Near-infrared spectroscopy after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Cerebral hypoperfusion may aggravate neurological damage after cardiac arrest. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) provides information on cerebral oxygenation but its relevance during post-resuscitation care is undefined. We investigated whether cerebral oxygen saturation (rSO2) measured with NIRS correlates with the serum concentration of neuron-specific enolase (NSE), a marker of neurological injury, and with clinical outcome in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients. METHODS:We performed a post hoc analysis of a randomised clinical trial (COMACARE, NCT02698917) comparing two different levels of carbon dioxide, oxygen and arterial pressure after resuscitation from OHCA with ventricular fibrillation as the initial rhythm. We measured rSO2 in 118 OHCA patients with NIRS during the first 36?h of intensive care. We determined the NSE concentrations from serum samples at 48?h after cardiac arrest and assessed neurological outcome with the Cerebral Performance Category (CPC) scale at 6?months. We evaluated the association between rSO2 and serum NSE concentrations and the association between rSO2 and good (CPC 1-2) and poor (CPC 3-5) neurological outcome. RESULTS:The median (inter-quartile range (IQR)) NSE concentration at 48?h was 17.5 (13.4-25.0) ?g/l in patients with good neurological outcome and 35.2 (22.6-95.8) ?g/l in those with poor outcome, p?
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Prediction of neurological outcome is a crucial part of post cardiac arrest care and prediction in patients remaining unconscious and/or sedated after rewarming from targeted temperature management (TTM) remains difficult. Current guidelines suggest the use of serial measurements of the biomarker neuron-specific enolase (NSE) in combination with other predictors of outcome in patients admitted after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). This study sought to investigate the ability of NSE to predict poor outcome in patients remaining unconscious at day three after OHCA. In addition, this study sought to investigate if serial NSE measurements add incremental prognostic information compared to a single NSE measurement at 48 hours in this population.<h4>Methods</h4>This study is a post-hoc sub-study of the TTM trial, randomizing OHCA patients to a course of TTM at either 33°C or 36°C. Patients were included from sites participating in the TTM-trial biobank sub study. NSE was measured at 24, 48 and 72 hours after ROSC and follow-up was concluded after 180 days. The primary end point was poor neurological function or death defined by a cerebral performance category score (CPC-score) of 3 to 5.<h4>Results</h4>A total of 685 (73%) patients participated in the study. At day three after OHCA 63 (9%) patients had died and 473 (69%) patients were not awake. In these patients, a single NSE measurement at 48 hours predicted poor outcome with an area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC) of 0.83. A combination of all three NSE measurements yielded the highest discovered AUC (0.88, p = .0002). Easily applicable combinations of serial NSE measurements did not significantly improve prediction over a single measurement at 48 hours (AUC 0.58-0.84 versus 0.83).<h4>Conclusion</h4>NSE is a strong predictor of poor outcome after OHCA in persistently unconscious patients undergoing TTM, and NSE is a promising surrogate marker of outcome in clinical trials. While combinations of serial NSE measurements may provide an increase in overall prognostic information, it is unclear whether actual clinical prognostication with low false-positive rates is improved by application of serial measurements in persistently unconscious patients. The findings of this study should be confirmed in another prospective cohort.<h4>Trial registration</h4>NCT01020916.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The prediction of neurological outcome in comatose patients after cardiac arrest has major ethical and socioeconomic implications. The purpose of this study was to assess the capability of serum neuron-specific enolase (NSE), a biomarker of hypoxic brain damage, to predict death or vegetative state in comatose cardiac-arrest survivors. METHODS: We conducted a prospective observational cohort study in one university hospital and one general hospital Intensive Care Unit (ICU). All consecutive patients who suffered cardiac arrest and were subsequently admitted from June 2007 to February 2009 were considered for inclusion in the study. Patients who died or awoke within the first 48 hours of admission were excluded from the analysis. Patients were followed for 3 months or until death after cardiopulmonary resuscitation. The Cerebral Performance Categories scale (CPC) was used as the outcome measure; a CPC of 4-5 was regarded as a poor outcome, and a CPC of 1-3 a good outcome. Measurement of serum NSE was performed at 24 h and at 72 h after the time of cardiac arrest using an enzyme immunoassay. Clinicians were blinded to NSE results. RESULTS: Ninety-seven patients were included. All patients were actively supported during the first days following cardiac arrest. Sixty-five patients (67%) underwent cooling after resuscitation. At 3 months 72 (74%) patients had a poor outcome (CPC 4-5) and 25 (26%) a good outcome (CPC 1-3). The median and Interquartile Range [IQR] levels of NSE at 24 h and at 72 h were significantly higher in patients with poor outcomes: NSE at 24 h: 59.4 ng/mL [37-106] versus 28.8 ng/mL [18-41] (p < 0.0001); and NSE at 72 h: 129.5 ng/mL [40-247] versus 15.7 ng/mL [12-19] (p < 0.0001). The Receiver Operator Characteristics (ROC) curve for poor outcome for the highest observed NSE value for each patient determined a cut-off value for NSE of 97 ng/mL to predict a poor neurological outcome with a specificity of 100% [95% CI = 87-100] and a sensitivity of 49% [95% CI = 37-60]. However, an approach based on a combination of SSEPs, NSE and clinical-EEG tests allowed to increase the number of patients (63/72 (88%)) identified as having a poor outcome and for whom intensive treatment could be regarded as futile. CONCLUSION: NSE levels measured early in the course of patient care for those who remained comatose after cardiac arrest were significantly higher in patients with outcomes of death or vegetative state. In addition, we provide a cut-off value for NSE (> 97 ng/mL) with 100% positive predictive value of poor outcome. Nevertheless, for decisions concerning the continuation of treatment in this setting, we emphasize that an approach based on a combination of SSEPs, NSE and clinical EEG would be more accurate for identifying patients with a poor neurological outcome.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The application of therapeutic hypothermia (TH) for 12 to 24 hours following out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) has been associated with decreased mortality and improved neurological function. However, the optimal duration of cooling is not known. We aimed to investigate whether targeted temperature management (TTM) at 33?±?1 °C for 48 hours compared to 24 hours results in a better long-term neurological outcome. METHODS:The TTH48 trial is an investigator-initiated pragmatic international trial in which patients resuscitated from OHCA are randomised to TTM at 33?±?1 °C for either 24 or 48 hours. Inclusion criteria are: age older than 17 and below 80 years; presumed cardiac origin of arrest; and Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) <8, on admission. The primary outcome is neurological outcome at 6 months using the Cerebral Performance Category score (CPC) by an assessor blinded to treatment allocation and dichotomised to good (CPC 1-2) or poor (CPC 3-5) outcome. Secondary outcomes are: 6-month mortality, incidence of infection, bleeding and organ failure and CPC at hospital discharge, at day 28 and at day 90 following OHCA. Assuming that 50 % of the patients treated for 24 hours will have a poor outcome at 6 months, a study including 350 patients (175/arm) will have 80 % power (with a significance level of 5 %) to detect an absolute 15 % difference in primary outcome between treatment groups. A safety interim analysis was performed after the inclusion of 175 patients. DISCUSSION:This is the first randomised trial to investigate the effect of the duration of TTM at 33?±?1 °C in adult OHCA patients. We anticipate that the results of this trial will add significant knowledge regarding the management of cooling procedures in OHCA patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION:NCT01689077.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Dyscarbia is common in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients and its association to neurological outcome is undetermined. METHODS:This is an exploratory post-hoc substudy of the Target Temperature Management (TTM) trial, including resuscitated OHCA patients, investigating the association between serial measurements of arterial partial carbon dioxide pressure (PaCO2) and neurological outcome at 6 months, defined by the Cerebral Performance Category (CPC) scale, dichotomized to good outcome (CPC 1 and 2) and poor outcome (CPC 3-5). The effects of hypercapnia and hypocapnia, and the time-weighted mean PaCO2 and absolute PaCO2 difference were analyzed. Additionally, the association between mild hypercapnia (6.0-7.30 kPa) and neurological outcome, its interaction with target temperature (33 °C and 36 °C), and the association between PaCO2 and peak serum-Tau were evaluated. RESULTS:Of the 939 patients in the TTM trial, 869 were eligible for analysis. Ninety-six percent of patients were exposed to hypocapnia or hypercapnia. None of the analyses indicated a statistical significant association between PaCO2 and neurological outcome (P = 0.13-0.96). Mild hypercapnia was not associated with neurological outcome (P = 0.78) and there was no statistically significant interaction with target temperature (Pinteraction = 0.95). There was no association between PaCO2 and peak serum-Tau levels 48 or 72 h after return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). CONCLUSIONS:Dyscarbia is common after ROSC. No statistically significant association between PaCO2 in the post-cardiac arrest phase and neurological outcome at 6 months after cardiac arrest was detected. There was no significant interaction between mild hypercapnia and temperature in relation to neurological outcome.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The TTH48 trial aims to determine whether prolonged duration (48 hours) of targeted temperature management (TTM) at 33 (±1) °C results in better neurological outcomes compared to standard duration (24 hours) after six months in comatose out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients. METHODS:TTH48 is an investigator-initiated, multicentre, assessor-blinded, randomised, controlled superiority trial of 24 and 48 hours of TTM at 33 (±1) ° C performed in 355 comatose OHCA patients aged 18 to 80 years who were admitted to ten intensive care units (ICUs) in six Northern European countries. The primary outcome of the study is the Cerebral Performance Category (CPC) score observed at six months after cardiac arrest. CPC scores of 1 and 2 are defined as good neurological outcomes, and CPC scores of 3, 4 and 5 are defined as poor neurological outcomes. The secondary outcomes are as follows: mortality within six months after cardiac arrest, CPC at hospital discharge, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score on day 4, length of stay in ICU and at hospital and the presence of any adverse events such as cerebral, circulatory, respiratory, gastrointestinal, renal, metabolic measures, infection or bleeding. With the planned sample size, we have 80% power to detect a 15% improvement in good neurological outcomes at a two-sided statistical significance level of 5%. DISCUSSION:We present a detailed statistical analysis protocol (SAP) that specifies how primary and secondary outcomes should be evaluated. We also predetermine covariates for adjusted analyses and pre-specify sub-groups for sensitivity analyses. This pre-planned SAP will reduce analysis bias and add validity to the findings of this trial on the effect of length of TTM on important clinical outcomes after cardiac arrest. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01689077 , 17 September 2012.
Project description:INTRODUCTION: Mild therapeutic hypothermia (MTH) has been shown to result in better neurological outcome after cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) may also be beneficial in patients after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). METHODS: A selected cohort study of 2,973 prospectively documented adult OHCA patients within the German Resuscitation Registry between 2004 and 2010. Data were analyzed by backwards stepwise binary logistic regression to identify the impact of MTH and PCI on both 24-hour survival and neurological outcome that was based on cerebral performance category (CPC) at hospital discharge. Odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) were calculated adjusted for the following confounding factors: age, location of cardiac arrest, presumed etiology, bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation, witnessing, first electrocardiogram rhythm, and thrombolysis. RESULTS: The Preclinical care dataset included 2,973 OHCA patients with 44% initial return of spontaneous circulation (n = 1,302) and 35% hospital admissions (n = 1,040). Seven hundred and eleven out of these 1,040 OHCA patients (68%) were also registered within the Postresuscitation care dataset. Checking for completeness of datasets required the exclusion of 127 Postresuscitation care cases, leaving 584 patients with complete data for final analysis. In patients without PCI (n = 430), MTH was associated with increased 24-hour survival (8.24 (4.24 to 16.0), P < 0.001) and the proportion of patients with CPC 1 or CPC 2 at hospital discharge (2.13 (1.17 to 3.90), P < 0.05) as an independent factor. In normothermic patients (n = 405), PCI was independently associated with increased 24-hour survival (4.46 (2.26 to 8.81), P < 0.001) and CPC 1 or CPC 2 (10.81 (5.86 to 19.93), P < 0.001). Additional analysis of all patients (n = 584) revealed that 24-hour survival was increased by MTH (7.50 (4.12 to 13.65), P < 0.001) and PCI (3.88 (2.11 to 7.13), P < 0.001), while the proportion of patients with CPC 1 or CPC 2 was significantly increased by PCI (5.66 (3.54 to 9.03), P < 0.001) but not by MTH (1.27 (0.79 to 2.03), P = 0.33), although an unadjusted Fisher exact test suggested a significant effect of MTH (unadjusted odds ratio 1.83 (1.23 to 2.74), P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: PCI may be an independent predictor for good neurological outcome (CPC 1 or CPC 2) at hospital discharge. MTH was associated with better neurological outcome, although subsequent logistic regression analysis did not show statistical significance for MTH as an independent predictor for good neurological outcome. Thus, postresuscitation care on the basis of standardized protocols including coronary intervention and hypothermia may be beneficial after successful resuscitation. One of the main limitations may be a selection bias for patients subjected to PCI and MTH.
Project description:We aimed to investigate the diagnostic performance of S100 as an outcome predictor after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) and the potential influence of two target temperatures (33 °C and 36 °C) on serum levels of S100.This is a substudy of the Target Temperature Management after Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest (TTM) trial. Serum levels of S100 were measured a posteriori in a core laboratory in samples collected at 24, 48, and 72 h after OHCA. Outcome at 6 months was assessed using the Cerebral Performance Categories Scale (CPC 1-2?=?good outcome, CPC 3-5?=?poor outcome).We included 687 patients from 29 sites in Europe. Median S100 values were higher in patients with a poor outcome at 24, 48, and 72 h: 0.19 (IQR 0.10-0.49) versus 0.08 (IQR 0.06-0.11) ?g/ml, 0.16 (IQR 0.10-0.44) versus 0.07 (IQR 0.06-0.11) ?g/L, and 0.13 (IQR 0.08-0.26) versus 0.06 (IQR 0.05-0.09) ?g/L (p?<?0.001), respectively. The ability to predict outcome was best at 24 h with an AUC of 0.80 (95% CI 0.77-0.83). S100 values were higher at 24 and 72 h in the 33 °C group than in the 36 °C group (0.12 [0.07-0.22] versus 0.10 [0.07-0.21] ?g/L and 0.09 [0.06-0.17] versus 0.08 [0.05-0.10], respectively) (p?<?0.02). In multivariable analyses including baseline variables and the allocated target temperature, the addition of S100 improved the AUC from 0.80 to 0.84 (95% CI 0.81-0.87) (p?<?0.001), but S100 was not an independent outcome predictor. Adding S100 to the same model including neuron-specific enolase (NSE) did not further improve the AUC.The allocated target temperature did not affect S100 to a clinically relevant degree. High S100 values are predictive of poor outcome but do not add value to present prognostication models with or without NSE. S100 measured at 24 h and afterward is of limited value in clinical outcome prediction after OHCA.ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01020916 . Registered on 25 November 2009.
Project description:Background: Early prognostication is a major challenge after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). Aims: We hypothesized that a genome-wide analysis of blood gene expression could offer new prognostic tools and lines of research. Methods: Sixty-nine patients were enrolled from an ancillary study of the clinical trial NCT00999583 that tested the effect of erythropoietin (EPO) after OHCA. Blood samples were collected in comatose survivors of OHCA at hospital admission and 1 and 3 days after resuscitation. Gene expression profiles were analyzed (Illumina HumanHT-12 V4 BeadChip; >34,000 genes). Patients were classified into two categories representing neurologically favorable outcome (Cerebral Performance Category [CPC] = 1-2) vs unfavorable outcome (CPC>2) at Day 60 after OHCA. Differential and functional enrichment analyses were performed to compare transcriptomic profiles between these two categories. Results: Among the 69 enrolled patients, 33 and 36 patients were treated or not by EPO, respectively. Among them, 42% had a favorable neurological outcome in both groups. EPO did not affect the transcriptomic response at Day-0 and 1 after OHCA. In contrast, 76 transcripts differed at Day-0 between patients with unfavorable vs favorable neurological outcome. This signature persisted at Day-1 after OHCA. Functional enrichment analysis revealed a down-regulation of adaptive immunity with concomitant up-regulation of innate immunity and inflammation in patients with unfavorable vs favorable neurological outcome. The transcription of many genes of the HLA family was decreased in patients with unfavorable vs favorable neurological outcome. Concomitantly, neutrophil activation and inflammation were observed. Up-stream regulators analysis showed the implication of numerous factors involved in cell cycle and damages. A logistic regression including a set of genes allowed a reliable prediction of the clinical outcomes (Specificity=88%; Hit Rate=83%). Conclusions: A transcriptomic signature involving a counterbalance between adaptive and innate immune responses is able to predict neurological outcome very early after hospital admission after OHCA. This deserves confirmation in a larger population.
Project description:PURPOSE:We assessed the effects of targeting low-normal or high-normal arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2) and normoxia or moderate hyperoxia after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) on markers of cerebral and cardiac injury. METHODS:Using a 23 factorial design, we randomly assigned 123 patients resuscitated from OHCA to low-normal (4.5-4.7 kPa) or high-normal (5.8-6.0 kPa) PaCO2 and to normoxia (arterial oxygen tension [PaO2] 10-15 kPa) or moderate hyperoxia (PaO2 20-25 kPa) and to low-normal or high-normal mean arterial pressure during the first 36 h in the intensive care unit. Here we report the results of the low-normal vs. high-normal PaCO2 and normoxia vs. moderate hyperoxia comparisons. The primary endpoint was the serum concentration of neuron-specific enolase (NSE) 48 h after cardiac arrest. Secondary endpoints included S100B protein and cardiac troponin concentrations, continuous electroencephalography (EEG) and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) results and neurologic outcome at 6 months. RESULTS:In total 120 patients were included in the analyses. There was a clear separation in PaCO2 (p?<?0.001) and PaO2 (p?<?0.001) between the groups. The median (interquartile range) NSE concentration at 48 h was 18.8 µg/l (13.9-28.3 µg/l) in the low-normal PaCO2 group and 22.5 µg/l (14.2-34.9 µg/l) in the high-normal PaCO2 group, p?=?0.400; and 22.3 µg/l (14.8-27.8 µg/l) in the normoxia group and 20.6 µg/l (14.2-34.9 µg/l) in the moderate hyperoxia group, p?=?0.594). High-normal PaCO2 and moderate hyperoxia increased NIRS values. There were no differences in other secondary outcomes. CONCLUSIONS:Both high-normal PaCO2 and moderate hyperoxia increased NIRS values, but the NSE concentration was unaffected. REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02698917. Registered on January 26, 2016.
Project description:The psychological outcome of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) has been studied more extensively in recent years. Still, not much is known about the well-being among OHCA survivors. In this retrospective cross-sectional study, we aim to investigate post-OHCA well-being among patients with a good neurological outcome, 3?months after the cardiac event. To assess well-being, we analyse the frequency of anxiety, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and health within this group. Further, we aim to evaluate the importance of five prognostic factors for post-OHCA well-being.Data collection took place between 2008 and 2012, and every OHCA survivor within one region of Sweden, with a cerebral performance category (CPC) score of ?2 at discharge, was asked to participate. Survivors were identified through the Swedish Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Registry, and postal questionnaires were sent out 3?months after the OHCA. The survey included Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale (HADS), PTSD Checklist Civilian version (PCL-C) and European Quality of Life 5 Dimensions 3 level (EQ-5D-3L).Of 298 survivors, 150 were eligible for this study and 94 responded. The mean time from OHCA to follow-up was 88 days. There was no significant difference between respondents and non-respondents in terms of sex, age, cardiac arrest circumstances or in-hospital interventions. 48 participants reported reduced well-being, and young age was the only factor significantly correlated to this outcome (p=0.02). Women reported significantly higher scores in HADS (p=0.001) and PCL-C (p<0.001). Women also reported significantly lower EQ-5D index values (p=0.002) and EQ-visual analogue scale scores (p=0.002) compared with men.Reduced well-being is experienced by half of OHCA survivors with a CPC score ?2, and young age is negatively correlated to this outcome. The frequency of anxiety and PTSD is higher among women, who also report worse health.