Berberine improves advanced glycation end products?induced osteogenic differentiation responses in human periodontal ligament stem cells through the canonical Wnt/??catenin pathway.
ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and berberine hydrochloride (BBR) on the osteogenic differentiation ability of human periodontal ligament stem cells (hPDLSCs) in vitro, and their underlying mechanisms. hPDLSCs were subjected to osteogenic induction and were treated with AGEs or AGEs + BBR. Following varying numbers of days in culture, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity assays, ALP staining, alizarin red staining, ELISAs, and reverse transcription?quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT?qPCR) and western blot analyses were performed to determine the osteogenic differentiation ability of hPDLSCs; RT?qPCR, western blot analysis, and immunofluorescence staining were conducted to investigate the underlying mechanisms. The canonical Wnt/??catenin pathway inhibitor XAV?939 and agonist CHIR?99021 were used to determine the contribution of the canonical Wnt/??catenin pathway to differentiation. Treatment with AGEs resulted in reduced ALP activity and Collagen I protein levels, decreased ALP staining, fewer mineralized nodules, and downregulated expression of osteogenic?specific genes [Runt?related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), Osterix, ALP, osteopontin (OPN), Collagen I and osteocalcin (OCN)] and proteins (Runx2, OPN, BSP and OCN); however, BBR partially rescued the AGE?induced decrease in the osteogenic potential of hPDLSCs. Furthermore, AGEs activated the canonical Wnt/??catenin signaling pathway and promoted the nuclear translocation of ??catenin; BBR partially attenuated this effect. In addition, XAV?939 partially rescued the AGE?induced reduction in the osteogenic potential of hPDLSCs, whereas CHIR?99021 suppressed the BBR?induced increase in the osteogenic potential of hPDLSCs. The present study indicated that AGEs attenuated the osteogenic differentiation ability of hPDLSCs, in part by activating the canonical Wnt/??catenin pathway; however, BBR attenuated these effects by inhibiting the canonical Wnt/??catenin pathway. These findings suggest a role for BBR in periodontal regeneration induced by hPDLSCs in patients with diabetes mellitus.
Project description:Bone morphogenetic protein 9 (BMP-9) is a member of the transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta/BMP superfamily, and we have demonstrated that it is one of the most potent BMPs to induce osteoblast differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Here, we sought to investigate if canonical Wnt/beta-catenin signalling plays an important role in BMP-9-induced osteogenic differentiation of MSCs. Wnt3A and BMP-9 enhanced each other's ability to induce alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in MSCs and mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). Wnt antagonist FrzB was shown to inhibit BMP-9-induced ALP activity more effectively than Dkk1, whereas a secreted form of LPR-5 or low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP)-6 exerted no inhibitory effect on BMP-9-induced ALP activity. beta-Catenin knockdown in MSCs and MEFs diminished BMP-9-induced ALP activity, and led to a decrease in BMP-9-induced osteocalcin reporter activity and BMP-9-induced expression of late osteogenic markers. Furthermore, beta-catenin knockdown or FrzB overexpression inhibited BMP-9-induced mineralization in vitro and ectopic bone formation in vivo, resulting in immature osteogenesis and the formation of chondrogenic matrix. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis indicated that BMP-9 induced recruitment of both Runx2 and beta-catenin to the osteocalcin promoter. Thus, we have demonstrated that canonical Wnt signalling, possibly through interactions between beta-catenin and Runx2, plays an important role in BMP-9-induced osteogenic differentiation of MSCs.
Project description:Diabetes mellitus, characterized by abnormally high blood glucose levels, gives rise to impaired bone remodeling. In response to high glucose (HG), the attenuated osteogenic differentiation capacity of human periodontal ligament stem cells (hPDLSCs) is associated with the loss of alveolar bone. Recently, DNA methylation was reported to affect osteogenic differentiation of stem cells in pathological states. However, the intrinsic mechanism linking DNA methylation to osteogenic differentiation ability in the presence of HG is still unclear. In this study, we found that diabetic rats with increased DNA methylation levels in periodontal ligaments exhibited reduced bone mass and density. In vitro application of 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC), a DNA methyltransferase inhibitor, to decrease DNA methylation levels in hPDLSCs, rescued the osteogenic differentiation capacity of hPDLSCs under HG conditions. Moreover, we demonstrated that the canonical Wnt signaling pathway was activated during this process and, under HG circumstances, the 5-aza-dC-rescued osteogenic differentiation capacity was blocked by Dickkopf-1, an effective antagonist of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway. Taken together, these results demonstrate for the first time that suppression of DNA methylation is able to facilitate the osteogenic differentiation capacity of hPDLSCs exposed to HG, through activation of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway.
Project description:The present study explored whether bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and Wnt/??catenin signaling pathways were involved in the 1,25(OH)2D3?induced inhibition of osteogenic differentiation in bone marrow?derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). To evaluate the osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs, the expression levels of ossification markers, including BMP2, Runt?related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), Msh homeobox 2 (Msx2), osteopontin (OPN) and osteocalcin (OCN), and the activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), as well as the calcified area observed by Alizarin red?S staining, were investigated. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay was used to detect the effect of 1,25(OH)2D3 on the DNA methylation and histone modification of BMP2, while an immunoprecipitation (IP) assay was performed to assess the crosstalk between Smad1 and disheveled?1 (Dvl?1) proteins. It was observed that 1,25(OH)2D3 significantly decreased the expression levels of BMP2, Runx2, Msx2, OPN and OCN, and reduced ALP activity and the calcified area in BMSCs, whereas these effects were rescued by BMP2 overexpression. ChIP assay revealed that BMSCs treated with 1,25(OH)2D3 exhibited a significant increase in H3K9me2 level and a decrease in the acetylation of histone H3 at the same BMP2 promoter region. In addition, 1,25(OH)2D3 treatment promoted the nuclear accumulation of ??catenin by downregulating BMP2. Furthermore, the ??catenin signaling inhibitor XAV?939 weakened the inhibitory effect of 1,25(OH)2D3 on osteogenic differentiation. Additionally, knockdown of ??catenin rescued the attenuation in Dvl?1 and Smad1 interaction caused by 1,25(OH)2D3. Overexpression of Smad1 also reversed the inhibitory effect of 1,25(OH)2D3 on osteogenic differentiation. Taken together, the current study demonstrated that 1,25(OH)2D3 inhibited the differentiation of BMSCs into osteoblast?like cells by inactivating BMP2 and activating Wnt/??catenin signaling.
Project description:Objectives:Enhanced migration and osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are beneficial for MSC-mediated periodontal tissue regeneration, a promising method for periodontitis treatment. FBXO5, a member of the F-box protein family, is involved in the osteogenic differentiation of MSCs. Here, we investigated the effect of FBXO5 on human periodontal ligament stem cells (hPDLSCs). Materials and Methods:hPDLSCs were isolated from periodontal ligament tissue. Lentivirus FBXO5 shRNA was used to silence FBXO5 expression. Two transcripts of FBXO5 were overexpressed and transduced into hPDLSCs via retroviral infection. Migration and osteogenic differentiation of hPDLSCs were evaluated using the scratch migration assay, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, ALP staining, alizarin red staining, western blotting, and real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results:The expression of FBXO5 was upregulated after osteogenic induction in hPDLSCs. FBXO5 knockdown attenuated migration, inhibited ALP activity and mineralization, and decreased RUNX2, OSX, and OCN expression, while the overexpression of two transcript isoforms significantly accelerated migration, enhanced ALP activity and mineralization, and increased RUNX2, OSX, and OCN expression in hPDLSCs. Conclusions:Both isoforms of FBXO5 promoted the migration and osteogenic differentiation potential of hPDLSCs, which identified a potential target for improving periodontal tissue regeneration.
Project description:The development of a substance or inhibitor-based treatment strategy for the prevention of aortic valve stenosis is a challenge and a main focus of medical research in this area. One strategy may be to use the tankyrase inhibitor XAV-939, which leads to Axin stabilisation and subsequent destruction of the ?-catenin complex and dephosphorylation of ?-catenin. The dephosphorylated active form of ?-catenin (non-phospho-?-catenin) then promotes nuclear transcription that leads to osteogenesis. The aims of the present study were to develop an experimental system for inducing in vitro calcification of human aortic valvular interstitial cells (VICs) to investigate the potential anti-calcific effect of XAV-939 and to analyse expression of the Wnt signalling proteins and Sox9, a chondrogenesis regulator, in this model. Calcification of human VIC cultures was induced by cultivation in an osteogenic medium and the effect of co-incubation with 1?M XAV-939 was monitored. Calcification was quantified when mineral deposits were visible in culture and was histologically verified by von Kossa or Alizarin red staining and by IR-spectroscopy. Protein expression of alkaline phosphatase, Axin, ?-catenin and Sox9 were quantified by western blotting. In 58% of the VIC preparations, calcification was induced in an osteogenic culture medium and was accompanied by upregulation of alkaline phosphatase. The calcification induction was prevented by the XAV-939 co-treatment and the alkaline phosphatase upregulation was suppressed. As expected, Axin was upregulated, but the levels of active non-phospho-?-catenin were also enhanced. Sox9 was induced during XAV-939 treatment but apparently not as a result of downregulation of ?-catenin signalling. XAV-939 was therefore able to prevent calcification of human VIC cultures, and XAV-939 treatment was accompanied by upregulation of active non-phospho-?-catenin. Although XAV-939 does not downregulate active ?-catenin, treatment with XAV-939 results in Sox9 upregulation that may prevent the calcification process.
Project description:<h4>Aims</h4>Cigarette smoking is one of the high risk factors of adult chronic periodontitis and nicotine is the well established toxic substance in cigarette. However, the mechanism of nicotine induced periodontitis is still unknown. Here we studied whether nicotine impaired the osteogenic differentiation of human periodontal ligament stem cells (hPDLSCs) through activating ?7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (?7 nAChR).<h4>Methods</h4>hPDLSCs with multi differentiation potential and surface makers for mesenchymal stem cells were harvested by limiting dilution technique. The level of mineralized nodule formation was assessed by alizarin red S staining. Expression level of ostegenic related genes and proteins were detected by real-time PCR and western blot analysis. The expression of ?7 nAChR and its downstream signaling pathway were examined by western blot. The role of the receptor and related signaling pathway in nicotine impairing the osteogenic potential of hPDLSCs were also studied in different levels.<h4>Results</h4>Nicotine deteriorated the ostegenic differentiation of hPDLSCs in a dose dependent manner. Activation of ?7 nAChR by nicotine treatment activated wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway, leading to osteogenic deficiency of hPDLSCs. Blockage of ?7 nAChR and wnt pathway inhibitor treatment rescued nicotine induced osteogenic differentiation deficiency.<h4>Conclusions</h4>These data suggested that nicotine activated ?7 nAChR expressed on PDLSCs and further activated wnt signaling downstream, thus deteriorating the osteogenic potential of PDLSCs. The impairment of osteogenic differentiation of PDLSCs by nicotine might lead to cigarette smoking related periodontitis.
Project description:Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2)-induced osteogenic differentiation has been shown to occur through the canonical Wnt/?catenin pathway, whereas factors promoting canonical Wnt signaling in cementoblasts inhibit cell differentiation and promote cell proliferation in vitro. The aim of this study was to investigate whether putative precursor cells of cementoblasts, dental follicle cells (murine SVF4 cells), when stimulated with BMP2, would exhibit changes in genes/proteins associated with the Wnt/?-catenin pathway.SVF4 cells were stimulated with BMP2, and the following assays were carried out: (i) Wnt/?-catenin pathway activation assessed by western blotting, ?-catenin/transcription factor (TCF) reporter assays and expression of the lymphoid enhancer-binding factor-1 (Lef1), transcription factor 7 (Tcf7), Wnt inhibitor factor 1 (Wif1) and Axin2 (Axin2) genes; and (ii) cementoblast/osteoblast differentiation assessed by mineralization in vitro, and by the mRNA levels of runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), osterix (Osx), alkaline phosphatase (Alp), osteocalcin (Ocn) and bone sialoprotein (Bsp), determined by quantitative PCR after treatment with wingless-type MMTV integration site family, member 3A (WNT3A) and knockdown of ?-catenin.WNT3A induced ?-catenin nuclear translocation and up-regulated the transcriptional activity of a canonical Wnt-responsive reporter, suggesting that the Wnt/?-catenin pathway functions in SVF4 cells. Activation of Wnt signaling with WNT3A suppressed BMP2-mediated induction of cementoblast/osteoblast maturation of SVF4 cells. However, ?-catenin knockdown showed that the BMP2-induced expression of cementoblast/osteoblast differentiation markers requires endogenous ?-catenin. WNT3A down-regulated transcripts for Runx2, Alp and Ocn in SVF4 cells compared with untreated cells. In contrast, BMP2 induction of Bsp transcripts occurred independently of Wnt/?-catenin signaling.These data suggest that stabilization of ?-catenin by WNT3A inhibits BMP2-mediated induction of cementoblast/osteoblast differentiation in SVF4 cells, although BMP2 requires endogenous Wnt/?-catenin signaling to promote cell maturation.
Project description:HPDLSCs derived from periodontal ligament tissues contribute to tooth development and tissue regeneration. Exploring the effects of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in the process of osteogenic differentiation of periodontal ligament stem cells would provide novel therapeutic strategies for tissue regeneration. The expression levels of lncRNA, which significantly changed during osteogenic differentiation, were observed by real-time quantitative PCR (q-PCR). Then, we screened for osteogenic-related lncRNA, which was initially named lncRNA-TWIST1. Moreover, we detected the mRNA expression levels of TWIST1 and osteogenesis-related genes after upregulating and downregulating lncRNA-TWIST1 in PPDLSCs (periodontal mesenchymal stem cells from periodontitis patients) and HPDLSCs (periodontal mesenchymal stem cells from healthy microenvironment), respectively. The osteogenic degree was verified by detecting ALP activity and alizarin red staining. LncRNA-TWIST1 decreased the mRNA levels of TWIST1 and promoted osteogenic differentiation in PPDLSCs, which was confirmed by the increase in osteogenesis-related gene levels (Runx2, ALP, and OCN), the increase in ALP activity, and the formation of more osteogenic nodules. In contrast, downregulating lncRNA-TWIST1 decreased the expression of osteogenesis-related genes, ALP activity, and osteogenic nodules both in PPDLSCs and in HPDLSCs. LncRNA-TWIST1 promoted osteogenic differentiation both in PPDLSCs and in HPDLSCs by inhibiting the TWIST1 expression. LncRNA-TWIST1 may be a novel therapeutic strategy to regenerate dental tissues.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:The osteogenesis differentiation of human bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs) is essential for bone formation and bone homeostasis. In this study, we aim to elucidate novel molecular targets for bone metabolism diseases. MATERIALS AND METHODS:The dataset GSE80614 which includes mRNA expression profile during BMSCs osteogenic differentiation was obtained from the GEO database (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/). The osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs was measured by ALP staining, AR staining and expression of osteogenic markers in vitro. For in vivo assay, we seeded BMSCs onto beta-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) and transplanted them into muscle pockets of nude mice. Luciferase assay, co-immunoprecipitation assay and in vitro ubiquitination assay were carried out to investigate the molecular mechanism. RESULTS:We found that ?-B-crystallin (CRYAB) expression was elevated during the process of BMSCs osteogenic differentiation. Further studies showed that upregulation of CRYAB significantly enhanced the osteogenic differentiation, while downregulation of CRYAB suppressed it. CRYAB regulated BMSCs osteogenic differentiation mainly through the canonical Wnt/?-catenin signalling. In addition, we found that CRYAB could physically interact with ?-catenin and protect it from ubiquitination and degradation, which stabilized ?-catenin and promoted the Wnt signalling. CONCLUSIONS:The present study provides evidences that CRYAB is an important regulator of BMSCs osteogenic differentiation by protecting ?-catenin from ubiquitination and degradation and promoting the Wnt signalling. It may serve as a potential therapeutic target for diseases related to bone metabolism.
Project description:Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease involving both cartilage and synovium. The canonical Wnt/?-catenin pathway, which is activated in OA, is emerging as an important regulator of tissue repair and fibrosis. This study seeks to examine Wnt pathway effects on synovial fibroblasts and articular chondrocytes as well as the therapeutic effects of Wnt inhibition on OA disease severity. Mice underwent destabilization of the medial meniscus surgery and were treated by intra-articular injection with XAV-939, a small-molecule inhibitor of Wnt/?-catenin signaling. Wnt/?-catenin signaling was highly activated in murine synovial fibroblasts as well as in OA-derived human synovial fibroblasts. XAV-939 ameliorated OA severity associated with reduced cartilage degeneration and synovitis in vivo. Wnt inhibition using mechanistically distinct small-molecule inhibitors, XAV-939 and C113, attenuated the proliferation and type I collagen synthesis in synovial fibroblasts in vitro but did not affect human OA-derived chondrocyte proliferation. However, Wnt modulation increased COL2A1 and PRG4 transcripts, which are downregulated in chondrocytes in OA. In conclusion, therapeutic Wnt inhibition reduced disease severity in a model of traumatic OA via promoting anticatabolic effects on chondrocytes and antifibrotic effects on synovial fibroblasts and may be a promising class of drugs for the treatment of OA.