Development and validation of an immune-related gene pairs signature in colorectal cancer.
ABSTRACT: Although the outcome of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients has improved significantly with the recent implementation of annual screening programs, reliable prognostic biomarkers are still needed due to the disease heterogeneity. Increasing pieces of evidence revealed an association between immune signature and CRC prognosis. Thus, we aim to build a robust immune-related gene pairs (IRGPs) signature that can estimate prognosis for CRC. Gene expression profiles and clinical information of CRC patients were collected from six public cohorts, divided into training cohort (n = 565) and five independent validation cohorts (n = 572, 290, 90 177 and 68, respectively). Within 1534 immune genes, a 19 IRGPs signature consisting of 36 unique genes was constructed which was significantly associated with the survival. In the validation cohorts, the IRGPs signature significantly stratified patients into high- vs low-risk groups in terms of prognosis across and within subpopulations with early stages disease and was prognostic in univariate and multivariate analyses. Several biological processes, including response to bacterium, were enriched among genes in the IRGPs signature. Macrophage M2 and mast cells were significantly higher in the high-risk risk group compared with the low-risk group. The IRGPs signature achieved a higher accuracy than commercialized multigene signatures for estimation of survival. When integrated with clinical factors such as sex and stage, the composite clinical and IRGPs signature showed improved prognostic accuracy relative to IRGPs signatures alone. In short, we developed a robust IRGPs signature for estimating prognosis in CRC, including early-stage disease, providing new insights into the identification of CRC patients with a high risk of mortality.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Melanoma is rare but dangerous skin cancer, and it can spread rather quickly in the advanced stages of the tumor. Abundant evidence suggests the relationship between tumor development and progression and the immune system. A robust gene risk model could provide an accurate prediction of clinical outcomes. The present study aimed to explore a robust signature of immune-related gene pairs (IRGPs) for estimating overall survival (OS) in malignant melanoma. METHODS:Clinical and genetic data of skin cutaneous melanoma (SKCM) patients from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) was performed as a training dataset to identify candidate IRGPs for the prognosis of melanoma. Two independent datasets from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database (GSE65904) and TCGA dataset (TCGA-UVM) were selected for external validation. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses were then performed to explore the prognostic power of the IRGPs signature and other clinical factors. CIBERSORTx was applied to estimate the fractions of infiltrated immune cells in bulk tumor tissues. RESULTS:A signature consisted of 33 IRGPs was established which was significantly associated with patients' survival in the TCGA-SKCM dataset (P = 2.0×10-16, Hazard Ratio (HR) = 4.220 (2.909 to 6.122)). We found the IRGPs signature exhibited an independent prognostic factor in all the three independent cohorts in both the univariate and multivariate Cox analysis (P<0.01). The prognostic efficacy of the signature remained unaffected regardless of whether BRAF or NRAS was mutated. As expected, the results were verified in the GSE65904 dataset and the TCGA-UVM dataset. We found an apparent shorter OS in patients of the high-risk group in the GSE65904 dataset (P = 2.1×10-3; HR = 1.988 (1.309 to 3.020)). The trend in the results of the survival analysis in TCGA-UVM was as we expected, but the result was not statistically significant (P = 0.117, HR = 4.263 (1.407 to 12.91)). CD8 T cells, activated dendritic cells (DCs), regulatory T cells (Tregs), and activated CD4 memory T cells presented a significantly lower fraction in the high-risk group in the TCGA-SKCM dataset(P <0.01). CONCLUSION:The results of the present study support the IRGPs signature as a promising marker for prognosis prediction in melanoma.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Immune-related genes is closely related to the occurrence and prognosis of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). At the same time, immune-related genes have great potential as prognostic markers in many types of cancer. The prognosis of HNSCC is still poor currently, and it may be effective to predict the clinical outcome of HNSCC by immunogenic analysis.<h4>Methods</h4>RNASeq and clinical follow-up information were downloaded from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), the MINiML format GSE65858 chip expression data was downloaded from NCBI, and immune-related genes was downloaded from the InnateDB database. Immune-related genes in 519 HNSC patients were integrated from TCGA dataset. By using multivariate COX analysis and Lasso regression, robust immune-related gene pairs (IRGPs) that predict clinical outcomes of HNSCC were identified. Finally, a risk prognostic model related to immune gene pair was established and verified by clinical features, test sets and GEO external validation set.<h4>Results</h4>A total of 699 IRGPs were significantly correlated with the prognosis of HNSCC patients. Fourteen robust IRGPs were finally obtained by Lasso regression and a prognostic risk prediction model was constructed. Risk score of each sample were calculated based on Risk models and divided into the high-risk group (Risk-H) and low Risk group (Risk-L). Risk models were able to stratify the risk in patients with TNM Stage, Age, gender, and smoking history, and the AUC > 0.65 in training set and test set, shows that 14-IRGPs signature in patients with HNSCC has excellent classification performance. In addition, 14-IRGPs had the highest average C index compared with the prognostic characteristics and T, N, and Age of the 3 previously reported HNSCC.<h4>Conclusion</h4>This study constructed 14-IRGPs as a novel prognostic marker for predicting survival in HNSCC patients.
Project description:In this study, we aimed to identify an immune-related signature for predicting prognosis in cutaneous melanoma (CM). Sample data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA; n = 460) were used to develop a prognostic signature with 23 immune-related gene pairs (23 IRGPs) for CM. Patients were divided into high- and low-risk groups using the TCGA and validation datasets GSE65904 (n = 214), GSE59455 (n = 141), and GSE22153 (n = 79). The ability of the 23-IRGP signature to predict CM was precise, with the stratified high-risk groups showing a poor prognosis, and it had a significant predictive power when used for immune microenvironment and biological analyses. We subsequently established a novel promising prognostic model in CM to determine the association between the immune microenvironment and CM patient results. This approach may be used to discover signatures in other diseases while avoiding the technical biases associated with other platforms.
Project description:Colorectal cancer (CRC) is highly heterogeneous leading to variable prognosis and treatment responses. Therefore, it is necessary to explore novel personalized and reproducible prognostic signatures to aid clinical decision-making. The present study combined large-scale gene expression profiles and clinical data of 1828 patients with CRC from multi-centre studies and identified a personalized gene prognostic signature consisting of 46 unique genes (called function-derived personalized gene signature [FunPGS]) from an integrated statistics and function-derived perspective. In the meta-training and multiple independent validation cohorts, the FunPGS effectively discriminated patients with CRC with significantly different prognosis at the individual level and remained as an independent factor upon adjusting for clinical covariates in multivariate analysis. Furthermore, the FunPGS demonstrated superior performance for risk stratification with respect to other recently reported signatures and clinical factors. The complementary value of the molecular signature and clinical factors was further explored, and it was observed that the composite signature called IMCPS greatly improved the predictive performance of survival estimation relative to molecular signatures or clinical factors alone. With further prospective validation in clinical trials, the FunPGS may become a promising and powerful personalized prognostic tool for stratifying patients with CRC in order to achieve an optimal systemic therapy.
Project description:Immune-related genes (IRGs) have been identified as critical drivers of the initiation and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This study is aimed at constructing an IRG signature for HCC and validating its prognostic value in clinical application. The prognostic signature was developed by integrating multiple IRG expression data sets from TCGA and GEO databases. The IRGs were then combined with clinical features to validate the robustness of the prognostic signature through bioinformatics tools. A total of 1039 IRGs were identified in the 657 HCC samples. Subsequently, the IRGs were subjected to univariate Cox regression and LASSO Cox regression analyses in the training set to construct an IRG signature comprising nine immune-related gene pairs (IRGPs). Functional analyses revealed that the nine IRGPs were associated with tumor immune mechanisms, including cell proliferation, cell-mediated immunity, and tumorigenesis signal pathway. Concerning the overall survival rate, the IRGPs distinctly grouped the HCC samples into the high- and low-risk groups. Also, we found that the risk score based on nine IRGPs was related to clinical and pathologic factors and remained a valid independent prognostic signature after adjusting for tumor TNM, grade, and grade in multivariate Cox regression analyses. The prognostic value of the nine IRGPs was further validated by forest and nomogram plots, which revealed that it was superior to the tumor TNM, grade, and stage. Our findings suggest that the nine-IRGP signature can be effective in determining the disease outcomes of HCC patients.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Our laboratory previously reported an individual-level prognostic signature for patients with stage II colorectal cancer (CRC). However, this signature was not applicable for RNA-sequencing datasets. In this study, we constructed a robust epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT)- related gene pair prognostic signature. METHODS:Based on EMT-related genes, metastasis-associated gene pairs were identified between metastatic and non-metastatic samples. Then, we selected prognosis-associated gene pairs, which were significantly correlated with disease-free survival of stage II CRC using multivariate Cox regression model, as the EMT-related prognosis signature. RESULTS:An EMT-related signature composed of fifty-one gene pairs (51-GPS) for prediction-relapse risk of patients with stage II CRC was developed, whose prognostic efficiency was validated in independent datasets. Moreover, 51-GPS achieved better predictive performance than other reported signatures, including a commercial signature Oncotype Dx colon cancer and an immune-related gene pair signature. Besides, EMT-related functional gene sets achieved high enrichment scores in high-risk samples. Especially, loss-of-function antisense approach showed that DEGs between the predicted two clusters were metastasis-related. CONCLUSIONS:The EMT-related gene pair signature can identify the high relapse-risk patients with stage II CRC, which can facilitate individualised management of patients.
Project description:Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third leading cause of global cancer mortality. Recent studies have proposed several gene signatures to predict CRC prognosis, but none of those have proven reliable for predicting prognosis in clinical practice yet due to poor reproducibility and molecular heterogeneity. Here, we have established a prognostic signature of 113 probe sets (CRC-113) that include potential biomarkers and reflect the biological and clinical characteristics. Robustness and accuracy were significantly validated in external data sets from 19 centers in five countries. In multivariate analysis, CRC-113 gene signature showed a stronger prognostic value for survival and disease recurrence in CRC patients than current clinicopathological risk factors and molecular alterations. We also demonstrated that the CRC-113 gene signature reflected both genetic and epigenetic molecular heterogeneity in CRC patients. Furthermore, incorporation of the CRC-113 gene signature into a clinical context and molecular markers further refined the selection of the CRC patients who might benefit from postoperative chemotherapy. Conclusively, CRC-113 gene signature provides new possibilities for improving prognostic models and personalized therapeutic strategies.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4> Some colorectal adenocarcinoma (CRC) patients are susceptible to recurrence, and they rapidly progress to advanced cancer stages and have a poor prognosis. There is an urgent need for efficient screening criteria to identify patients who tend to relapse in order to treat them earlier and more systematically. <h4>Methods</h4> We identified two groups of patients with significantly different outcomes by unsupervised cluster analysis of GSE39582 based on 101 significantly differentially expressed immune genes. To develop an accurate and specific signature based on immune-related genes to predict the recurrence of CRC, a multivariate Cox risk regression model was constructed with a training cohort composed of 519 CRC samples. The model was then validated using 129, 292, and 446 samples in the real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR), test, and validation cohorts, respectively. <h4>Results</h4> This classification system can also be used to predict the prognosis in clinical subgroups and patients with different mutation states. Four independent datasets, including qRT-PCR and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), demonstrated that they can also be used to accurately predict the overall survival of CRC patients. Further analysis suggested that high-risk patients were characterized by worse effects of chemotherapy and immunotherapy, as well as lower immune scores. Ultimately, the signature was identified as an independent prognostic factor. <h4>Conclusion</h4> The signature can accurately predict recurrence and overall survival in patients with CRC and may serve as a powerful prognostic tool to further optimize cancer immunotherapy.
Project description:Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is the most common and highly malignant pathological type of kidney cancer. We sought to establish a metabolic signature to improve post-operative risk stratification and identify novel targets in the prediction models for ccRCC patients. A total of 58 metabolic differential expressed genes (MDEGs) were identified with significant prognostic value. LASSO regression analysis constructed 20-mRNA signatures models, metabolic prediction models (MPMs), in ccRCC patients from two cohorts. Risk score of MPMs significantly predicts prognosis for ccRCC patients in TCGA (P < 0.001, HR = 3.131, AUC = 0.768) and CPTAC cohorts (P = 0.046, HR = 2.893, AUC = 0.777). In addition, G6PC, a hub gene in PPI network of MPMs, shows significantly prognostic value in 718 ccRCC patients from multiply cohorts. Next, G6Pase was detected high expressed in normal kidney tissues than ccRCC tissues. It suggested that low G6Pase expression significantly correlated with poor prognosis (P < 0.0001, HR = 0.316) and aggressive progression (P < 0.0001, HR = 0.414) in 322 ccRCC patients from FUSCC cohort. Meanwhile, promoter methylation level of G6PC was significantly higher in ccRCC samples with aggressive progression status. G6PC significantly participates in abnormal immune infiltration of ccRCC microenvironment, showing significantly negative association with check-point immune signatures, dendritic cells, Th1 cells, etc. In conclusion, this study first provided the opportunity to comprehensively elucidate the prognostic MDEGs landscape, established novel prognostic model MPMs using large-scale ccRCC transcriptome data and identified G6PC as potential prognostic target in 1,040 ccRCC patients from multiply cohorts. These finding could assist in managing risk assessment and shed valuable insights into treatment strategies of ccRCC.
Project description:Several studies have reported gene expression signatures that predict recurrence risk in stage II and III colorectal cancer (CRC) patients with minimal gene membership overlap and undefined biological relevance. The goal of this study was to investigate biological themes underlying these signatures, to infer genes of potential mechanistic importance to the CRC recurrence phenotype and to test whether accurate prognostic models can be developed using mechanistically important genes.We investigated eight published CRC gene expression signatures and found no functional convergence in Gene Ontology enrichment analysis. Using a random walk-based approach, we integrated these signatures and publicly available somatic mutation data on a protein-protein interaction network and inferred 487 genes that were plausible candidate molecular underpinnings for the CRC recurrence phenotype. We named the list of 487 genes a NEM signature because it integrated information from Network, Expression, and Mutation. The signature showed significant enrichment in four biological processes closely related to cancer pathophysiology and provided good coverage of known oncogenes, tumor suppressors, and CRC-related signaling pathways. A NEM signature-based Survival Support Vector Machine prognostic model was trained using a microarray gene expression dataset and tested on an independent dataset. The model-based scores showed a 75.7% concordance with the real survival data and separated patients into two groups with significantly different relapse-free survival (p?=?0.002). Similar results were obtained with reversed training and testing datasets (p?=?0.007). Furthermore, adjuvant chemotherapy was significantly associated with prolonged survival of the high-risk patients (p?=?0.006), but not beneficial to the low-risk patients (p?=?0.491).The NEM signature not only reflects CRC biology but also informs patient prognosis and treatment response. Thus, the network-based data integration method provides a convergence between biological relevance and clinical usefulness in gene signature development.