Examining Differences in Recovery Outcomes between Male and Female Hip Fracture Patients: Design and Baseline Results of a Prospective Cohort Study from the Baltimore Hip Studies.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Incidence of hip fractures in men is expected to increase, yet little is known about consequences of hip fracture in men compared to women. It is important to investigate differences at time of fracture using the newest technologies and methodology regarding metabolic, physiologic, neuromuscular, functional, and clinical outcomes, with attention to design issues for recruiting frail older adults across numerous settings. OBJECTIVES:To determine whether at least moderately-sized sex differences exist across several key outcomes after a hip fracture. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS:This prospective cohort study (Baltimore Hip Studies 7th cohort [BHS-7]) was designed to include equal numbers of male and female hip fracture patients to assess sex differences across various outcomes post-hip fracture. Participants were recruited from eight hospitals in the Baltimore metropolitan area within 15 days of admission and were assessed at baseline, 2, 6 and 12 months post-admission. MEASUREMENTS:Assessments included questionnaire, functional performance evaluation, cognitive testing, measures of body composition, and phlebotomy. RESULTS:Of 1709 hip fracture patients screened from May 2006 through June 2011, 917 (54%) were eligible and 39% (n=362) provided informed consent. The final analytic sample was 339 (168 men and 171 women). At time of fracture, men were sicker (mean Charlson score= 2.4 vs. 1.6; p<0.001) and had worse cognition (3MS score= 82.3 vs. 86.2; p<0.05), and prior to fracture were less likely to be on bisphosphonates (8% vs. 39%; p<0.001) and less physically active (2426 kilocalories/week vs. 3625; p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS:This paper provides the study design and methodology for recruiting and assessing hip fracture patients and evidence of baseline and pre-injury sex differences which may affect eventual recovery one year later.
Project description:Prior studies have shown that women have declines in bone structure and strength after hip fracture, but it is unclear whether men sustain similar changes. Therefore, the objective was to examine sex differences in proximal femur geometry following hip fracture. Hip structural analysis was used to derive metrics of bone structure and strength: aerial bone mineral density, cross-sectional bone area (CSA), cortical outer diameter, section modulus (SM), and buckling ratio (BR) from dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scans performed at baseline (within 22days of hospital admission), two, six, or twelve months after hip fracture in men and women (n=282) enrolled in the Baltimore Hip Studies 7th cohort. Weighted estimating equations were used to evaluate sex differences at the narrow neck (NN), intertrochanteric (IT), and femoral shaft (FS). Men had significantly different one year NN changes compared to women in CSA: -6.33% (-12.47, -0.20) vs. 1.37% (-3.31, 6.43), P=0.049; SM: -4.98% (-11.08, 1.10) vs. 3.94% (-2.51, 10.42), P=0.042; and BR: 7.50% (0.65, 14.36) vs. -1.20% (-6.41, 4.00), P=0.044. One year IT changes displayed similar patterns, but the sex differences were not statistically significant for CSA: -4.07% (-10.83, 2.67) vs. 0.41% (-3.41, 4.24), P=0.252; SM: -4.78% (-12.10, 5.53) vs. -0.31 (-4.74, 4.11), P=0.287; and BR: 4.59% (-0.65, 9.84) vs. 1.52% (-4.23, 7.28), P=0.425. Differences in FS geometric parameters were even smaller in magnitude and not significantly different by sex. Women generally experienced non-significant increases in bone tissue and strength following hip fracture, while men had structural declines that were statistically greater at the NN region. Reductions in the mechanical strength of the proximal femur after hip fracture could put men at higher risk for subsequent fractures of the contralateral hip.
Project description:UNLABELLED:Research has not examined changes in bone mineral density (BMD) between men and women following hip fracture. The aim was to evaluate sex differences in BMD following hip fracture. Men experienced significant declines in BMD, while not statistically greater than women, underscoring the necessity for better osteoporosis care in men. INTRODUCTION:Each year in the USA, approximately 260,000 older adults experience a hip fracture. Women experiencing hip fracture have excess decline in BMD in the year following fracture compared to expected decrements due to aging, but few studies have assessed sex differences in the sequelae of hip fracture. Thus, our objective was to examine sex differences in BMD change in the year after hip fracture. METHODS:The sample (n?=?286) included persons enrolled in the Baltimore Hip Studies 7th cohort, a study that matched (1:1) men and women experiencing hip fracture. Weighted estimating equations that accounted for missing data and selective survival were used to estimate sex differences in 12-month total hip (TH) and femoral neck (FN) BMD changes. RESULTS:Men had larger average adjusted percent decline in TH and FN BMD. Adjusted 12-month decreases at the FN showed a statistically significant decline of -4.60% (95% confidence interval [CI] -7.76%, -0.20%) in men and an insignificant change of -1.62% (95% CI -4.57%, 1.32%) in women. Yet, the difference in change between men and women was not statistically significant (P?=?0.17). The estimated sex differences for TH BMD loss were smaller in magnitude. CONCLUSIONS:There is evidence of significant BMD loss among men at the FN in the year after hip fracture. Although not statistically greater than women, these clinically significant findings highlight the need for improved osteoporosis care among men prior to and after hip fracture.
Project description:Men experience declining bone mineral density (BMD) after hip fracture; however, changes attributable to fracture are unknown. This study evaluated the excess BMD decline attributable to hip fracture among older men. Older men with hip fracture experienced accelerated BMD declines and are at an increased risk of secondary fractures. INTRODUCTION:The objective was to determine whether bone mineral density (BMD) changes in men after hip fracture exceed that expected with aging. METHODS:Two cohorts were used: Baltimore Hip Studies 7th cohort (BHS-7) and Baltimore Men's Osteoporosis Study (MOST). BHS-7 recruited older adults (N = 339) hospitalized for hip fracture; assessments occurred within 22 days of admission and at 2, 6, and 12 months follow-up. MOST enrolled age-eligible men (N = 694) from population-based listings; data were collected at a baseline visit and a second visit that occurred between 10 and 31 months later. The combined sample (n = 452) consisted of Caucasian men from BHS-7 (n = 89) and MOST (n = 363) with ? 2 dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans and overlapping ranges of age, height, and weight. Mixed-effect models estimated rates of BMD change, and generalized linear models evaluated differences in annual bone loss at the total hip and femoral neck between cohorts. RESULTS:Adjusted changes in total hip and femoral neck BMD were - 4.16% (95% CI, - 4.87 to - 3.46%) and - 4.90% (95% CI, - 5.88 to - 3.92%) in BHS-7 participants; - 1.57% (95% CI, - 2.19 to - 0.96%) and - 0.99% (95% CI, - 1.88 to - 0.10%) in MOST participants; and statistically significant (P < 0.001) between-group differences in change were - 2.59% (95% CI, - 3.26 to - 1.91%) and - 3.91% (95% CI, - 4.83 to - 2.98%), respectively. CONCLUSION:Hip fracture in older men is associated with accelerated BMD declines at the non-fractured hip that are greater than those expected during aging, and pharmacological interventions in this population to prevent secondary fractures may be warranted.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:The Food and Drug Administration recommends a reduced dose of nonbenzodiazepine hypnotics in women, yet little is known about the age-, sex-, and dose-specific effects of these drugs on risk of hip fracture, especially among nursing home (NH) residents. We estimated the age-, sex-, and dose-specific effects of nonbenzodiazepine hypnotics on the rate of hip fracture among NH residents. DESIGN AND SETTING:Case-crossover study in US NHs. PARTICIPANTS:A total of 691 women and 179 men with hip fracture sampled from all US long-stay NH residents. MEASUREMENTS:Measures of patient characteristics were obtained from linked Medicare and the Minimum Data Set (2007-2008). The outcome was hospitalization for hip fracture with surgical repair. We estimated rate ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) from conditional logistic regression models for nonbenzodiazepine hypnotics (vs nonuse) comparing 0 to 29?days before hip fracture (hazard period) with 60 to 89 and 120 to 149?days before hip fracture (control periods). We stratified analyses by age, sex, and dose. RESULTS:The average RR of hip fracture was 1.7 (95% CI 1.5-1.9) for any use. The RR of hip fracture was higher for residents aged ?90?years vs <70?years (2.2 vs 1.3); however, the CIs overlapped. No differences in the effect of the hypnotic on risk of hip fracture were evident by sex. Point estimates for hip fracture were greater with high-dose versus low-dose hypnotics (RR 1.9 vs 1.6 for any use), but these differences were highly compatible with chance. CONCLUSIONS:The rate of hip fracture in NH residents due to use of nonbenzodiazepine hypnotics was greater among older patients than among younger patients and, possibly, with higher doses than with lower doses. When clinicians are prescribing a nonbenzodiazepine hypnotic to any NH resident, doses of these drugs should be kept as low as possible, especially among those with advanced age.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To examine trends in 12-month postfracture residual disability, nursing home placement, and mortality among patients with a hip fracture between 1990 and 2011. DESIGN:Secondary analysis of 12-month outcomes from 3 cohort studies and control arms of 2 randomized controlled trials. SETTING:Original studies were conducted as part of the Baltimore Hip Studies (BHS). PARTICIPANTS:Community-dwelling patients ?65 years of age hospitalized for surgical repair of a nonpathologic hip fracture (N=988). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Twelve-month residual disability, mortality, and nursing home residency were examined in case-mix adjusted models by sex and study. Residual disability was calculated by subtracting prefracture scores of Lower Extremity Physical Activities of Daily Living from scores at 12 months postfracture. We also examined the proportion of individuals with a 12-month score higher than their prefracture score (residual disability>0). RESULTS:Only small improvements were seen in residual disability between 1990 and 2011. No significant differences were seen for men between BHS2 (enrollment 1990-1991; mean residual disability=3.1 activities; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.16-4.10) and BHS7 (enrollment 2006-2011; mean=3.1 activities; 95% CI, 2.41-3.82). In women, residual disability significantly improved from BHS2 (mean=3.5 activities; 95% CI, 2.95-3.99) to BHS3 (enrollment 1992-1995; mean=2.7 activities; 95% CI, 2.01-3.30) with no significant improvements in later studies. After adjustment, a substantial proportion (91% of men and 79% of women) had a negative outcome (residual disability, died, or nursing home residence at 12 months) in the most recently completed study (BHS7). CONCLUSIONS:Over 2 decades, patients undergoing usual care post-hip fracture still had substantial residual disability. Additional clinical and research efforts are needed to determine how to improve hip fracture treatment, rehabilitation, and subsequent outcomes.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Studies show trabecular bone score (TBS) may provide information regarding bone quality independent of bone mineral density (BMD) in type 2 diabetes (DM2) patients. We analyzed our Southeast Asian severe osteoporotic hip fracture patients to study these differences. METHODS:We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional analysis of subjects admitted to Changi General Hospital, Singapore with severe osteoporotic hip fractures from 2014-2017 who had BMD performed. Electronic records were reviewed and subjects were classified as having diabetes according to the WHO 2019 criteria. DM2 patients were classified according to their HbA1c into well controlled (HbA1c < 7%) and poorly controlled (HbA1c ? 7%) DM2. RESULTS:Elderly patients with hip fractures present with average femur neck T scores at the osteoporotic range, however those with DM2 had higher BMD and TBS values compared to non DM2 patients. These differences were statistically significant in elderly women-poorly controlled elderly DM2 women with hip fracture had the highest total hip T-score (-2.57 ± 0.86) vs (-2.76 ± 0.96) in well controlled DM2 and (-3.09 ± 1.01) in non DM2 women with hip fracture, p < 0.001. In contrast, TBS scores were lower in poorly controlled DM2 women with hip fracture compared to well controlled DM2 women with hip fracture (1.22 ± 0.11) vs (1.24 ± 0.09), but these were still significantly higher compared to non DM2 women with hip fracture (1.19 ± 0.10), p < 0.001. In elderly men with hip fractures, univariate analysis showed no statistically significant differences in TBS or hip or LS BMD between those with poorly controlled DM2, well controlled DM2 and non DM2. The differences in TBS and BMD remained significant in all DM2 women with hip fractures even after adjustments for potential confounders. Differences in TBS and BMD in poorly controlled DM2 men with hip fractures only became significant after accounting for potential confounders. However, upon inclusion of LS BMD into the multivariate model these differences were attenuated and remained significant only between elderly women with well controlled DM2 and non DM2 women with hip fractures. CONCLUSIONS:Elderly patients with DM2 and severe osteoporosis present with hip fractures at a higher BMD and TBS values compared to non DM2 patients. These differences were significant after adjustment for confounders in all DM2 women and poorly controlled DM2 men with hip fractures, TBS differences were attenuated with the inclusion LS BMD. Further studies are needed to ascertain differences in BMD and TBS in older Southeast Asian DM2 patients with variable glycemic control and severe osteoporosis.
Project description:In this case-cohort study, we used data-driven computational anatomy approaches to assess within and between sex spatial differences in proximal femoral bone characteristics in relation to incident hip fracture. One hundred male and 234 female incident hip fracture cases, and 1047 randomly selected noncase subcohort participants (562 female) were chosen from the population-based AGES-Reykjavik study (mean age of 77?years). The baseline -i.e. before hip fracture- hip quantitative computed tomography scans of these subjects were analyzed using voxel-based morphometry, tensor-based morphometry, and surface-based statistical parametric mapping to assess the spatial distribution of volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD), internal structure, and cortical bone properties (thickness, vBMD and trabecular vBMD adjacent to the endosteal surface) of the proximal femur, respectively, in relation to incident hip fracture. Results showed that in both men and women: 1) the superior aspect of the femoral neck and the trochanteric region (except for cortical bone thickness) were consistently identified as being associated with incident hip fracture, and 2) differences in bone properties between noncases and incident hip fracture cases followed similar trends, were located at compatible regions, and manifested heterogeneity in the spatial distribution of their magnitude with focal regions showing larger differences. With respect to sex differences, most of the regions with a significant interaction between fracture group and sex showed: 1) differences of greater magnitude in men between noncases and incident hip fracture cases with different spatial distributions for all bone properties with the exception of cortical bone thickness, and 2) that while most of these regions showed better bone quality in male cases than in female cases, female cases showed higher vBMD in the principal compressive group and higher endotrabecular vBMD at several regions including the anterior, posterior, and lateral aspects of the proximal femur. These findings indicate the value of these image analysis techniques by providing unique information about the specific patterns of bone deterioration associated with incident hip fracture and their sex differences, highlighting the importance of looking to men and women separately in the assessment of hip fracture risk.
Project description:The incidence rate of hip fracture in Tottori Prefecture tended to increase until 2018 in men, but it did not increase after 2010 in women. By type of fracture, the incidence rate of femoral neck fractures also increased over time in men, but no other changes were observed from 2010.<b>Purpose: </b>The aims of this study were to determine the sex-, age-, and fracture-type-specific incidence rates of hip fractures in Tottori Prefecture between 2007 and 2018 and to compare the results with our past results to identify changes over time.<br><br><b>Methods: </b>All hip fractures in people aged 35 years or older living in Tottori Prefecture were surveyed from 2007 to 2018 throughout the entire prefecture, and the age- and sex-specific incidence rates were calculated. The incidence rates from 1986 to 1988, 1992 to 1994, 1998 to 2000, and 2004 to 2006 previously reported were used for the analysis.<br><br><b>Results: </b>In men, the age-adjusted number of patients adjusted by demographic structure based on the mean incidence rate for each 3-year period from 1986 to 2018 showed an increase in incidence over time compared with the incidence for 1986-1988 (p < 0.001). In women, the incidence rose over time compared with the incidence for 1986-1988 until 2004-2006 (p < 0.001), and no further increase was observed from 2010. The age-specific incidence rates of neck fracture in men were higher in 2010-2012 and 2016-2018 compared with 2004-2006 (p < 0.001), but those in women showed no increase with time. Those of trochanteric fracture did not change over time in either men or women.<br><br><b>Conclusion: </b>The hip fracture incidence rate in Tottori Prefecture, Japan, tended to increase until 2018 in men, but it did not increase after 2010 in women.
Project description:the deleterious changes in body composition that occur during the year after hip fracture are associated with increased disability, recurrent fracture, and mortality. While the majority of these unfavourable changes have been shown to occur during the first 2 months after fracture, potential changes in body composition occurring earlier than 2 months post-fracture have not been studied. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to rigorously assess short-term changes in body composition after hip fracture.total body mass, lean mass, fat mass and total hip and femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD) were assessed via dual energy X-ray absorptiometry at 3 days, 10 days and 2 months post-fracture among 155 hip fracture patients from the Baltimore Hip Studies. Longitudinal regression analysis using mixed models was conducted to model short-term changes in body composition.no significant changes in body composition were revealed from 3- to 10 days post-fracture. However, significant decreases from 10 days to 2 months post-fracture were noted in the total body mass (-1.95 kg, P < 0.001), lean mass (-1.73 kg, P < 0.001), total hip BMD (-0.00812 g/cm(2), P = 0.04) and femoral neck BMD (-0.015 g/cm(2), P = 0.03). No meaningful changes in fat mass were uncovered.the adverse changes in body composition during the first 2 months after hip fracture appear to have occurred primarily between 10 days and 2 months post-fracture. More research is needed to determine how these findings might help inform the optimal timing of interventions aimed at improving body composition and related outcomes after hip fracture.