Effects of biogas slurry fertilization on fruit economic traits and soil nutrients of Camellia oleifera Abel.
ABSTRACT: Camellia oleifera Abel (C. oleifera) absorb nutrients from surrounding soils and its yield is highly influenced by these nutrients and by fertilizer application. Thus, the soil nutrients play a central role in C. oleifera production. This study investigated the effects of biogas slurry applications on soil nutrients and economic traits of C. oleifera fruits. Five different amounts of biogas slurry (0, 10, 20, 30, or 40 kg/plant/year, three applications per year) were used as fertilizer for C. oleifera plants in 2015 and 2016. The nutrients of rhizosphere soil and the economic traits, including fruit yield, seed rate, and oil yield of C. oleifera fruit, were measured each year. The results showed that fertilization with biogas slurry significantly increased soil organic matter, available nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) both in 2015 and 2016. Increases in soil available N, P, and K were maximal in the highest slurry application group followed by the second highest application group. The oil yield correlated with the content of soil available P in both 2015 and 2016, and with soil organic matter in 2015. Fertilization with biogas slurry decreased the saturated fatty acid content in fruit but had no effect on the unsaturated fatty acid content. In conclusion, fertilization with biogas slurry increased rhizosphere soil nutrients and fruit economic traits of C. oleifera and rates of at least30 kg/plant/year had the most positive effects. This study expands the knowledge of fertilization with biogas slurry in C. oleifera production.
Project description:The functional diversity of soil microbial communities was explored for a poplar plantation, which was treated solely with biogas slurry, or combined with biochar at different fertilization intensities over several years. Overall design: Our experiment was set up in the forest farm in a poplar plantation of Jiangsu Province, in Eastern China. This area had been fertilized solely with biogas slurry, or in combination with biochar, at different concentrations for 5 years. The effects of biogas slurry and biochar on the functional structures and gene diversity of soil microbial communities were explored.
Project description:The Brazilian guava processing industry generates 5.5 M Mg guava waste year(-1) that could be recycled sustainably in guava agro-ecosystems as slow-release fertilizer. Our objectives were to elaborate nutrient budgets and to diagnose soil, foliar, and fruit nutrient balances in guava orchards fertilized with guava waste. We hypothesized that (1) guava waste are balanced fertilizer sources that can sustain crop yield and soil nutrient stocks, and (2) guava agroecosystems remain productive within narrow ranges of nutrient balances. A 6-year experiment was conducted in 8-year old guava orchard applying 0-9-18-27-36 Mg ha(-1) guava waste (dry mass basis) and the locally recommended mineral fertilization. Nutrient budgets were compiled as balance sheets. Foliar and fruit nutrient balances were computed as isometric log ratios to avoid data redundancy or resonance due to nutrient interactions and the closure to measurement unit. The N, P, and several other nutrients were applied in excess of crop removal while K was in deficit whatever the guava waste treatment. The foliar diagnostic accuracy reached 93% using isometric log ratios and knn classification, generating reliable foliar nutrient and concentration ranges at high yield level. The plant mined the soil K reserves without any significant effect on fruit yield and foliar nutrient balances involving K. High guava productivity can be reached at lower soil test K and P values than thought before. Parsimonious dosage of fresh guava waste should be supplemented with mineral K fertilizers to recycle guava waste sustainably in guava agroecosystems. Brazilian growers can benefit from this research by lowering soil test P and K threshold values to avoid over-fertilization and using fresh guava waste supplemented with mineral fertilizers, especially K. Because yield was negatively correlated with fruit acidity and Brix index, balanced plant nutrition and fertilization diagnosis will have to consider not only fruit yield targets but also fruit quality to meet requirements for guava processing.
Project description:A well-managed chemical nitrogen (N) fertilization practice combined with treated swine slurry (TSS) is necessary to improve sustainability and N use efficiency in rice farming. However, little is known about the fate of N derived from chemical N fertilizer with and without TSS in paddy soil-plant systems. The objectives of this study were (1) to estimate the contribution of applied N fertilizer to N turnover in rice paddy soil with different N fertilization practices that were manipulated by the quantity of treated swine slurry and chemical N fertilizer (i.e., HTSS+LAS, a high amount of TSS with a low amount of ammonium sulfate; LTSS+HAS, a low amount of TSS with a high amount of ammonium sulfate; AS, ammonium sulfate with phosphorus and potassium; C, the control) and (2) to compare the rice response to applied N derived from each N fertilization practice. Rice biomass yield, 15N recovery in both rice grain and stems, soil total N (TN), soil inorganic N, and soil 15N recovery were analyzed. Similar amounts of 15N uptake by rice in the TSS+AS plots were obtained, indicating that the effects of the different quantities of TSS on chemical fertilizer N recovery in rice during the experimental period were not significant. The soil 15N recoveries of HTSS+LAS, LTSS+HAS, and AS in each soil layer were not significantly different. For the HTSS+LAS, LTSS+HAS and AS applications, total 15N recoveries were 42%, 43% and 54%, respectively. Because the effects of reducing the use of chemical N fertilizer were attributed to enhancing soil quality and cost-effectiveness, HTSS+LAS could be an appropriate N fertilization practice for improving the long-term sustainability of paddy soil-plant systems. However, N losses, especially through the coupled nitrification-denitrification process, can diminish the benefits that HTSS+LAS offers.
Project description:Faced with the scarcity of water resource and irrational fertilizer use, it is highly important to supply plants with water and fertilizer at desiderated stages to improve yield with high water use efficiency (WUE). A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of growth stage-specific water deficiency and potassium (K) fertilization on tomato yield and WUE. The entire growing season of tomato was divided into 5 stages: vegetative growth stage (VG), flowering and fruit setting stage (FS), early fruit growth stage (FG), fruit development stage (FD) and fruit maturity stage (FM). Three soil moisture (W) and three K fertilization levels were set up. W levels included W1, W2 and W3, indicating that soil water was maintained at 60-70% field capacity, 70-80% field capacity, and 80-90% field capacity, respectively. K levels included K1, K2 and K3, indicating that 0 g K2O per kg soil, 0.46 g K2O per kg soil and 0.92 g K2O per kg soil was applied. All combinations of the three W and three K levels were solely imposed at each of the five growth stages, for other four stages, plants were watered to 80-90% field capacity without K fertilizer (W3K1). The permanent W3K1 over the entire growth stage was taken as control (CK). The results showed that W deficiency imposed at all stages significantly affected tomato yield (P<0.01), except for VG stage in which W deficiency did not cause yield loss. K fertilization level during FS or FM stage had a significant effect on yield (P<0.01). A significant interaction effect of W and K on yield was only observed during FM stage. For WUE, significant effect of W deficiency at FS, FD and FM stages were observed, and a significant effect of K levels at FS, FD and FM stages was observed. Specifically, K fertilization was necessary during specific growth stage of tomato (i.e. FS and FM). During FS stage, even if a sufficient water supply seems necessary, a deficit irrigation with K fertilization could be applied as K fertilization could alleviate the negative effect of soil water deficit, however, excess of K fertilization during FM stage should be avoided to maintain tomato yield and WUE.
Project description:Enhancing the role of the soil microbiota in plant phosphorus (P) and sulfur (S) supply through application of organic fertilizer
could reduce dependencies on non-sustainable synthetic fertilizers. To compare the effects of organic/inorganic fertilizers on the
soil microbiota, soil columns with Lolium perenne (ryegrass) were set up in a greenhouse and amended with an inorganic
fertilizer, cattle slurry (organic), or urea (P- and S-free control). Ryegrass rhizosphere of the slurry treatment had significantly
higher abundances of bacterial feeding nematodes, mycorrhizal colonization, cultivable heterotrophic bacteria, phosphonate- and
sulfonate-utilizing bacteria, arylsulfatase activity, available P, and Variovorax asfA gene copies compared to the inorganic and
urea treatments. Phosphomonoesterase activities, and gene abundances involved in organic P and S transformations (phoD,
phoC, Burkholderia, and Polaromonas asfA) were similar in all treatments. Grass dry matter yield and shoot uptake ofN, P, and S
were significantly higher in the inorganic treatment compared to the urea and slurry treatments. Community compositions
differed significantly between the three fertilizer treatments and included the bacterial, alkaline phosphomonoesteraseproducing
bacterial, fungal, AM fungal, and nematode communities. Bacteriodetes were found in higher relative abundance
in the organic treatment, while Acidobacteria were more abundant in the urea and inorganic fertilizer treatments. These community
shifts correlated significantly with grass dry matter yield, uptake of N, P, and S, mycorrhizal colonization, enzyme
activities, abundances of bacteria, and bacterial feeding nematodes. We concluded that organic fertilization promoted soil
microbes and nematodes which have the potential to support sustainable plant growth, provided that the overall nutrient
requirements are met.
Project description:A greenhouse pot test was conducted to study the impacts of replacing mineral fertilizer with organic fertilizers for one full growing period on soil fertility, tomato yield and quality using soils with different tomato planting history. Four types of fertilization regimes were compared: (1) conventional fertilizer with urea, (2) chicken manure compost, (3) vermicompost, and (4) no fertilizer. The effects on plant growth, yield and fruit quality and soil properties (including microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen, [Formula: see text]-N, [Formula: see text]-N, soil water-soluble organic carbon, soil pH and electrical conductivity) were investigated in samples collected from the experimental soils at different tomato growth stages. The main results showed that: (1) vermicompost and chicken manure compost more effectively promoted plant growth, including stem diameter and plant height compared with other fertilizer treatments, in all three types of soil; (2) vermicompost improved fruit quality in each type of soil, and increased the sugar/acid ratio, and decreased nitrate concentration in fresh fruit compared with the CK treatment; (3) vermicompost led to greater improvements in fruit yield (74%), vitamin C (47%), and soluble sugar (71%) in soils with no tomato planting history compared with those in soils with long tomato planting history; and (4) vermicompost led to greater improvements in soil quality than chicken manure compost, including higher pH (averaged 7.37 vs. averaged 7.23) and lower soil electrical conductivity (averaged 204.1 vs. averaged 234.6 ?S/cm) at the end of experiment in each type of soil. We conclude that vermicompost can be recommended as a fertilizer to improve tomato fruit quality and yield and soil quality, particularly for soils with no tomato planting history.
Project description:Soil application of biogas residues (BGRs) is important for closing nutrient cycles. This study examined the efficiency and impact on yields and yield formation of solid-liquid separated residues from biodegradable municipal and industrial wastes (bio-waste) in comparison to complete BGRs, nitrification inhibitor, agricultural BGRs, mineral fertilizer and unfertilized plots as control. The experiment was set up as a randomized block design on silt loam Cambisol. Biogas residues from four biogas plants were evaluated. Plants per m², ears per plant, grains per ear and thousand grain weight (TGW) were measured at harvest. Fertilization with BGRs resulted in similar biomass yields compared with mineral fertilizer. Mineral fertilizer (71 dt/ha) and plots fertilized with liquid fraction (59-62 dt/ha) indicated a trend to higher yields than solid fraction or complete BGR due to its high ammonia content. Liquid fractions and fraction with nitrification inhibitor induced fewer plants per m² than corresponding solid and complete variants due to a potential phytotoxicity of high NH4-N concentration during germination. However, barley on plots fertilized with liquid fraction compensated the disadvantages at the beginning during the vegetation period and induced higher grain yields than solid fraction. This was attributable to a higher number of ears per plant and grains per ear. In conclusion, BGRs from biodegradable municipal and industrial wastes can be used for soil fertilization and replace considerable amounts of mineral fertilizer. Our study showed that direct application of the liquid fraction of BGR is the most suitable strategy to achieve highest grain yields. Nevertheless potential phytotoxicity of the high NH4-N concentration in the liquid fraction should be considered.
Project description:Water and fertilizer are two important factors influencing crop growth, development and yield formation. To investigate their combined effects on the soil-plant system, and to find out the optimal water and organic fertilizer coupling strategy for tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L), an experiment was carried out from May to October in 2016 in the south of China. The experiment consisted of three drip irrigation quotas (150, 180, 210 m3/ha) and three organic fertilizer application amounts (2,800, 3,600, 4,400 kg/ha). A water-fertilizer treatment (abbreviated as CK) that is in line with local practice was used for comparison. The tomato marketable yield, sugar/acid ratio (SAR) and irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE), as well as the soil salinity and available nutrient concentrations were measured. The results showed that the marketable yield was highly significantly (p < 0.01) affected by irrigation or fertilization. The SAR of tomato were significantly (p < 0.05) affected by irrigation or/and fertilization. The fertilization had an highly significant (p < 0.01) effect on the concentrations of soil nutrients (N, P, K), while the coupling effect of irrigation and fertilization was not pronounced. According to the multi-index analysis and the computed result by the entropy weight coefficient model, a 180 m3/ha irrigation quota in combination with 4,400 kg/ha organic fertilizer application amount was the optimal water-fertilizer coupling strategy which owned the most satisfactory comprehensive benefits. The marketable yield, SAR and IWUE under this optimal strategy were 122.4 t/ha, 9.2, 32.4 kg/m3, respectively, and by 28.0%, 29.6% and 28.1% higher compared to that under CK.
Project description:The yield and quality of goji (Lycium barbarum L.) fruit are heavily dependent on fertilizer, especially the availability of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium (N, P, and K, respectively). In this study, we performed a metabolomic analysis of the response of goji berry to nitrogen fertilizer levels using an Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray Ionization-Tandem Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-MS/MS) method. There was no significant difference in the fruit yield or the commodity grade between N0 (42.5 g/plant), N1 (85 g/plant), and N2 (127.5 g/plant). The primary nutrients of the goji berry changed with an increasing nitrogen fertilization. Comparative metabolomic profiling of three nitrogen levels resulted in the identification of 612 metabolites, including amino acids, flavonoids, carbohydrates, organic acids, and lipids/alcohols, among others, of which 53 metabolites (lipids, fatty acids, organic acids, and phenolamides) demonstrated significant changes. These results provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms of the relationship between yield and quality of goji berry and nitrogen fertilizer.
Project description:Pastures are an important part of crop and food systems in cold climates. Understanding how fertilization and plant species affect soil bacterial community diversity and composition is the key for understanding the role of soil bacteria in sustainable agriculture. To study the response of soil bacteria to different fertilization and cropping managements, a 3-year (2013-2015) field study was established. In the split-plot design, fertilizer treatment (unfertilized control, organic fertilizer, and synthetic fertilizer) was the main plot factor, and plant treatment [clear fallow, red clover (Trifolium pratense), timothy (Phleum pratense), and a mixture of red clover and timothy] was the sub-plot factor. Soil bacterial community diversity and composition, soil properties, and crop growth were investigated through two growing seasons in 2014 and 2015, with different nitrogen input levels. The community diversity measures (richness, Shannon diversity, and Shannon evenness) and composition changed over time (P < 0.05) and at different time scales. The community diversity was lower in 2014 than in 2015. The temporal differences were greater than the differences between treatments. The overall correlations of Shannon diversity to soil pH, NO 3- , NH 4+ , and surplus nitrogen were positive and that of bacterial richness to crop dry matter yield was negative (P < 0.05). The major differences in diversity and community composition were found between fallow and planted treatments and between organic and synthetic fertilizer treatments. The differences between the planted plots were restricted to individual operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Soil moisture, total carbon content, and total nitrogen content correlated consistently with the community composition (P < 0.05). Compared to the unfertilized control, the nitrogen fertilizer loading enhanced the temporal change of community composition in pure timothy and in the mixture more than that in red clover, which further emphasizes the complexity of interactions between fertilization and cropping treatments on soil bacteria.