A genome-wide association study reveals specific transferases as candidate loci for bovine milk oligosaccharides synthesis.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Human milk oligosaccharides (OS) play a key role in brain and gut microbiota development of the neonate, but the underlying biosynthetic steps of OS in the mammary gland are still largely unknown. As bovine milk contains OS with somewhat similar structures and functionalities there is increased interest in further understanding the genetic basis underlying the OS content of milk for eventual extraction and generation of value-added ingredients for infant formulas and nutraceuticals. The present study is the first to report on genetic parameter estimation as well as on a genome wide association study (GWAS) from the largest bovine milk OS dataset analyzed to date. RESULTS:In total 15 different bovine milk OS were monitored. Heritabilities ranged from 0 to 0.68 in Danish Holstein and from 0 to 0.92 in Danish Jersey. The GWAS identified in total 1770 SNPs (FDR?
Project description:The milk fat profile of the Danish Holstein (DH) and Danish Jersey (DJ) show clear differences. Identification of the genomic regions, genes and biological pathways underlying the milk fat biosynthesis will improve the understanding of the biology underlying bovine milk fat production and may provide new possibilities to change the milk fat composition by selective breeding. In this study a genome wide association scan (GWAS) in the DH and DJ was performed for a detailed milk fatty acid (FA) profile using the HD bovine SNP array and subsequently a biological pathway analysis based on the SNP data was performed.The GWAS identified in total 1,233 SNPs (FDR < 0.10) spread over 18 chromosomes for nine different FA traits for the DH breed and 1,122 SNPs (FDR < 0.10) spread over 26 chromosomes for 13 different FA traits were detected for the DJ breed. Of these significant SNPs, 108 SNP markers were significant in both DH and DJ (C14-index, BTA26; C16, BTA14; fat percentage (FP), BTA14). This was supported by an enrichment test. The QTL on BTA14 and BTA26 represented the known candidate genes DGAT and SCD. In addition we suggest ACSS3 to be a good candidate gene for the QTL on BTA5 for C10:0 and C15:0. In addition, genetic correlations between the FA traits within breed showed large similarity across breeds. Furthermore, the biological pathway analysis revealed that fat digestion and absorption (KEGG04975) plays a role for the traits FP, C14:1, C16 index and C16:1.There was a clear similarity between the underlying genetics of FA in the milk between DH and DJ. This was supported by the fact that there was substantial overlap between SNPs for FP, C14 index, C14:1, C16 index and C16:1. In addition genetic correlations between FA showed a similar pattern across DH and DJ. Furthermore the biological pathway analysis suggested that fat digestion and absorption KEGG04975 is important for the traits FP, C14:1, C16 index and C16:1.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Infrared spectral analysis of milk is cheap, fast, and accurate. Infrared light interacts with chemical bonds present inside the milk, which means that Fourier transform infrared milk spectra are a reflection of the chemical composition of milk. Heritability of Fourier transform infrared milk spectra has been analysed previously. Further genetic analysis of Fourier transform infrared milk spectra could give us a better insight in the genes underlying milk composition. Breed influences milk composition, yet not much is known about the effect of breed on Fourier transform infrared milk spectra. Improved understanding of the effect of breed on Fourier transform infrared milk spectra could enhance efficient application of Fourier transform infrared milk spectra. The aim of this study is to perform a genome wide association study on a selection of wavenumbers for Danish Holstein and Danish Jersey. This will improve our understanding of the genetics underlying milk composition in these two dairy cattle breeds. RESULTS:For each breed separately, fifteen wavenumbers were analysed. Overall, more quantitative trait loci were observed for Danish Jersey compared to Danish Holstein. For both breeds, the majority of the wavenumbers was most strongly associated to a genomic region on BTA 14 harbouring DGAT1. Furthermore, for both breeds most quantitative trait loci were observed for wavenumbers that interact with the chemical bond C-O. For Danish Jersey, wavenumbers that interact with C-H were associated to genes that are involved in fatty acid synthesis, such as AGPAT3, AGPAT6, PPARGC1A, SREBF1, and FADS1. For wavenumbers which interact with -OH, associations were observed to genomic regions that have been linked to alpha-lactalbumin. CONCLUSIONS:The current study identified many quantitative trait loci that underlie Fourier transform infrared milk spectra, and thus milk composition. Differences were observed between groups of wavenumbers that interact with different chemical bonds. Both overlapping and different QTL were observed for Danish Holstein and Danish Jersey.
Project description:Free oligosaccharides are key components of human milk and play multiple roles in the health of the neonate, by stimulating growth of selected beneficial bacteria in the gut, participating in development of the brain, and exerting antipathogenic activity. However, the concentration of oligosaccharides is low in mature bovine milk, normally used for infant formula, compared with both human colostrum and mature human milk. Characterization of bovine milk oligosaccharides in different breeds is crucial for the identification of viable sources for oligosaccharide purification. An improved source of oligosaccharides can lead to infant formula with improved oligosaccharide functionality. In the present study we have analyzed milk oligosaccharides by high-performance liquid chromatography chip quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry and performed a detailed data analysis using both univariate and multivariate methods. Both statistical tools revealed several differences in oligosaccharide profiles between milk samples from the two Danish breeds, Jersey and Holstein-Friesians. Jersey milk contained higher relative amounts of both sialylated and the more complex neutral fucosylated oligosaccharides, while the Holstein-Friesian milk had higher abundance of smaller and simpler neutral oligosaccharides. The statistical analyses revealed that Jersey milk contains levels of fucosylated oligosaccharides significantly higher than that of Holstein-Friesian milk. Jersey milk also possesses oligosaccharides with a higher degree of complexity and functional residues (fucose and sialic acid), suggesting it may therefore offer advantages in term of a wider array of bioactivities.
Project description:Human milk contains abundant oligosaccharides (OS) which are believed to have strong health benefits for neonates. OS are a minor component of bovine milk and little is known about how the production of OS is regulated in the bovine mammary gland. We have measured the abundance of 12 major OS in milk of 360 cows, which had high density SNP marker genotypes. Most of the OS were found to be highly heritable (h<sup>2</sup> between 50 and 84%). A genome-wide association study allowed us to fine-map several QTL and identify candidate genes with major effects on five OS. Among them, a putative causal mutation close to the ABO gene on Chromosome 11 accounted for approximately 80% of genetic variance for two OS, N-acetylgalactosaminyllactose and lacto-N-neotetraose. This mutation lies very close to a variant associated with the expression levels of ABO. A third QTL mapped close to ST3GAL6 on Chromosome 1 explaining 33% of genetic variation of an abundant OS, 3'-sialyllactose. The presence of major gene effects suggests that targeted marker-assisted selection would lead to a significant increase in the level of these OS in milk. This is the first attempt to map candidate genes and causal mutations for bovine milk OS.
Project description:BackgroundResearch on loci influencing milk production traits of dairy cattle is one of the main topics of investigation in livestock. Many genomic regions and polymorphisms associated with dairy production have been reported worldwide. In this context, the purpose of this study was to identify candidate loci associated with milk yield in Argentinean dairy cattle. A database of candidate genes and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for milk production and composition was developed. Thirty-nine SNPs belonging to 22 candidate genes were genotyped on 1643 animals (Holstein and Holstein x Jersey). The genotypes obtained were subjected to association studies considering the whole population and discriminating the population by Holstein breed percentage. Phenotypic data consisted of milk production values recorded during the first lactation of 1156 Holstein and 462 Holstein x Jersey cows from 18 dairy farms located in the central dairy area of Argentina. From these records, 305-day cumulative milk production values were predicted.ResultsEight SNPs (rs43375517, rs29004488, rs132812135, rs137651874, rs109191047, rs135164815, rs43706485, and rs41255693), located on six Bos taurus autosomes (BTA4, BTA6, BTA19, BTA20, BTA22, and BTA26), showed suggestive associations with 305-day cumulative milk production (under Benjamini-Hochberg procedure with a false discovery rate of 0.1). Two of those SNPs (rs43375517 and rs135164815) were significantly associated with milk production (Bonferroni adjusted p-values <?0.05) when considering the Holstein population.ConclusionsThe results obtained are consistent with previously reported associations in other Holstein populations. Furthermore, the SNPs found to influence bovine milk production in this study may be used as possible candidate SNPs for marker-assisted selection programs in Argentinean dairy cattle.Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article (10.1186/s40781-018-0189-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Project description:The aim of this study was to determine a genetic basis for IgA concentration in milk of Bos taurus. We used a Holstein-Friesian x Jersey F2 crossbred pedigree to undertake a genome-wide search for QTL influencing IgA concentration and yield in colostrum and milk. We identified a single genome-wide significant QTL on chromosome 16, maximising at 4.8 Mbp. The polymeric immunoglobulin receptor gene (PIGR) was within the confidence interval of the QTL. In addition, mRNA expression analysis revealed a liver PIGR expression QTL mapping to the same locus as the IgA quantitative trait locus. Sequencing and subsequent genotyping of the PIGR gene revealed three divergent haplotypes that explained the variance of both the IgA QTL and the PIGR expression QTL. Genetic selection based on these markers will facilitate the production of bovine herds producing milk with higher concentrations of IgA.
Project description:Milk oligosaccharides (OS) are a key factor that influences the infant gut microbial composition, and their importance in promoting healthy infant development and disease prevention is becoming increasingly apparent. Investigating the structures, properties, and sources of these compounds requires a host of complementary analytical techniques. Relative compound quantification by mass spectral analysis of isobarically labeled samples is a relatively new technique that has been used mainly in the proteomics field. Glycomics applications have so far focused on analysis of protein-linked glycans, while analysis of free milk OS has previously been conducted only on analytical standards. In this paper, we extend the use of isobaric glycan tags to the analysis of bovine milk OS by presenting a method for separation of labeled OS on a porous graphitized carbon liquid chromatographic column with subsequent analysis by quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry. Abundances for 15 OS extracted from mature bovine milk were measured, with replicate injections providing coefficients of variation below 15% for most OS. Isobaric labeling improved ionization efficiency for low-abundance, high-molecular weight fucosylated OS, which are known to exist in bovine milk but have been only sporadically reported in the literature. We compared the abundances of four fucosylated OS in milk from Holstein and Jersey cattle and found that three of the compounds were more abundant in Jersey milk, which is in general agreement with a previous study. This novel method represents an advancement in our ability to characterize milk OS and provides the advantages associated with isobaric labeling, including reduced instrumental analysis time and increased analyte ionization efficiency. This improved ability to measure differences in bioactive OS abundances in large datasets will facilitate exploration of OS from all food sources for the purpose of developing health-guiding products for infants, immune-compromised elderly, and the population at large.
Project description:In the Western world bovine milk products are an important protein source in human diet. The major proteins in bovine milk are the four caseins (CN), ?S1-, ?S2-, ?-, and k-CN and the two whey proteins, ?-LG and ?-LA. It has been shown that both the amount of specific CN and their isoforms including post-translational modifications (PTM) influence technological properties of milk. Therefore, the aim of this study was to 1) estimate genetic parameters for individual proteins in Danish Holstein (DH) (n?=?371) and Danish Jersey (DJ) (n?=?321) milk, and 2) detect genomic regions associated with specific milk protein and their different PTM forms using a genome-wide association study (GWAS) approach.For DH, high heritability estimates were found for protein percentage (0.47), casein percentage (0.43), k-CN (0.77), ?-LG (0.58), and ?-LA (0.40). For DJ, high heritability estimates were found for protein percentage (0.70), casein percentage (0.52), and ?-LA (0.44). The heritability for G-k-CN, U-k-CN and GD was higher in the DH compared to the DJ, whereas the heritability for the PD of ?S1-CN was lower in DH compared to DJ, whereas the PD for ?S2-CN was higher in DH compared to DJ. The GWAS results for the main milk proteins were in line what has been earlier published. However, we showed that there were SNPs specifically regulating G-k-CN in DH. Some of these SNPs were assigned to casein protein kinase genes (CSNK1G3, PRKCQ).The genetic analysis of the major milk proteins and their PTM forms revealed that these were heritable in both DH and DJ. In DH, genomic regions specific for glycosylation of k-CN were detected. Furthermore, genomic regions for the major milk proteins confirmed the regions on BTA6 (casein cluster), BTA11 (PEAP), and BTA14 (DGAT1) as important regions influencing protein composition in milk. The results from this study provide confidence that it is possible to breed for specific milk protein including the different PTM forms.
Project description:Bovine milk provides important minerals, essential for human nutrition and dairy product quality. For changing the mineral composition of the milk to improve dietary needs in human nutrition and technological properties of milk, a thorough understanding of the genetics underlying milk mineral contents is important. Therefore the aim of this study was to 1) estimate the genetic parameters for individual minerals in Danish Holstein (DH) (n=371) and Danish Jersey (DJ) (n=321) milk, and 2) detect genomic regions associated with mineral content in the milk using a genome-wide association study (GWAS) approach.For DH, high heritabilities were found for Ca (0.72), Zn (0.49), and P (0.46), while for DJ, high heritabilities were found for Ca (0.63), Zn (0.57), and Mg (0.57). Furthermore, intermediate heritabilities were found for Cu in DH, and for K, Na, P and Se in the DJ. The GWAS revealed a total of 649 significant SNP markers detected for Ca (24), Cu (90), Fe (111), Mn (3), Na (1), P (4), Se (12) and Zn (404) in DH, while for DJ, a total of 787 significant SNP markers were detected for Ca (44), Fe (43), K (498), Na (4), Mg (1), P (94) and Zn (3). Comparing the list of significant markers between DH and DJ revealed that the SNP ARS-BFGL-NGS-4939 was common in both breeds for Zn. This SNP marker is closely linked to the DGAT1 gene. Even though we found significant SNP markers on BTA14 in both DH and DJ for Ca, and Fe these significant SNPs did not overlap.The results show that Ca, Zn, P and Mg show high heritabilities. In combination with the GWAS results this opens up possibilities to select for specific minerals in bovine milk.
Project description:Free milk oligosaccharides are bioactive molecules that function as prebiotics and prevent infections that commonly afflict developing infants. To date, few publications have examined the factors affecting bovine milk oligosaccharide production among cattle in the dairy industry. Here we have applied a high-throughput isobaric labeling technique to measure oligosaccharide abundances in milk collected from Danish Holstein-Friesian and Jersey dairy cattle by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. With a total of 634 milk samples, this collection represents the largest sample set used for milk oligosaccharide profiling in the current literature. This study is also the first to use isobaric labeling for the purpose of measuring free oligosaccharides in a real sample set. We have identified 13 oligosaccharides that vary significantly by breed, with most structures being more abundant in the milk of Jersey cattle. The abundances of several oligosaccharides were increased in second-parity cows, and correlations between the abundances of oligosaccharide pairs were identified, potentially indicating similarities in their synthetic pathways. Fucosylated oligosaccharide structures were widely identified among both breeds. Improving our understanding of oligosaccharide production will aid in developing strategies to recover these compounds from processing streams and may enable their use as a functional ingredient in foods for infants and adults.