Interpreting Viral Deep Sequencing Data with GLUE.
ABSTRACT: Using deep sequencing technologies such as Illumina's platform, it is possible to obtain reads from the viral RNA population revealing the viral genome diversity within a single host. A range of software tools and pipelines can transform raw deep sequencing reads into Sequence Alignment Mapping (SAM) files. We propose that interpretation tools should process these SAM files, directly translating individual reads to amino acids in order to extract statistics of interest such as the proportion of different amino acid residues at specific sites. This preserves per-read linkage between nucleotide variants at different positions within a codon location. The samReporter is a subsystem of the GLUE software toolkit which follows this direct read translation approach in its processing of SAM files. We test samReporter on a deep sequencing dataset obtained from a cohort of 241 UK HCV patients for whom prior treatment with direct-acting antivirals has failed; deep sequencing and resistance testing have been suggested to be of clinical use in this context. We compared the polymorphism interpretation results of the samReporter against an approach that does not preserve per-read linkage. We found that the samReporter was able to properly interpret the sequence data at resistance-associated locations in nine patients where the alternative approach was equivocal. In three cases, the samReporter confirmed that resistance or an atypical substitution was present at NS5A position 30. In three further cases, it confirmed that the sofosbuvir-resistant NS5B substitution S282T was absent. This suggests the direct read translation approach implemented is of value for interpreting viral deep sequencing data.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technology generates tens of millions of short reads for each DNA/RNA sample. A key step in NGS data analysis is the short read alignment of the generated sequences to a reference genome. Although storing alignment information in the Sequence Alignment/Map (SAM) or Binary SAM (BAM) format is now standard, biomedical researchers still have difficulty accessing this information. RESULTS: We have developed a Graphical User Interface (GUI) software tool named SAMMate. SAMMate allows biomedical researchers to quickly process SAM/BAM files and is compatible with both single-end and paired-end sequencing technologies. SAMMate also automates some standard procedures in DNA-seq and RNA-seq data analysis. Using either standard or customized annotation files, SAMMate allows users to accurately calculate the short read coverage of genomic intervals. In particular, for RNA-seq data SAMMate can accurately calculate the gene expression abundance scores for customized genomic intervals using short reads originating from both exons and exon-exon junctions. Furthermore, SAMMate can quickly calculate a whole-genome signal map at base-wise resolution allowing researchers to solve an array of bioinformatics problems. Finally, SAMMate can export both a wiggle file for alignment visualization in the UCSC genome browser and an alignment statistics report. The biological impact of these features is demonstrated via several case studies that predict miRNA targets using short read alignment information files. CONCLUSIONS: With just a few mouse clicks, SAMMate will provide biomedical researchers easy access to important alignment information stored in SAM/BAM files. Our software is constantly updated and will greatly facilitate the downstream analysis of NGS data. Both the source code and the GUI executable are freely available under the GNU General Public License at http://sammate.sourceforge.net.
Project description:We developed VariantBam, a C?++?read filtering and profiling tool for use with BAM, CRAM and SAM sequencing files. VariantBam provides a flexible framework for extracting sequencing reads or read-pairs that satisfy combinations of rules, defined by any number of genomic intervals or variant sites. We have implemented filters based on alignment data, sequence motifs, regional coverage and base quality. For example, VariantBam achieved a median size reduction ratio of 3.1:1 when applied to 10 lung cancer whole genome BAMs by removing large tags and selecting for only high-quality variant-supporting reads and reads matching a large dictionary of sequence motifs. Thus VariantBam enables efficient storage of sequencing data while preserving the most relevant information for downstream analysis.VariantBam and full documentation are available at github.com/jwalabroad/VariantBamrameen@broadinstitute.orgSupplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
Project description:Sequencing reads overlapping polymorphic sites in diploid mammalian genomes may be assigned to one allele or the other. This holds the potential to detect gene expression, chromatin modifications, DNA methylation or nuclear interactions in an allele-specific fashion. SNPsplit is an allele-specific alignment sorter designed to read files in SAM/BAM format and determine the allelic origin of reads or read-pairs that cover known single nucleotide polymorphic (SNP) positions. For this to work libraries must have been aligned to a genome in which all known SNP positions were masked with the ambiguity base 'N' and aligned using a suitable mapping program such as Bowtie2, TopHat, STAR, HISAT2, HiCUP or Bismark. SNPsplit also provides an automated solution to generate N-masked reference genomes for hybrid mouse strains based on the variant call information provided by the Mouse Genomes Project. The unique ability of SNPsplit to work with various different kinds of sequencing data including RNA-Seq, ChIP-Seq, Bisulfite-Seq or Hi-C opens new avenues for the integrative exploration of allele-specific data.
Project description:Despite significant advancement in alignment algorithms, the exponential growth of nucleotide sequencing throughput threatens to outpace bioinformatic analysis. Computation may become the bottleneck of genome analysis if growing alignment costs are not mitigated by further improvement in algorithms. Much gain has been gleaned from indexing and compressing alignment databases, but many widely used alignment tools process input reads sequentially and are oblivious to any underlying redundancy in the reads themselves.Here we present Oculus, a software package that attaches to standard aligners and exploits read redundancy by performing streaming compression, alignment, and decompression of input sequences. This nearly lossless process (> 99.9%) led to alignment speedups of up to 270% across a variety of data sets, while requiring a modest amount of memory. We expect that streaming read compressors such as Oculus could become a standard addition to existing RNA-Seq and ChIP-Seq alignment pipelines, and potentially other applications in the future as throughput increases.Oculus efficiently condenses redundant input reads and wraps existing aligners to provide nearly identical SAM output in a fraction of the aligner runtime. It includes a number of useful features, such as tunable performance and fidelity options, compatibility with FASTA or FASTQ files, and adherence to the SAM format. The platform-independent C++ source code is freely available online, at http://code.google.com/p/oculus-bio.
Project description:One of the key challenges in the field of genetics is the inference of haplotypes from next generation sequencing data. The MinION Oxford Nanopore sequencer allows sequencing long reads, with the potential of sequencing complete genes, and even complete genomes of viruses, in individual reads. However, MinION suffers from high error rates, rendering the detection of true variants difficult. Here, we propose a new statistical approach named AssociVar, which differentiates between true mutations and sequencing errors from direct RNA/DNA sequencing using MinION. Our strategy relies on the assumption that sequencing errors will be dispersed randomly along sequencing reads, and hence will not be associated with each other, whereas real mutations will display a non-random pattern of association with other mutations. We demonstrate our approach using direct RNA sequencing data from evolved populations of the MS2 bacteriophage, whose small genome makes it ideal for MinION sequencing. AssociVar inferred several mutations in the phage genome, which were corroborated using parallel Illumina sequencing. This allowed us to reconstruct full genome viral haplotypes constituting different strains that were present in the sample. Our approach is applicable to long read sequencing data from any organism for accurate detection of bona fide mutations and inter-strain polymorphisms.
Project description:Long-read RNA sequencing allows for the precise characterization of full-length transcripts, which makes it an indispensable tool in transcriptomics. The human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) genome has been first sequenced in 1989 and although short-read sequencing studies have uncovered much of the complexity of its transcriptome, only few of its transcripts have been fully annotated. We hereby present a long-read RNA sequencing dataset of HCMV infected human lung fibroblast cells sequenced by the Pacific Biosciences RSII platform. Seven SMRT cells were sequenced using oligo(dT) primers to reverse transcribe poly(A)-selected RNA molecules and one library was prepared using random primers for the reverse transcription of the rRNA-depleted sample. Our dataset contains 122,636 human and 33,086 viral (HMCV strain Towne) reads. The described data include raw and processed sequencing files, and combined with other datasets, they can be used to validate transcriptome analysis tools, to compare library preparation methods, to test base calling algorithms or to identify genetic variants.
Project description:High-throughput sequencing (HTS) technologies are spearheading the accelerated development of biomedical research. Processing and summarizing the large amount of data generated by HTS presents a non-trivial challenge to bioinformatics. A commonly adopted standard is to store sequencing reads aligned to a reference genome in SAM (Sequence Alignment/Map) or BAM (Binary Alignment/Map) files. Quality control of SAM/BAM files is a critical checkpoint before downstream analysis. The goal of the current project is to facilitate and standardize this process.We developed bamchop, a robust program to efficiently summarize key statistical metrics of HTS data stored in BAM files, and to visually present the results in a formatted report. The report documents information about various aspects of HTS data, such as sequencing quality, mapping to a reference genome, sequencing coverage, and base frequency. Bamchop uses the R language and Bioconductor packages to calculate statistical matrices and the Sweave utility and associated LaTeX markup for documentation. Bamchop's efficiency and robustness were tested on BAM files generated by local sequencing facilities and the 1000 Genomes Project. Source code, instruction and example reports of bamchop are freely available from https://github.com/CBMi-BiG/bamchop.Bamchop enables biomedical researchers to quickly and rigorously evaluate HTS data by providing a convenient synopsis and user-friendly reports.
Project description:Populations of RNA viruses can spontaneously produce variants that differ in genome size, sequence, and biological activity. Defective variants that lack essential genes can nevertheless reproduce by coinfecting cells with viable virus, a process that interferes with virus growth. How such defective interfering particles (DIPs) change in abundance and biological activity within a virus population is not known. Here, a prototype RNA virus, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), was cultured for three passages on BHK host cells, and passages were subjected to Illumina sequencing. Reads from the initial population, when aligned to the full-length viral sequence (11,161 nucleotides [nt]), distributed uniformly across the genome. However, during passages two plateaus in read counts appeared toward the 5' end of the negative-sense viral genome. Analysis by normalization and a simple sliding-window approach revealed plateau boundaries that suggested the emergence and enrichment of at least two truncated species having medium (?5,900 nt) and short (?4,000 nt) genomes. Relative measures of full-length and truncated species based on read counts were validated by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR). Limit-of-detection analysis suggests that deep sequencing can be more sensitive than complementary measures for detecting and quantifying defective particles in a population. Further, particle counts from transmission electron microscopy, coupled with infectivity assays, linked the rise in smaller genomes with an increase in truncated particles and interference activity. In summary, variation in deep sequencing coverage simultaneously shows the size, location, and relative level of truncated-genome variants, revealing a level of population heterogeneity that is masked by other measures of viral genomes and particles.We show how deep sequencing can be used to characterize the emergence, diversity, and relative abundance of truncated virus variants in virus populations. Adaptation of this approach to natural isolates may elucidate factors that influence the stability and persistence of virus populations in nature.
Project description:Novel massively parallel sequencing technologies provide highly detailed structures of transcriptomes and genomes by yielding deep coverage of short reads, but their utility is limited by inadequate sequencing quality and short-read lengths. Sequencing-error trimming in short reads is therefore a vital process that could improve the rate of successful reference mapping and polymorphism detection. Toward this aim, we herein report a frequency-based, de novo short-read clustering method that organizes erroneous short sequences originating in a single abundant sequence into a tree structure; in this structure, each "child" sequence is considered to be stochastically derived from its more abundant "parent" sequence with one mutation through sequencing errors. The root node is the most frequently observed sequence that represents all erroneous reads in the entire tree, allowing the alignment of the reliable representative read to the genome without the risk of mapping erroneous reads to false-positive positions. This method complements base calling and the error correction of making direct alignments with the reference genome, and is able to improve the overall accuracy of short-read alignment by consulting the inherent relationships among the entire set of reads. The algorithm runs efficiently with a linear time complexity. In addition, an error rate evaluation model can be derived from bacterial artificial chromosome sequencing data obtained in the same run as a control. In two clustering experiments using small RNA and 5'-end mRNA reads data sets, we confirmed a remarkable increase ( approximately 5%) in the percentage of short reads aligned to the reference sequence.
Project description:Illumina DNA sequencing is now the predominant source of raw genomic data, and data volumes are growing rapidly. Bioinformatic analysis pipelines are having trouble keeping pace. A common bottleneck in such pipelines is the requirement to read, write, sort and compress large BAM files multiple times.We present SAMBLASTER, a tool that reduces the number of times such costly operations are performed. SAMBLASTER is designed to mark duplicates in read-sorted SAM files as a piped post-pass on DNA aligner output before it is compressed to BAM. In addition, it can simultaneously output into separate files the discordant read-pairs and/or split-read mappings used for structural variant calling. As an alignment post-pass, its own runtime overhead is negligible, while dramatically reducing overall pipeline complexity and runtime. As a stand-alone duplicate marking tool, it performs significantly better than PICARD or SAMBAMBA in terms of both speed and memory usage, while achieving nearly identical results.SAMBLASTER is open-source C+ + code and freely available for download from https://github.com/GregoryFaust/samblaster.