWIs (adjusted odds ratio, 0.66; 95% confidence interval, 0.44-1.00; P = .05), with no difference in OM. These results were confirmed among 3884 propensity score-matched pairs. DSWIs increased sharply with increasing number of risk factors for DSWIs regardless of harvesting technique, with a trend for higher DSWIs among Non-ssBITA for all risk categories.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The observed high O/E ratio indicates that BITA grafting is associated with increased risk of DSWIs. Risk-adjusted DSWI rate and a lower O/E ratio in ssBITA support the protective role of skeletonization.
Project description:The saphenous vein (SV) is the most commonly used conduit for coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) and the second conduit of choice in Brazil and many other countries. The radial artery (RA) is suggested, by some, to be superior to SV grafts, although its use in the USA declined over a 10 year period. The patency of SV grafts (SVG) is improved when the vein is harvested with minimal trauma using the no-touch (NT) technique. This improved performance is due to the preservation of the outer pedicle surrounding the SV and reduction in vascular damage that occurs when using conventional techniques (CT) of harvesting. While the patency of NT SVGs has been shown superior to the RA at 36 months in one study, data from the RADIAL trial suggests the RA to be the superior conduit. When additional data using NT SVG is included in this trial the difference in risk of graft occlusion between the RA and SV grafts dissipates with there no longer being a significant difference in patency between conduits. The importance of preserving SV structure and the impact of NT harvesting on conduit choice for CABG patients are discussed in this short review.
Project description:Background Several randomized trials have compared the patency of coronary artery bypass conduits. All of the published studies, however, have performed pairwise comparisons and a comprehensive evaluation of the patency rates of all conduits has yet to be published. We set out to investigate the angiographic patency rates of all conduits used in coronary bypass surgery by performing a network meta-analysis of the current available randomized evidence. Methods and Results A systematic literature search was conducted for randomized controlled trials comparing the angiographic patency rate of the conventionally harvested saphenous vein, the no-touch saphenous vein, the radial artery (RA), the right internal thoracic artery, or the gastroepiploic artery. The primary outcome was graft occlusion. A total of 4160 studies were retrieved of which 14 were included with 3651 grafts analyzed. The weighted mean angiographic follow-up was 5.1 years. Compared with the conventionally harvested saphenous vein, both the RA (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 0.54; 95% CI, 0.35-0.82) and the no-touch saphenous vein (IRR 0.55; 95% CI, 0.39-0.78) were associated with lower graft occlusion. The RA ranked as the best conduit (rank score for RA 0.87 versus 0.85 for no-touch saphenous vein, 0.23 for right internal thoracic artery, 0.29 for gastroepiploic artery, and 0.25 for the conventionally harvested saphenous vein). Conclusions Compared with the conventionally harvested saphenous vein, only the RA and no-touch saphenous vein grafts are associated with significantly lower graft occlusion rates. The RA ranks as the best conduit. Registration URL: https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero; Unique identifier: CRD42020164492.
Project description:Background Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) is associated with metabolically driven chronic inflammation called metaflammation, which contributes to vascular function and the pathogenesis of vascular disease. The saphenous vein (SV) is commonly used as an essential conduit in coronary artery bypass grafting, but the long-term patency of SV grafts is a crucial issue. The use of the novel "no-touch" technique of SV harvesting together with its surrounding tissue has been reported to result in good long‑term graft patency of SV grafts. Herein, we investigated whether PVAT surrounding the SV (SV-PVAT) has distinct phenotypes compared with other PVATs of vessels. Methods and Results Fat pads were sampled from 48 patients (male/female, 32/16; age, 72±8 years) with coronary artery disease who underwent elective coronary artery bypass grafting. Adipocyte size in SV-PVAT was significantly larger than the sizes in PVATs surrounding the internal thoracic artery, coronary artery, and aorta. SV-PVAT and PVAT surrounding the internal thoracic artery had smaller extents of fibrosis, decreased gene expression levels of fibrosis-related markers, and less metaflammation, as indicated by a significantly smaller extent of cluster of differentiation 11c-positive M1 macrophage infiltration, higher gene expression level of adiponectin, and lower gene expression levels of inflammatory cytokines, than did PVATs surrounding the coronary artery and aorta. Expression patterns of adipocyte developmental and pattern-forming genes were totally different among the PVATs of the vessels. Conclusions The phenotype of SV-PVAT, which may result from inherent differences in adipocytes, is closer to that of PVAT surrounding the internal thoracic artery than that of PVAT surrounding the coronary artery or that of PVAT surrounding the aorta. SV-PVAT has less metaflammation and consecutive adipose tissue remodeling, which may contribute to high long-term patency of grafting when the no-touch technique of SV harvesting is used.
Project description:BACKGROUND:This meta-analysis was designed to assess whether center experience affects the short- and long-term results and the relative benefits of bilateral internal thoracic artery grafting (BITA) for coronary artery bypass grafting. METHODS AND RESULTS:MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched to identify all articles reporting the outcome of BITA in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. The BITA center experience was gauged according to the percentage use of BITA in the institutional overall coronary artery bypass grafting population (%BITA). The primary outcome was long-term all-cause mortality. Secondary outcomes were operative mortality, perioperative myocardial infarction, perioperative stroke, deep sternal wound infections (DSWIs), and major postoperative adverse event. The rates of the primary and secondary outcomes were calculated after adjusting for %BITA. Primary and secondary outcomes were also compared between the BITA and the single internal thoracic artery arms in the adjusted studies. Meta-regression was used to evaluate the effect of %BITA on the primary and secondary outcomes. Thirty-four studies (27 894 patients undergoing BITA) were included. In the pooled analysis, the incidence rate for long-term mortality was 2.83% (95% confidence interval, 2.21%-3.61%). %BITA was significantly and inversely associated with long-term mortality and the rate of DSWI. In the pairwise comparison, %BITA was significantly and inversely associated with the risk of long-term mortality and DSWI in the group undergoing BITA. CONCLUSIONS:BITA series with higher %BITA report significantly lower long-term mortality and DSWI rate as well as higher long-term survival advantage and lower relative risk of DSWI in their BITA cohort. These findings suggest that a specific volume-outcome relationship exists for BITA grafting.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>Concerns have been raised regarding whether skeletonization of the internal thoracic artery could damage the graft and thereby reduces its patency. The objective of this study was to compare patency rates at mid- and long-term follow-up between pedicled and skeletonized left internal thoracic artery grafts.<h4>Methods</h4>This randomized controlled trial included 109 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery. The patients were assigned to receive either one pedicled or one skeletonized left internal thoracic artery graft to the left anterior descending artery. Follow-up was performed at 3 years with conventional angiography, and at 8 years with computed tomography angiography. Differences between patency rates were analyzed with Fisher's exact test and a generalized linear model.<h4>Results</h4>The patency rates for pedicled and skeletonized left internal thoracic artery grafts were 46/48 (95.8%) versus 47/52 (90.4%), <i>p</i> = 0.44 at 3 years, and 40/43 (93.0%) versus 37/41 (90.2%), <i>p</i> = 0.71 at 8 years, respectively. The difference in patency rates for pedicled and skeletonized grafts was 5.4% (95% confidence interval: -4.2-14.5) at 3 years and 2.8% (95% confidence interval: -9.9-14.1) at 8 years. All failed grafts, except for one with a localized stenosis, were anastomosed to native coronary arteries with a stenosis less than 70%. Three patients suffered sternal wound infections (two in the pedicled group, one in the skeletonized group).<h4>Conclusions</h4>The skeletonization technique can be used without jeopardizing the patency of the left internal thoracic artery. The most important factor in graft failure was target artery stenosis below 70%.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Where each patient has all three conduits of internal mammary artery (IMA), saphenous vein graft (SVG) and radial artery (RA), most confounders affecting comparison between conduits can be mitigated. Additionally, since SVG progressively fails over time, restricting patient angiography to the late period only can mitigate against early SVG patency that may have occluded in the late period. METHODS:Research protocol driven conventional angiography was performed for patients with at least one of each conduit of IMA, RA and SVG and a minimum of 7?years postoperative. The primary analysis was perfect patency and secondary analysis was overall patency including angiographic evidence of conduit lumen irregularity from conduit atheroma. Multivariable generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) was used. Patency excluded occluded or "string sign" conduits. Perfect patency was present in patent grafts if there was no lumen irregularity. RESULTS:Fifty patients underwent coronary angiography at overall duration postoperative 13.1?±?2.9, and age 74.3?±?7.0?years. Of 196 anastomoses, IMA 62, RA 77 and SVG 57. Most IMA were to the left anterior descending territory and most RA and SVG were to the circumflex and right coronary territories. Perfect patency RA 92.2% was not different to IMA 96.8%, P?=?0.309; and both were significantly better than SVG 17.5%, P?<?0.001. Patency RA 93.5% was also not different to IMA 96.8%, P?=?0.169, and both arterial conduits were significantly higher than SVG 82.5%, P?=?0.029. Grafting according to coronary territory was not significant for perfect patency, P?=?0.997 and patency P?=?0.289. Coronary stenosis predicted perfect patency for RA only, P?=?0.030 and for patency, RA, P?=?0.007, and SVG, P?=?0.032. When both arterial conduits were combined, perfect patency, P?<?0.001, and patency, P?=?0.017, were superior to SVG. CONCLUSIONS:All but one patent internal mammary artery or radial artery grafts had perfect patency and had superior perfect patency and overall patency compared to saphenous vein grafts.
Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4>The Gatti score is a weighted scoring system based on risk factors for deep sternal wound infection (DSWI) that has been specifically created to predict DSWI risk after routine bilateral internal thoracic artery (BITA) grafting. It has not undergone an external validation. The aim of the present study was to perform this validation.<h4>Methods</h4>BITA grafts were used as skeletonized conduits in 304 (90.7%) of 335 consecutive patients with multivessel coronary artery disease who underwent isolated coronary bypass surgery at the authors' institution between January 2014 and July 2015. Baseline characteristics, operative data and immediate outcomes of every patient were prospectively collected in a computerized data registry. A score was assigned to each patient preoperatively. The goodness-of-fit and the discrimination power of both models, preoperative and combined, of the Gatti score were assessed with the Hosmer-Lemeshow test and the calculation of the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve, respectively.<h4>Results</h4>Eighteen (5.9%) patients suffered from DSWI. Major differences were found between the original series whence the Gatti score has been derived and the present prospective series. The Gatti score goodness-of-fit was satisfactory for both the preoperative (P = 0.61) and the combined model (P = 0.81). The area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve was 0.82 (95% confidence interval: 0.72-0.91) for the preoperative model and 0.8 (95% confidence interval: 0.71-0.9) for the combined model.<h4>Conclusions</h4>On the basis of the results of the present prospective study, the Gatti score has proved to be effective in predicting DSWI following BITA grafting despite some differences between the original and the present series of patients. More studies have to be performed in order to strengthen the evidence of this first external validation.
Project description:Atherosclerosis is one of the leading non-communicable diseases in Sri Lanka. Analysis of fatty acid composition in blood vessels is important in understanding the development of atherosclerosis. Here, analyses of fatty acid profiles in major arteries which are commonly used in Coronary Artery Bypass Graft surgery (CABG) were subjected to investigation. Patients (n = 27) undergoing elective CABG were enrolled in the study. A small biopsy segment of the saphenous vein (SV), radial artery (RA), and left internal mammary artery (LIMA) of patients was obtained during the surgery. The fatty acid (FA) profile of tissue samples was analyzed using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy (GCMS). Among the different arteries tested, palmitic acid and stearic acid were the predominant fatty acids. As far as monounsaturated FA (MUFA) are concerned, oleic acid was found to be the most abundant MUFA in vessels. The FA profile of LIMA samples had a higher SFA percentage and lower unsaturated FA percentage compared to other vessels. Furthermore, the vessel samples of RA indicated the highest percentage of pro-inflammatory ω -6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) as well as a higher percentage ratio between ω -6: ω -3 PUFA. The fatty acid composition and ω -6: ω -3 PUFA ratio suggests that LIMA graft is preferred for CABG over RA and SV.
Project description:Bilateral internal thoracic artery (BITA) grafting strategy is the current trend in coronary artery bypass grafting for multivessel coronary artery disease. Although better long-term outcomes have been shown, BITA grafting is underutilized as a main strategy for revascularization by most of the surgeons. The survey was conducted to ascertain the current usage and concerns of BITA grafting in India.Database of 856 Indian cardiac surgeons currently with predominantly adult practice was prepared and a questionnaire was sent about use of single and bilateral ITA grafts and BITA grafting strategy in different clinical scenarios.A total of 112 surgeons (13.08%) from 75 institutions responded and 92 surgeons (10.7%) completed the survey. Single ITA is used by 79% of surgeons in more than 90% of their patients. 31% and 29% of surgeons use BITA grafting in 5-10% and 11-98% of their patients respectively. 53% of surgeons avoided the usage of BITA grafting in patients with smoking, 35% of surgeons in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 58% of surgeons in obesity and 62% of surgeons in acute coronary syndrome, 36% of surgeons in patients with left ventricular dysfunction and 61% of surgeons in patients with poor coronary anatomy. The concerns for BITA usage are risk of deep sternal wound infection (DSWI) (40%), increased operative time (27%), unknown superiority (12%) and limited length of right ITA (5%).The usage of BITA grafting is restricted to 10% in India and main concerns are DSWI and increased operative time.