A national survey on the implementation of key infection prevention and control structures in German hospitals: results from 736 hospitals conducting the WHO Infection Prevention and Control Assessment Framework (IPCAF).
ABSTRACT: Background:Healthcare-associated infections (HAI) pose a burden on healthcare providers worldwide. To prevent HAI and strengthen infection prevention and control (IPC) structures, the WHO has developed a variety of tools and guidelines. Recently, the WHO released the Infection Prevention and Control Assessment Framework (IPCAF), a questionnaire-like tool designed for assessing IPC structures at the facility level. The IPCAF reflects the eight WHO core components of IPC. Data on the implementation of IPC measures in German hospitals are scarce. Therefore, it was our objective to utilize the IPCAF in order to gather information on the current state of IPC implementation in German hospitals, as well as to promote the IPCAF to a broad audience. Methods:The National Reference Center for Surveillance of Nosocomial Infections (NRZ) sent a translated version of the IPCAF to 1472 acute care hospitals in Germany. Data entry and transfer to the NRZ was done electronically between October and December 2018. The IPCAF was conceived in a way that depending on the selected answers a score was calculated, with 0 being the lowest possible and 800 the highest possible score. Depending on the overall score, the IPCAF allocated hospitals to four different "IPC levels": inadequate, basic, intermediate, and advanced. Results:A total of 736 hospitals provided a complete dataset and were included in the data analysis. The overall median score of all hospitals was 690, which corresponded to an advanced level of IPC. Only three hospitals (0.4%) fell into the category "basic", with 111 hospitals (15.1%) being "intermediate" and 622 hospitals (84.5%) being "advanced". In no case was the category "inadequate" allocated. More profound differences were found between the respective core components. Components on multimodal strategies and workload, staffing, ward design and bed occupancy revealed the lowest scores. Conclusions:IPC key aspects in general are well established in Germany. Potentials for improvement were identified particularly with regard to workload and staffing. Insufficient implementation of multimodal strategies was found to be another relevant deficit. Our survey represents a successful attempt at promoting the IPCAF and encouraging hospitals to utilize WHO tools for self-assessment.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Infection prevention and control (IPC) is crucial for patient safety. The World Health Organization (WHO) has released various tools to promote IPC. In 2018, the WHO released the Infection Prevention and Control Assessment Framework (IPCAF) that enables acute care healthcare facilities to evaluate IPC structures and practices. Data regarding IPC implementation in Austria are scarce. To deliver insights into this topic and promote the IPCAF within the Austrian IPC community, we decided to invite all Austrian hospitals participating in the German nosocomial infection surveillance system to conduct a self-assessment using the WHO IPCAF. METHODS:The IPCAF follows the eight WHO core components of IPC. A German translation of the IPCAF was sent to 127 Austrian acute care hospitals. The survey period was from October to December 2018. Participation in the survey, data entry and transfer to the German national reference center for surveillance of healthcare-associated infections was on a voluntary basis. RESULTS:Altogether, 65 Austrian hospitals provided a complete dataset. The overall median IPCAF score of all hospitals was 620 (of a possible maximum score of 800), which corresponded to an advanced level of IPC. Of the 65 hospitals, 38 achieved an advanced IPC level. Deeper analysis of the different core components yielded diverse results. Scores were lowest for core components on multimodal strategies for implementation of IPC interventions, and IPC education and training. Around 26% (n?=?17) of hospitals reported that the local IPC team was not steadily supported by an IPC committee. Senior clinical staff was not present in the IPC committee in 23% (n?=?15) of hospitals. Only 26% (n?=?17) of hospitals reported employing at least one IPC professional per ?250 beds. Surveillance for multidrug-resistant pathogens was not conducted in 26% (n?=?17) of hospitals. CONCLUSIONS:Implementation of IPC key aspects is generally at a high level in Austria. However, potentials for improvement were demonstrated, most prominently with regard to staffing, IPC education and training, effective implementation of multimodal strategies, and involvement of professional groups. Our survey demonstrated that the IPCAF is a useful tool for IPC self-assessment and can uncover deficits even in a high-income setting like Austria.
Project description:Objective:To describe the epidemiology of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) healthcare-associated infections (HAI) in Egyptian hospitals reporting to the national HAI surveillance system. Methods:Design: Descriptive analysis of CRE HAIs and retrospective observational cohort study using national HAI surveillance data. Setting: Egyptian hospitals participating in the HAI surveillance system. The patient population included patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) in participating hospitals. Enterobacteriaceae HAI cases were Klebsiella, Escherichia coli, and Enterobacter isolates from blood, urine, wound or respiratory specimen collected on or after day 3 of ICU admission. CRE HAI cases were those resistant to at least one carbapenem. For CRE HAI cases reported during 2011-2017, a hospital-level and patient-level analysis were conducted using only the first CRE isolate by pathogen and specimen type for each patient. For facility, microbiology, and clinical characteristics, frequencies and means were calculated among CRE HAI cases and compared with carbapenem-susceptible Enterobacteriaceae HAI cases through univariate and multivariate logistic regression using STATA 13. Results:There were 1598 Enterobacteriaceae HAI cases, of which 871 (54.1%) were carbapenem resistant. The multivariate regression analysis demonstrated that carbapenem resistance was associated with specimen type, pathogen, location prior to admission, and length of ICU stay. Between 2011 and 2017, there was an increase in the proportion of Enterobacteriaceae HAI cases due to CRE (p-value?=?0.003) and the incidence of CRE HAIs (p-value?=?0.09). Conclusions:This analysis demonstrated a high and increasing burden of CRE in Egyptian hospitals, highlighting the importance of enhancing infection prevention and control (IPC) programs and antimicrobial stewardship activities and guiding the implementation of targeted IPC measures to contain CRE in Egyptian ICU's .
Project description:Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) remain a serious threat to patient safety worldwide, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. Reducing the burden of HAIs through the observation and enforcement of infection prevention and control (IPC) practices remains a priority. Despite growing emphasis on HAI prevention in low- and middle-income countries, limited evidence is available to improve IPC practices to reduce HAIs. This study examined the perspectives of healthcare providers (HPs) and mothers in the neonatal intensive care unit on HAIs and determined the major barriers and facilitators to promoting standard IPC practices. This study draws on data from an ethnographic study using 38 in-depth interviews, four focus group discussions and participant observation conducted among HPs and mothers in neonatal intensive care units of a secondary- and tertiary-level hospital in Ghana. The qualitative data were analysed using a grounded theory approach, and NVivo 12 to facilitate coding. HPs and mothers demonstrated a modest level of understanding about HAIs. Personal, interpersonal, community, organizational and policy-level factors interacted in complex ways to influence IPC practices. HPs sometimes considered HAI concerns to be secondary in the face of a heavy clinical workload, a lack of structured systems and the quest to protect professional authority. The positive attitudes of some HPs, and peer interactions promoted standard IPC practices. Mothers expressed interest in participation in IPC activities. It however requires systematic efforts by HPs to partner with mothers in IPC. Training and capacity building of HPs, provision of adequate resources and improving communication between HPs and mothers were recommended to improve standard IPC practices. We conclude that there is a need for institutionalizing IPC policies and strengthening strategies that acknowledge and value mothers' roles as caregivers and partners in IPC. To ensure this, HPs should be better equipped to prioritize communication and collaboration with mothers to reduce the burden of HAIs.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) affect patients in acute-care hospitals worldwide. No systematic review has been published on adoption and implementation of the infection prevention and control (IPC) key components. The objective of this systematic review was to assess adoption and implementation of the three areas issued by the "National Health Commission of the People's Republic of China" in acute-care hospitals in Mainland China, and to compare the findings with the key and core components on effective IPC, issued by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) and the World Health Organization (WHO).<h4>Methods</h4>We searched PubMed and the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure for reports on the areas "structure, organisation and management of IPC", "education and training in IPC", and "surveillance of outcome and process indicators in IPC" in acute-care facilities in Mainland China, published between January 2012 and October 2017. Results were stratified into primary care hospitals and secondary/tertiary care hospitals.<h4>Results</h4>A total of 6580 publications were retrieved, of which 56 were eligible for final analysis. Most of them were survey reports (<i>n</i>?=?27), followed by observational studies (<i>n</i>?=?17), and interventional studies (<i>n</i>?=?12), either on hand hygiene promotion and best practice interventions (<i>n</i>?=?7), or by applying education and training programmes (<i>n</i>?=?5). More elements on IPC were reported by secondary/tertiary care hospitals than by primary care hospitals. Gaps were identified in the lack of detailing on organisation and management of IPC, education and training activities, and targets of surveillance such as central line-associated bloodstream infections, ventilator associated pneumonia, catheter-associated urinary tract infections, and <i>Clostridium difficile</i> infections. Information was available on adoption and implementation of 7 out of the 10 ECDC key components, and 7 out of the 8 WHO core components.<h4>Conclusion</h4>To variable degrees, there is evidence on implementation of all NHCPRC areas and of most of the ECDC key components and the WHO core components in acute care hospitals in Mainland China. The results are encouraging, but gaps in effective IPC were identified that may be used to guide future national policy-making in Mainland China.
Project description:To estimate the effect of minimum nurse staffing ratios on California acute care hospitals' financial performance.Secondary data from Medicare cost reports, the American Hospital Association's (AHA) Annual Survey, and the California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development (OSHPD) are combined from 2000 to 2006 for 203 hospitals in California and 407 hospitals in 12 comparison states.The study employs a difference-in-difference analytical approach. Hospitals are grouped into quartiles based on pre-regulation nurse staffing levels in adult medical-surgical and pediatric units (quartile 1=lowest staffing). Differences in operating margin, operating expenses per day, and inpatient operating expenses per discharge for California hospitals within a staffing quartile during the period of regulation are compared to differences at hospitals in comparison states during the same period.Hospital data from Medicare cost reports are merged with nurse staffing measures obtained from AHA and from OSPHD.Relative to hospitals in comparison states, operating margins declined significantly for California hospitals in quartiles 2 and 3. Operating expenses increased significantly in quartiles 1, 2, and 3.Implementation of minimum nurse staffing legislation in California put substantial financial pressure on some hospitals.
Project description:OBJECTIVE: To estimate the effects of electronic medical records (EMR) implementation on medical-surgical acute unit costs, length of stay, nurse staffing levels, nursing skill mix, nurse cost per hour, and nurse-sensitive patient outcomes. DATA SOURCES: Data on EMR implementation came from the 1998-2007 HIMSS Analytics Databases. Data on nurse staffing and patient outcomes came from the 1998-2007 Annual Financial Disclosure Reports and Patient Discharge Databases of the California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development (OSHPD). METHODS: Longitudinal analysis of an unbalanced panel of 326 short-term, general acute care hospitals in California. Marginal effects estimated using fixed effects (within-hospital) OLS regression. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: EMR implementation was associated with 6-10 percent higher cost per discharge in medical-surgical acute units. EMR stage 2 increased registered nurse hours per patient day by 15-26 percent and reduced licensed vocational nurse cost per hour by 2-4 percent. EMR stage 3 was associated with 3-4 percent lower rates of in-hospital mortality for conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that advanced EMR applications may increase hospital costs and nurse staffing levels, as well as increase complications and decrease mortality for some conditions. Contrary to expectation, we found no support for the proposition that EMR reduced length of stay or decreased the demand for nurses.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:To assess the impact of refresher training of healthcare workers (HCWs) in infection prevention and control (IPC), ensuring consistent adequate supplies and availability of IPC kits and carrying out weekly monitoring of IPC performance in healthcare facilities (HCFs) DESIGN: This was a before and after comparison study SETTINGS: This study was conducted from June to July 2018 during an Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in Equateur Province in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). PARTICIPANTS:48 HCFs INTERVENTIONS: HCWs capacity building in basic IPC, IPC kit donation and IPC mentoring. PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURES:IPC score RESULTS: 48 HCFs were evaluated and 878 HCWs were trained, of whom 437 were women and 441 were men. The mean IPC score at baseline was modestly higher in hospitals (8%) compared with medical centres (4%) and health centres (4%), respectively. The mean IPC score at follow-up significantly increased to 50% in hospitals, 39% in medical centres and 36% in health centres (p value<0.001). The aggregate mean IPC score at baseline for all HCFs, combined was 4.41% and at follow-up it was 39.51% with a mean difference of 35.08% (p-value<0.001). CONCLUSIONS:Implementation of HCW capacity building in IPC, IPC kit donation to HCF and mentoring in IPC improved IPC compliance during the ninth EVD outbreak in the DRC.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:To determine whether there was variation in nurse staffing across hospitals in Queensland prior to implementation of nurse-to-patient ratio legislation targeting medical-surgical wards, and if so, the extent to which nurse staffing variation was associated with poor outcomes for patients and nurses. DESIGN:Analysis of cross-sectional data derived from nurse surveys linked with admitted patient outcomes data. SETTING:Public hospitals in Queensland. PARTICIPANTS:4372 medical-surgical nurses and 146?456 patients in 68 public hospitals. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:30-day mortality, quality and safety indicators, nurse outcomes including emotional exhaustion and job dissatisfaction. RESULTS:Medical-surgical nurse-to-patient ratios before implementation of ratio legislation varied significantly across hospitals (mean 5.52 patients per nurse; SD=2.03). After accounting for patient characteristics and hospital size, each additional patient per nurse was associated with 12% higher odds of 30-day mortality (OR=1.12; 95%?CI 1.01 to 1.26). Each additional patient per nurse was associated with poorer outcomes for nurses including 15% higher odds of emotional exhaustion (OR=1.15; 95%?CI 1.07 to 1.23) and 14% higher odds of job dissatisfaction (OR=1.14; 95%?CI 1.02 to 1.28), as well as higher odds of concerns about quality of care (OR=1.12; 95%?CI 1.01 to 1.25) and patient safety (OR=1.32; 95%?CI 1.11 to 1.57). CONCLUSIONS:Before ratios were implemented, nurse staffing varied considerably across Queensland hospital medical-surgical wards and higher nurse workloads were associated with patient mortality, low quality of care, nurse emotional exhaustion and job dissatisfaction. The considerable variation across hospitals and the link with outcomes suggests that taking action to improve staffing levels was prudent.
Project description:OBJECTIVE To determine whether patients using the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) Hospital Compare website (http://medicare.gov/hospitalcompare) can use nationally reported healthcare-associated infection (HAI) data to differentiate hospitals. DESIGN Secondary analysis of publicly available HAI data for calendar year 2013. METHODS We assessed the availability of HAI data for geographically proximate hospitals (ie, hospitals within the same referral region) and then analyzed these data to determine whether they are useful to differentiate hospitals. We assessed data for the 6 HAIs reported by hospitals to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). RESULTS Data were analyzed for 4,561 hospitals representing 88% of registered community and federal government hospitals in the United States. Healthcare-associated infection data are only useful for comparing hospitals if they are available for multiple hospitals within a geographic region. We found that data availability differed by HAI. Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) data were most available, with 82% of geographic regions (ie, hospital referral regions) having >50% of hospitals reporting them. In contrast, 4% of geographic regions had >50% of member hospitals reporting surgical site infections (SSI) for hysterectomies, which had the lowest availability. The ability of HAI data to differentiate hospitals differed by HAI: 72% of hospital referral regions had at least 1 pair of hospitals with statistically different risk-adjusted CDI rates (SIRs), compared to 9% for SSI (hysterectomy). CONCLUSIONS HAI data generally are reported by enough hospitals to meet minimal criteria for useful comparisons in many geographic locations, though this varies by type of HAI. CDI and catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) are more likely to differentiate hospitals than the other publicly reported HAIs. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2017;38:1167-1171.
Project description:The Affordable Care Act's Hospital Readmissions Reduction Program (HRRP) penalizes hospitals based on excess readmission rates among Medicare beneficiaries. The aim of the program is to reduce readmissions while aligning hospitals' financial incentives with payers' and patients' quality goals. Many evidence-based interventions that reduce readmissions, such as discharge preparation, care coordination, and patient education, are grounded in the fundamentals of basic nursing care. Yet inadequate staffing can hinder nurses' efforts to carry out these processes of care. We estimated the effect that nurse staffing had on the likelihood that a hospital was penalized under the HRRP. Hospitals with higher nurse staffing had 25 percent lower odds of being penalized compared to otherwise similar hospitals with lower staffing. Investment in nursing is a potential system-level intervention to reduce readmissions that policy makers and hospital administrators should consider in the new regulatory environment as they examine the quality of care delivered to US hospital patients.