Leaf and Root Endospheres Harbor Lower Fungal Diversity and Less Complex Fungal Co-occurrence Patterns Than Rhizosphere.
ABSTRACT: Plant-associated microbiomes are key determinants of host-plant fitness, productivity, and function. However, compared to bacterial community, we still lack fundamental knowledge concerning the variation in the fungal microbiome at the plant niche level. In this study, we quantified the fungal communities in the rhizosphere soil, as well as leaf and root endosphere compartments of a subtropical island shrub, Mussaenda kwangtungensis, using high-throughput DNA sequencing. We found that fungal microbiomes varied significantly across different plant compartments. Rhizosphere soil exhibited the highest level of fungal diversity, whereas the lowest level was found in the leaf endosphere. Further, the fungal communities inhabiting the root endosphere shared a greater proportion of fungal operational taxonomic units (OTUs) with rhizosphere communities than with leaf fungal endophyte communities, despite significant separation in community structure between the two belowground compartments. The fungal co-occurrence networks in the three compartments of M. kwangtungensis showed scale-free features and non-random co-occurrence patterns and matched the topological properties of small-world and evidently modular structure. Additionally, the rhizosphere network was more complex and showed higher centrality and connectedness than the leaf and root endosphere networks. Overall, our findings provide comprehensive insights into the structural variability, niche differentiation, and co-occurrence patterns in the plant associated fungal microbiome.
Project description:Application of diazotrophs (N<sub>2</sub>-fixing microorganisms) can decrease the overuse of nitrogen (N) fertilizer. Until now, there are few studies on the effects of diazotroph application on microbial communities of major crops. In this study, the diazotrophic and endospore-forming <i>Paenibacillus triticisoli</i> BJ-18 was inoculated into maize soils containing different N levels. The effects of inoculation on the composition and abundance of the bacterial, diazotrophic and fungal communities in the rhizosphere and root/shoot endosphere of maize were evaluated by sequencing the 16S rRNA, <i>nifH</i> gene and ITS (Inter Transcribed Spacer) region. <i>P. triticisoli</i> BJ-18 survived and propagated in all the compartments of the maize rhizosphere, root and shoot. The abundances and diversities of the bacterial and diazotrophic communities in the rhizosphere were significantly higher than in both root and shoot endospheres. Each compartment of the rhizosphere, root and shoot had its specific bacterial and diazotrophic communities. Our results showed that inoculation reshaped the structures of the bacterial, diazotrophic and fungal communities in the maize rhizosphere and endosphere. Inoculation reduced the interactions of the bacteria and diazotrophs in the rhizosphere and endosphere, while it increased the fungal interactions. After inoculation, the abundances of <i>Pseudomonas</i>, <i>Bacillus</i> and <i>Paenibacillus</i> in all three compartments, <i>Klebsiella</i> in the rhizosphere and <i>Paenibacillus</i> in the root and shoot were significantly increased, while the abundances of <i>Fusarium</i> and <i>Giberella</i> were greatly reduced. <i>Paenibacillus</i> was significantly correlated with plant dry weight, nitrogenase, N<sub>2</sub>-fixing rate, P solubilization and other properties of the soil and plant.
Project description:Mangrove roots harbor a repertoire of microbial taxa that contribute to important ecological functions in mangrove ecosystems. However, the diversity, function, and assembly of mangrove root-associated microbial communities along a continuous fine-scale niche remain elusive. Here, we applied amplicon and metagenome sequencing to investigate the bacterial and fungal communities among four compartments (nonrhizosphere, rhizosphere, episphere, and endosphere) of mangrove roots. We found different distribution patterns for both bacterial and fungal communities in all four root compartments, which could be largely due to niche differentiation along the root compartments and exudation effects of mangrove roots. The functional pattern for bacterial and fungal communities was also divergent within the compartments. The endosphere harbored more genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism, lipid transport, and methane production, and fewer genes were found to be involved in sulfur reduction compared to other compartments. The dynamics of root-associated microbial communities revealed that 56-74% of endosphere bacterial taxa were derived from nonrhizosphere, whereas no fungal OTUs of nonrhizosphere were detected in the endosphere. This indicates that roots may play a more strictly selective role in the assembly of the fungal community compared to the endosphere bacterial community, which is consistent with the projections established in an amplification-selection model. This study reveals the divergence in the diversity and function of root-associated microbial communities along a continuous fine-scale niche, thereby highlighting a strictly selective role of soil-root interfaces in shaping the fungal community structure in the mangrove root systems.
Project description:Plant roots support complex microbial communities that can influence nutrition, plant growth, and health. In grapevine, little is known about the impact of abiotic stresses on the belowground microbiome. In this study, we examined the drought-induced shifts in fungal composition in the root endosphere, the rhizosphere and bulk soil by internal transcribed spacer (ITS) high-throughput amplicon sequencing (HTAS). We imposed three irrigation regimes (100%, 50%, and 25% of the field capacity) to one-year old grapevine rootstock plants cv. SO<sub>4</sub> when plants had developed 2-3 roots. Root endosphere, rhizosphere, and bulk soil samples were collected 6- and 12-months post-plantation. Drought significantly modified the overall fungal composition of all three compartments, with the root endosphere compartment showing the greatest divergence from well-watered control (100%). The overall response of the fungal microbiota associated with black-foot disease (<i>Dactylonectria</i> and "<i>Cylindrocarpon</i>" genera) and the potential biocontrol agent <i>Trichoderma</i> to drought stress was consistent across compartments, namely that their relative abundances were significantly higher at 50-100% than at 25% irrigation regime. We identified a significant enrichment in several fungal genera such as the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus <i>Funneliformis</i> during drought at 25% watering regime within the roots. Our results reveal that drought stress, in addition to its well-characterized effects on plant physiology, also results in the restructuring of grapevine root microbial communities, and suggest the possibility that members of the altered grapevine microbiota might contribute to plant survival under extreme environmental conditions.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The plant compartments of Vitis vinifera, including the rhizosphere, rhizoplane, root endosphere, phyllosphere and carposphere, provide unique niches that drive specific bacterial microbiome associations. The majority of phyllosphere endophytes originate from the soil and migrate up to the aerial compartments through the root endosphere. Thus, the soil and root endosphere partially define the aerial endosphere in the leaves and berries, contributing to the terroir of the fruit. However, V. vinifera cultivars are invariably grafted onto the rootstocks of other Vitis species and hybrids. It has been hypothesized that the plant species determines the microbiome of the root endosphere and, as a consequence, the aerial endosphere. In this work, we test the first part of this hypothesis. We investigate whether different rootstocks influence the bacteria selected from the surrounding soil, affecting the bacterial diversity and potential functionality of the rhizosphere and root endosphere. METHODS:Bacterial microbiomes from both the root tissues and the rhizosphere of Barbera cultivars, both ungrafted and grafted on four different rootstocks, cultivated in the same soil from the same vineyard, were characterized by 16S rRNA high-throughput sequencing. To assess the influence of the root genotype on the bacterial communities' recruitment in the root system, (i) the phylogenetic diversity coupled with the predicted functional profiles and (ii) the co-occurrence bacterial networks were determined. Cultivation-dependent approaches were used to reveal the plant-growth promoting (PGP) potential associated with the grafted and ungrafted root systems. RESULTS:Richness, diversity and bacterial community networking in the root compartments were significantly influenced by the rootstocks. Complementary to a shared bacterial microbiome, different subsets of soil bacteria, including those endowed with PGP traits, were selected by the root system compartments of different rootstocks. The interaction between the root compartments and the rootstock exerted a unique selective pressure that enhanced niche differentiation, but rootstock-specific bacterial communities were still recruited with conserved PGP traits. CONCLUSION:While the rootstock significantly influences the taxonomy, structure and network properties of the bacterial community in grapevine roots, a homeostatic effect on the distribution of the predicted and potential functional PGP traits was found.
Project description:Background:Our aim was to explore how the ectomycorrhizae of an indigenous tree, Quercus acutissima, with a commercial truffle, Chinese black truffle (Tuber indicum), affects the host plant physiology and shapes the associated microbial communities in the surrounding environment during the early stage of symbiosis. Methods:To achieve this, changes in root morphology and microscopic characteristics, plant physiology indices, and the rhizosphere soil properties were investigated when six-month-old ectomycorrhizae were synthesized. Meanwhile, next-generation sequencing technology was used to analyze the bacterial and fungal communities in the root endosphere and rhizosphere soil inoculated with T. indicum or not. Results:The results showed that colonization by T. indicum significantly improved the activity of superoxide dismutase in roots but significantly decreased the root activity. The biomass, leaf chlorophyll content and root peroxidase activity did not obviously differ. Ectomycorrhization of Q. acutissima with T. indicum affected the characteristics of the rhizosphere soil, improving the content of organic matter, total nitrogen, total phosphorus and available nitrogen. The bacterial and fungal community composition in the root endosphere and rhizosphere soil was altered by T. indicum colonization, as was the community richness and diversity. The dominant bacteria in all the samples were Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria, and the dominant fungi were Eukaryota_norank, Ascomycota, and Mucoromycota. Some bacterial communities, such as Streptomyces, SM1A02, and Rhizomicrobium were more abundant in the ectomycorrhizae or ectomycorrhizosphere soil. Tuber was the second-most abundant fungal genus, and Fusarium was present at lower amounts in the inoculated samples. Discussion:Overall, the symbiotic relationship between Q. acutissima and T. indicum had an obvious effect on host plant physiology, soil properties, and microbial community composition in the root endosphere and rhizosphere soil, which could improve our understanding of the symbiotic relationship between Q. acutissima and T. indicum, and may contribute to the cultivation of truffle.
Project description:Plant roots support complex microbial communities that can influence plant growth, nutrition, and health. While extensive characterizations of the composition and spatial compartmentalization of these communities have been performed in different plant species, there is relatively little known about the impact of abiotic stresses on the root microbiota. Here, we have used rice as a model to explore the responses of root microbiomes to drought stress. Using four distinct genotypes, grown in soils from three different fields, we tracked the drought-induced changes in microbial composition in the rhizosphere (the soil immediately surrounding the root), the endosphere (the root interior), and unplanted soils. Drought significantly altered the overall bacterial and fungal compositions of all three communities, with the endosphere and rhizosphere compartments showing the greatest divergence from well-watered controls. The overall response of the bacterial microbiota to drought stress was taxonomically consistent across soils and cultivars and was primarily driven by an enrichment of multiple Actinobacteria and Chloroflexi, as well as a depletion of several Acidobacteria and Deltaproteobacteria While there was some overlap in the changes observed in the rhizosphere and endosphere communities, several drought-responsive taxa were compartment specific, a pattern likely arising from preexisting compositional differences, as well as plant-mediated processes affecting individual compartments. These results reveal that drought stress, in addition to its well-characterized effects on plant physiology, also results in restructuring of root microbial communities and suggest the possibility that constituents of the altered plant microbiota might contribute to plant survival under extreme environmental conditions.IMPORTANCE With the likelihood that changes in global climate will adversely affect crop yields, the potential role of microbial communities in enhancing plant performance makes it important to elucidate the responses of plant microbiomes to environmental variation. By detailed characterization of the effect of drought stress on the root-associated microbiota of the crop plant rice, we show that the rhizosphere and endosphere communities undergo major compositional changes that involve shifts in the relative abundances of a taxonomically diverse set of bacteria in response to drought. These drought-responsive microbes, in particular those enriched under water deficit conditions, could potentially benefit the plant as they could contribute to tolerance to drought and other abiotic stresses, as well as provide protection from opportunistic infection by pathogenic microbes. The identification and future isolation of microbes that promote plant tolerance to drought could potentially be used to mitigate crop losses arising from adverse shifts in climate.
Project description:Plant microbiota is a key determinant of plant health and productivity. The composition and structure of plant microbiota varies according to plant tissue and compartment, which are specific habitats for microbial colonization. To investigate the structural composition of the microbiome associated with tomato roots under natural systems, we characterized the bacterial, archaeal, and fungal communities of three belowground compartments (rhizosphere, endosphere, and bulk soil) of tomato plants collected from 23 greenhouses in 7 geographic locations of South Korea. The microbial diversity and structure varied by rhizocompartment, with the most distinctive community features found in the endosphere. The bacterial and fungal communities in the bulk soil and rhizosphere were correlated with soil physicochemical properties, such as pH, electrical conductivity, and exchangeable cation levels, while this trend was not evident in the endosphere samples. A small number of core bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) present in all samples from the rhizosphere and endosphere represented more than 60% of the total relative abundance. Among these core microbes, OTUs belonging to the genera Acidovorax, Enterobacter, Pseudomonas, Rhizobium, Streptomyces, and Variovorax, members of which are known to have beneficial effects on plant growth, were more relatively abundant in the endosphere samples. A co-occurrence network analysis indicated that the microbial community in the rhizosphere had a larger and more complex network than those in the bulk soil and endosphere. The analysis also identified keystone taxa that might play important roles in microbe-microbe interactions in the community. Additionally, profiling of predicted gene functions identified many genes associated with membrane transport in the endospheric and rhizospheric communities. Overall, the data presented here provide preliminary insight into bacterial, archaeal, and fungal phylogeny, functionality, and interactions in the rhizocompartments of tomato roots under real-world environments.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Understanding the genetic and environmental factors that structure plant microbiomes is necessary for leveraging these interactions to address critical needs in agriculture, conservation, and sustainability. Legumes, which form root nodule symbioses with nitrogen-fixing rhizobia, have served as model plants for understanding the genetics and evolution of beneficial plant-microbe interactions for decades, and thus have added value as models of plant-microbiome interactions. Here we use a common garden experiment with 16S rRNA gene amplicon and shotgun metagenomic sequencing to study the drivers of microbiome diversity and composition in three genotypes of the model legume Medicago truncatula grown in two native soil communities.<h4>Results</h4>Bacterial diversity decreased between external (rhizosphere) and internal plant compartments (root endosphere, nodule endosphere, and leaf endosphere). Community composition was shaped by strong compartment × soil origin and compartment × plant genotype interactions, driven by significant soil origin effects in the rhizosphere and significant plant genotype effects in the root endosphere. Nevertheless, all compartments were dominated by Ensifer, the genus of rhizobia that forms root nodule symbiosis with M. truncatula, and additional shotgun metagenomic sequencing suggests that the nodulating Ensifer were not genetically distinguishable from those elsewhere in the plant. We also identify a handful of OTUs that are common in nodule tissues, which are likely colonized from the root endosphere.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Our results demonstrate strong host filtering effects, with rhizospheres driven by soil origin and internal plant compartments driven by host genetics, and identify several key nodule-inhabiting taxa that coexist with rhizobia in the native range. Our results set the stage for future functional genetic experiments aimed at expanding our pairwise understanding of legume-rhizobium symbiosis toward a more mechanistic understanding of plant microbiomes. Video Abstract.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Utilizating the plant microbiome to enhance pathogen resistance in crop production is an emerging alternative to the use of chemical pesticides. However, the diversity and structure of the microbiota, and the assembly mechanisms of root-associated microbial communities of plants are still poorly understood.<h4>Results</h4>We invstigated the microbiota of the root endosphere and rhizosphere soils of the rice cultivar Nipponbare (NPB) and its Piz-t-transgenic line (NPB-Piz-t) when infected with the filamentous fungus Magnaporthe oryzae (M. oryzae) isolate KJ201, using 16S rRNA and internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) amplicon sequencing. The rhizosphere soils showed higher bacterial and fungal richness and diversity than the endosphere except for fungal richness in the rhizosphere soils of the mock treatment. Bacteria richness and diversity increased in the endospheric communities of NPB and Piz-t under inoculation with KJ201 (referred to as 'NPB-KJ201' and 'Piz-t-KJ201', respectively) compared with the corresponding mock treatments, with the NPB-KJ201 showing the highest diversity in the four bacterial endocompartments. In contrast, fungal richness and diversity decreased in the endospheric communities of NPB-KJ201 and Piz-t-KJ201, relative to the corresponding mock treatments, with NPB-KJ201 and Piz-t-KJ201 having the lowest richness and diversity, respectively, across the four fungal endocompartments. Principal component analysis (PCA) indicated that the microbiota of Piz-t-KJ201 of root endophytes were mostly remarkablely distinct from that of NPB-KJ201. Co-occurrence network analysis revealed that the phyla Proteobacteria and Ascomycota were the key contributors to the bacterial and fungal communities, respectively. Furthermore, a comparative metabolic analysis showed that the contents of tryptophan metabolism and indole alkaloid biosynthesis were significantly lower in the Piz-t-KJ201 plants.<h4>Conclusions</h4>In this study, we compared the diversity, composition, and assembly of microbial communities associated with the rhizosphere soils and endosphere of Piz-t-KJ201 and NPB-KJ201. On the basis of the different compositions, diversities, and assemblies of the microbial communities among different compartments, we propose that the host genotype and inoculation pattern of M. oryzae played dominant roles in determining the microbial community assemblage. Further metabolomics analysis revealed that some metabolites may influence changes in bacterial communities. This study improves our understanding of the complex interactions between rice and M. oryzae, which could be useful in developing new strategies to improve rice resistance through the manipulation of soil microorganisms.
Project description:Mangrove forest trees play important ecological functions at the interface between terrestrial and marine ecosystems. However, despite playing crucial roles in plant health and productivity, there is little information on microbiomes of the tree species in mangrove ecosystems. Thus, in this study we aimed to characterize the microbiome in soil (rhizosphere) and plant (root, stem, and leaf endosphere) compartments of the widely distributed mangrove tree <i>Rhizophora stylosa</i>. Surprisingly, bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were only confidently detected in rhizosphere soil, while fungal OTUs were detected in all soil and plant compartments. The major detected bacterial phyla were affiliated to Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Planctomycetes, and Chloroflexi. Several nitrogen-fixing bacterial OTUs were detected, and the presence of nitrogen-fixing bacteria was confirmed by <i>nifH</i> gene based-PCR in all rhizosphere soil samples, indicating their involvement in N acquisition in the focal mangrove ecosystem. We detected taxonomically (54 families, 83 genera) and functionally diverse fungi in the <i>R. stylosa</i> mycobiome. Ascomycota (mainly Dothideomycetes, Eurotiomycetes, Sordariomycetes) were most diverse in the mycobiome, accounting for 86% of total detected fungal OTUs. We found significant differences in fungal taxonomic and functional community composition among the soil and plant compartments. We also detected significant differences in fungal OTU richness (<i>p</i> < 0.002) and community composition (<i>p</i> < 0.001) among plant compartments. The results provide the first information on the microbiome of rhizosphere soil to leaf compartments of mangrove trees and associated indications of ecological functions in mangrove ecosystems.