Antioxidant Activities of Alkyl Substituted Pyrazine Derivatives of Chalcones-In Vitro and In Silico Study.
ABSTRACT: Chalcones are polyphenolic secondary metabolites of plants, many of which have antioxidant activity. Herein, a set of 26 synthetic chalcone derivatives with alkyl substituted pyrazine heterocycle A and four types of the monophenolic ring B, were evaluated for the potential radical scavenging and antioxidant cellular capacity influencing the growth of cells exposed to H?O?. Before that, compounds were screened for cytotoxicity on THP-1 and HepG2 cell lines. Most of them were not cytotoxic in an overnight MTS assay. However, three of them, 4a, 4c and 4e showed 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH?) radical scavenging activity, through single electron transfer followed by a proton transfer (SET-PT) mechanism as revealed by density functional theory (DFT) modeling. DFT modeling of radical scavenging mechanisms was done at the SMD//(U)M052X/6-311++G** level. The in vitro effects of 4a, 4c and 4e on the growth of THP-1 cells during four days pre- or post-treatment with H?O? were examined daily with the trypan blue exclusion assay. Their various cellular effects reflect differences in their radical scavenging capacity and molecular lipophilicity (clogP) and depend upon the cellular redox status. The applied simple in vitro-in silico screening cascade enables fast identification and initial characterization of potent radical scavengers.
Project description:A series of five new 2-(1-benzofuran-2-yl)-2-oxoethyl 4-(un/substituted)benzoates 4(a-e), with the general formula of C?H?O(C=O)CH?O(C=O)C?H?X, X = H, Cl, CH?, OCH? or NO?, was synthesized in high purity and good yield under mild conditions. The synthesized products 4(a-e) were characterized by FTIR, ¹H-, (13)C- and ¹H-(13)C HMQC NMR spectroscopic analysis and their 3D structures were confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies. These compounds were screened for their antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. The tested compounds showed antimicrobial ability in the order of 4b < 4a < 4c < 4d < 4e and the highest potency with minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) value of 125 µg/mL was observed for 4e. The results of antioxidant activities revealed the highest activity for compound 4e (32.62% ± 1.34%) in diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, 4d (31.01% ± 4.35%) in ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay and 4a (27.11% ± 1.06%) in metal chelating (MC) activity.
Project description:The present work aimed at the valorization of biomass derived compounds by their transformation into new added-value compounds with enhanced antioxidant properties. In this context, betulinic acid (BA) was decorated with polyphenolic fragments, and polyhydroxylated (<i>E</i>)-2-benzylidene-19,28-epoxyoleanane-3,28-diones <b>4a</b>-<b>d</b> were obtained. For that, the synthetic strategy relied on base-promoted aldol condensation reactions of methyl betulonate, which was previously prepared from natural BA, with appropriate benzaldehydes, followed by cleavage of the methyl protecting groups with BBr<sub>3</sub>. It is noteworthy that the HBr release during the work-up of the cleavage reactions led to the rearrangement of the lupane-type skeleton of the expected betulonic acid derivatives into oleanane-type compounds <b>4a</b>-<b>d</b>. The synthesized compounds <b>4a</b>-<b>d</b> were designed to have specific substitution patterns at C-2 of the triterpene scaffold, allowing the establishment of a structure-activity relationship. The radical scavenging ability of <b>4a</b>-<b>d</b> was evaluated using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH<sup>•</sup>) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid radical cation (ABTS<sup>•+</sup>) scavenging assays. In particular, derivative <b>4c</b>, bearing a catechol unit, revealed to be the most efficient scavenger against both free radicals DPPH<sup>•</sup> and ABTS<sup>•+</sup>. Subsequently, we designed two analogues of the hit derivative <b>4c</b> in order to achieve more potent antioxidant agents: (i) the first analogue carries an additional unsaturation in its lateral chain at C-2 (analogue <b>5</b>) and (ii) in the second analogue, E-ring was kept in its open form (analogue <b>6</b>). It was observed that the presence of an extended ?-conjugated system at C-2 contributed to an increased scavenging effect, since analogue <b>5</b> was more active than <b>6</b>, ?-tocopherol, and <b>4c</b> in the ABTS<sup>•+</sup> assay.
Project description:Listeria monocytogenes isolates belonging to serogroup 4 (subtypes 4a, 4ab, 4b, 4c, 4d, and 4e) exhibit different levels of virulence in mice. Molecular studies indicate that in comparison with the control strain EGD (serotype 1/2a), these strains differ in the expression of the PrfA-regulated virulence genes, including prfA itself. Strains of serotypes 4c, 4d, 4e, and especially 4a show a low level of invasiveness in Caco-2 cells, which correlates in part with the low level of expression of the inlA gene. All serotypes reach the cytoplasm, at the latest, 2 h postinfection and become surrounded by polymerized actin within the next hour, but actin tail formation by serotype 4a, 4c, 4d, and 4e strains is drastically reduced. The actA genes in these serogroup 4 strains are expressed in minimum essential medium and within the phagocytic cell line J774. However, the amounts and (in part) the sizes of the ActA proteins in these strains differ under these conditions. The reduced actin tail formation by serotype 4a, 4c, 4d, and 4e strains may be due to the low level of in vivo expression of ActA. In addition, the loss of one repeat unit in the ActA proteins of serotype 4a and 4e strains may also contribute to the less efficient actin tail formation observed with these strains.
Project description:A series of new sulfonamides have been synthesized from Ampyrone with different benzene sulfonyl chlorides to yield the N-1,5-dimethyl-3-oxo-2-phenyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrazol-4-yl) benzenesulfonamides (4a-e). All synthesized compounds were characterized on the basis of FTIR, 1H NMR, and 13C NMR, and also by the aid of mass spectral data. Further, all synthesized compounds have studied for their in vitro antimicrobial activities against selected bacterial as well as fungal strains by the agar well diffusion method. Free radical scavenging activity has been investigated by using DPPH method. Among all the synthesized compounds, 4b, 4d, and 4e exhibited significant antimicrobial and antioxidant activities.
Project description:The novel 4-substituted 1,2,3-triazole L-ascorbic acid (L-ASA) conjugates with hydroxyethylene spacer as well as their conformationally restricted 4,5-unsaturated analogues were synthesized as potential antioxidant and antiproliferative agents. An evaluation of the antioxidant activity of novel compounds showed that the majority of the 4,5-unsaturated L-ASA derivatives showed a better antioxidant activity compared to their saturated counterparts. m-Hydroxyphenyl (7j), p-pentylphenyl (7k) and 2-hydroxyethyl (7q) substituted 4,5-unsaturated 1,2,3-triazole L-ASA derivatives exhibited very efficient and rapid (within 5 min) 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•) radical scavenging activity (7j, 7k: IC50 = 0.06 mM; 7q: IC50 = 0.07 mM). In vitro scavenging activity data were supported by in silico quantum-chemical modelling. Thermodynamic parameters for hydrogen-atom transfer and electron-transfer radical scavenging pathways of anions deprotonated at C2-OH or C3-OH groups of L-ASA fragments were calculated. The structure activity analysis (SAR) through principal component analysis indicated radical scavenging activity by the participation of OH group with favorable reaction parameters: the C3-OH group of saturated C4-C5(OH) derivatives and the C2-OH group of their unsaturated C4=C5 analogues. The antiproliferative evaluation showed that p-bromophenyl (4e: IC50 = 6.72 μM) and p-pentylphenyl-substituted 1,2,3-triazole L-ASA conjugate (4k: IC50 = 26.91 μM) had a selective cytotoxic effect on breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cells. Moreover, compound 4e did not inhibit the growth of foreskin fibroblasts (IC50 > 100 μM). In MCF-7 cells treated with 4e, a significant increase of hydroxylated hypoxia-inducible transcription factor 1 alpha (HIF-1α) expression and decreased expression of nitric oxide synthase 2 (NOS2) were observed, suggesting the involvement of 4e in the HIF-1α signaling pathway for its strong growth-inhibition effect on MCF-7 cells.
Project description:Oxidative stress is one of the main causes of significant severe diseases. The discovery of new potent antioxidants with high efficiency and low toxicity is a great demand in the field of medicinal chemistry. Herein, we report the design, synthesis molecular modelling and biological evaluation of novel hybrids containing pyrazole, naphthalene and pyrazoline/isoxazoline moiety. Chalcones <b>2a-e</b> were synthesized efficiently and were used as starting materials for synthesis of a variety of heterocycles. A novel series of pyrazoline <b>3a-e</b>, phenylpyrazoline <b>4a-e</b>, isoxazoline <b>5a-e</b> and pyrazoline carbothioamide derivatives <b>6a-e</b> were synthesized and screened for <i>in vitro</i> antioxidant activity using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide radical scavenging assay as well as 15-lipoxygenase (15-LOX) inhibition activity. Compounds <b>3a, 4e, 5b, 5c, 6a, 6c,</b> and <b>6e</b> showed excellent radical scavenging activity in all three methods in comparison with ascorbic acid and 15-LOX inhibition potency using quercetin as standard then were subjected to <i>in vivo</i> study. Catalase (CAT) activity, glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were assayed in liver of treated rats. Compounds <b>5b, 5c,</b> and <b>6e</b> showed significant <i>in vivo</i> antioxidant potentials compared to control group at dose of 100?mg/kg B.W. Molecular docking of compound <b>6a</b> endorsed its proper binding at the active site pocket of the human 15-LOX which explains its potent antioxidant activity in comparison with standard ascorbic acid.
Project description:Uses of polyherbal formulations have played a major role in traditional medicine. The present study is focused on the formulations used in traditional Thai folkloric medicine as tonics or bracers. Twenty documented polyherbal mixtures, used as nourishing tonics by the folk healers in Phatthalung and Songkhla provinces in southern Thailand, are targeted. Despite traditional health claims, there is no scientific evidence to support the utilization of polyherbal formulations.The phenolic and flavonoid contents of the polyherbal formulations and a series of antioxidant tests were applied to measure their capability as preventive or chain-breaking antioxidants. In addition, the cytotoxic activity of effective formulations was assayed in Vero cells.Ninety-eight plant species belonging to 45 families were used to prepare the tested formulation. The preliminary results revealed that water extracts of THP-R016 and THP-R019 contain a high level of total phenolic and flavonoid contents and exhibit remarkable antioxidant activities, as tested by DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assays. The extract of THP-R019 also showed the strongest metal chelating activities, whereas THP-R016 extract possessed notable superoxide anion and peroxyl radical scavenging abilities.The data provide evidence that the water extracts of folkloric polyherbal formulations, particularly THP-R016, are a potential source of natural antioxidants, which will be valuable in the pharmaceutical and nutraceutical industries. The free radical scavenging of THP-R016 may be due to the contribution of phenolic and flavonoid contents. Useful characteristics for the consumer, such as the phytochemical profiles of active ingredients, cellular based antioxidant properties and beneficial effects in vivo, are under further investigation.
Project description:A series of heterocyclic compounds bearing the well-known free radical scavenging 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzyloxy group, was synthesized. The key compound 4-(3,4,5-trimethoxybenzyl-oxy)benzohydrazide was converted into thiosemicarbazide derivatives, which were subsequently cyclized with NaOH to provide 1,2,4-triazole derivatives. Alternative treatment of the acid hydrazide with carbon disulfide in the presence of KOH led to the corresponding 1,3,4-oxadiazole and various alkylated derivatives. The newly synthesized compounds were purified and the structures of the products were elucidated and confirmed on the basis of their analytical and spectral data. Their antioxidant activities were evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH(•)) and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) assays. The thiosemicarbazide derivatives were highly active in both antioxidant assays with the lowest IC50 value for DPPH radical scavenging. Theoretical calculations based on density functional theory (DFT) were performed to understand the relative importance of NH, SH and CH hydrogens on the radical scavenging activities of these compounds.
Project description:1, 3, 4-Oxadiazole derivatives (4a-5f) were previously synthesized to investigate their anticancer properties. However, studies relating to their antioxidant potential and signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) inhibition have not been performed. We investigated previously synthesized 1, 3, 4-oxadiazole derivatives (4a-5f) for various radical scavenging properties using several in vitro antioxidant assays and also for direct inhibition of STAT3 through molecular docking. The data obtained from various antioxidant assays such as 2, 2,-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH), nitric oxide, hydrogen peroxide, and superoxide anion radical revealed that among all the derivatives, compound 5e displayed high antioxidant activities than the standard antioxidant L-ascorbic acid. Additionally, the total reduction assay and antioxidant capacity assay further confirmed the antioxidant potential of compound 5e. Furthermore, the molecular docking studies performed for all derivatives along with the standard inhibitor STX-0119 showed that binding energy released in direct binding with the SH2 domain of STAT3 was the highest for compound 5e (-9.91kcal/mol). Through virtual screening, compound 5e was found to exhibit optimum competency in inhibiting STAT3 activity. Compound 5e decreased the activation of STAT3 as observed with Western blot. In brief, compound 5e was identified as a potent antioxidant agent and STAT3 inhibitor and effective agent for cancer treatment.
Project description:The objective was to determine the cytochrome P450s (CYPs) responsible for the stereoselective and regiospecific hydroxylation of ketamine [(R,S)-Ket] to diastereomeric hydroxyketamines, (2S,6S;2R,6R)-HK (5a) and (2S,6R;2R,6S)-HK (5b) and norketamine [(R,S)-norKet] to hydroxynorketamines, (2S,6S;2R,6R)-HNK (4a), (2S,6R;2R,6S)-HNK (4b), (2S,5S;2R,5R)-HNK (4c), (2S,4S;2R,4R)-HNK (4d), (2S,4R;2R,4S)-HNK (4e), (2S,5R;2R,5S)-HNK (4f). The enantiomers of Ket and norKet were incubated with characterized human liver microsomes (HLMs) and expressed CYPs. Metabolites were identified and quantified using LC/MS/MS and apparent kinetic constants estimated using single-site Michaelis-Menten, Hill or substrate inhibition equation. 5a was predominantly formed from (S)-Ket by CYP2A6 and N-demethylated to 4a by CYP2B6. 5b was formed from (R)- and (S)-Ket by CYP3A4/3A5 and N-demethylated to 4b by multiple enzymes. norKet incubation produced 4a, 4c and 4f and minor amounts of 4d and 4e. CYP2A6 and CYP2B6 were the major enzymes responsible for the formation of 4a, 4d and 4f, and CYP3A4/3A5 for the formation of 4e. The 4b metabolite was not detected in the norKet incubates. 5a and 4b were detected in plasma samples from patients receiving (R,S)-Ket, indicating that 5a and 5b are significant Ket metabolites. Large variations in HNK concentrations were observed suggesting that pharmacogenetics and/or metabolic drug interactions may play a role in therapeutic response.