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Evolution of Anemia Types During Antiretroviral Therapy-Implications for Treatment Outcomes and Quality of Life Among HIV-Infected Adults.


ABSTRACT: This study examined whether the type of anemia in persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) changed from the beginning of highly antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and had implications for treatment outcomes and quality of life (QOL). If present, the anemia-type was defined as microcytic, macrocytic or anemia of chronic disease (ACD) at study months 0, 6, 12, and 18. Multinomial logistic regression quantified sociodemographic and HIV-treatment factors associated with incident microcytic anemia or ACD over 18 months. Repeated measures linear regression models estimated the anemia-type associated change in the CD4 cell-count, QOL, body mass index (BMI) and frailty over 18 months. Cox proportional hazard models estimated associations between anemia-type and time to (a) gain at least 100 CD4 cells/L and (b) hospitalization/death. Analyses were implemented in Statistical Analysis Software (v.9.4) from which odds ratios (ORs) mean differences (?) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated. At enrollment, ACD, macrocytic and microcytic anemia was present in 36.8% (n = 147), 11.3% (n = 45) and 9.5% (n = 38), respectively with 42% (n = 170) anemia-free. By the study end, only 23% (n = 115) were without anemia. Among the 251 with anemia at the study end, 53.3% (n = 195) had macrocytic anemia, 12.8% (n = 47) had ACD and 2.5% (n = 9) had microcytic anemia. Incident macrocytic anemia was positively associated with baseline hyperferritinemia (OR = 1.85, 95%CI: 1.03?3.32), inversely associated with wealth (OR = 0.87, 95%CI: 0.67?1.03) and inversely associated with efavirenz-containing HAART (OR = 0.42, 95%CI: 0.21?0.85). ACD incidence decreased by 53% (95%CI: 0.27?0.79) per 100 cells/L increase in baseline CD4-cell count and decreased by 90% (95%CI: 0.01,0.87) among adults treated with nevirapine-containing HAART. ACD was associated with a lower BMI at months 6 (? = -0.33, 95% CI: -0.64, -0.01) and 12 (? = -0.41, 95%CI: -0.73, -0.09), with lower QOL (? = -3.2, 95%CI: -5.94, -0.53) at month 12 and with elevated frailty (? = 1.2; 95%CI: 0.46, 1.86) at month 12. Macrocytic anemia did not predict a post-enrollment change in CD4, BMI or QOL during follow-up. However, the time to gain 100 CD4 cells/L was 43% slower (p < 0.05) and the frailty was higher at month 12 for PLWHA with the baseline or sustained macrocytic vs. no anemia. A substantial decline in ACD and microcytic anemia occurred in tandem with large increase in the macrocytic anemia over 18 months on HAART. Interventions to mitigate all anemia-particularly ACD, is expected to improve the immune recovery rate, lower frailty, and enhanced QOL.

SUBMITTER: Ezeamama AE 

PROVIDER: S-EPMC6521252 | BioStudies | 2019-01-01

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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