Urinary concentrations of benzophenone-3 and reproductive outcomes among women undergoing infertility treatment with assisted reproductive technologies.
ABSTRACT: Benzophenone-3 is used in a variety of cosmetic products as a sunscreen, and has shown weak estrogenic and antiandrogenic activity in animal and in vitro studies. Few studies have evaluated whether benzophenone-3 is associated with reproductive outcomes among women. We studied 304 women undergoing infertility treatment (2007-2017) in the prospective Environment and Reproductive Health cohort study and who underwent 449 treatment cycles (n?=?788 urines). Generalized linear mixed models were used with random intercepts to account for multiple cycles, and adjusting for confounders including physical activity. Analyses were also stratified by self-reported moderate/heavy outdoor work. The cycle-specific median (IQR) urinary benzophenone-3 concentration was 147 (58, 462) ?g/L, and 98% samples had detectable concentrations. Self-reported sunscreen use, physical activity, and time spent on moderate/heavy outdoor work were positively associated with urinary benzophenone-3. Adjusted probabilities of implantation, clinical pregnancy and live birth were higher in increasing quartiles of benzophenone-3, but these associations were restricted to women who reported spending time outdoors performing moderate/heavy work. Specifically, among these women, those in the highest quartile of benzophenone-3 concentrations had 51% higher implantation (p,trend?=?0.02), 68% higher clinical pregnancy (p,trend?=?0.01) and 75% higher live birth (p,trend?=?0.02) adjusted probabilities than women in the lowest quartile. Benzophenone-3 was unrelated to these outcomes among women who did not report doing moderate/heavy work outdoors. These results confirm that sunscreen use is a source of benzophenone-3 exposure, and show positive associations between benzophenone-3 and pregnancy outcomes, especially among women who reported engaging in outdoor work. Since these associations may be subject to important residual confounding by lifestyle factors, further research is needed to confirm these novel results in other populations, and to investigate whether other factors may be affecting the relation of benzophenone-3 with fertility and other health outcomes.
Project description:Background:Vitamin D deficiency is common among women of reproductive age (WRA) in Bangladesh, but the causes remain unclear. Objective:To explain the high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in WRA in Dhaka, Bangladesh, we compared the vitamin D status of pregnant women with that of their husbands and between pregnant and nonpregnant states. Methods:This study was an observational substudy of the Maternal Vitamin D for Infant Growth trial conducted in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Women (n = 1300) were enrolled in the second trimester of pregnancy and randomly assigned to 1 of 5 arms consisting of different doses of vitamin D supplements or placebo, with 1 arm continuing supplementation until 6 mo postpartum. A subgroup of trial participants and their husbands with plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration measurements (n = 84), and placebo-group trial participants with serum 25(OH)D measured in the second trimester of pregnancy and 6 mo postpartum (n = 89) were studied using linear mixed-effects regression models. Results:The mean ± SD plasma 25(OH)D in pregnant women in the second trimester was 23 ± 11 nmol/L. Adjusting for age and season, 25(OH)D of pregnant women was 30 nmol/L lower (95% CI: -36, -25 nmol/L) than that of men. Only 9% of total variance in 25(OH)D was explained by factors shared by spousal pairs. Selected nonshared factors (BMI, time spent outdoors, involvement in an outdoor job, sunscreen use) did not explain the association of sex with 25(OH)D. Adjusting for age, season, and BMI, 25(OH)D was similar during pregnancy and 6 mo postpartum (mean difference: -2.4 nmol/L; 95% CI: -5.3, 0.4 nmol/L). Conclusions:In Dhaka, WRA have substantially poorer vitamin D status than men. Variation in 25(OH)D is not greatly influenced by determinants shared by spouses. Measured nonshared characteristics or pregnancy did not account for the gender differential in 25(OH)D. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01924013.
Project description:To evaluate the association of work schedule and physical factors with fecundity.Women currently employed outside the home and trying to get pregnant (n=1739) in the Nurses' Health Study 3 cohort (2010-2014) were included in this analysis. Work schedule and physical labour were self-reported on the baseline questionnaire, and every 6?months thereafter the women reported the duration of their ongoing pregnancy attempt. Multivariable accelerated failure time models were used to estimate time ratios (TR) and 95% CIs.Among the 1739 women (median age=33?years, 93% Caucasian) the estimated proportions of women not pregnant after 12 and 24?months were 16% and 5%, respectively. None of the various shift work patterns were associated with duration of pregnancy attempt (as a surrogate for fecundity). However, women working >40?h/week had a 20% (95% CI 7 to 35%) longer median duration of pregnancy attempt compared to women working 21-40?h/week (p-trend=0.005). Women whose work entailed heavy lifting or moving (ie, 25+ pounds) >15 times/day also had a longer median duration of pregnancy attempt (adjusted TR=1.49; 95% CI 1.20 to 1.85) compared to women who never lifted or moved heavy loads (p-trend=0.002). The association between heavy moving and lifting and duration of pregnancy attempt was more pronounced among overweight or obese women (body mass index, BMI<25: TR=1.17; 95% CI 0.88 to 1.56; BMI?25: TR=2.03, 95% CI 1.48 to 2.79; p-interaction=0.007).Working greater than 40?h per week and greater frequency of lifting or moving a heavy load were associated with reduced fecundity in a cohort of nurses planning pregnancy.
Project description:Personal care product use is a well-established pathway of exposure for notable endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs), including phthalates, parabens, triclosan, benzophenone-3 (BP3), and bisphenol-A. We utilized questionnaire data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009-2012 cycles to examine the associations between use of sunscreen and mouthwash and urinary concentrations of phthalate metabolites and phenols in a nationally representative population of US adults (n=3529). Compared with individuals who reported "Never" using mouthwash, individuals who reported daily use had significantly elevated urinary concentrations of mono-ethyl phthalate, methyl and propyl parabens, and BP3 (28%, 30%, 39%, and 42% higher, respectively). Individuals who reported "Always" using sunscreen had significantly higher urinary concentrations of triclosan, methyl, ethyl, and propyl parabens, and BP3 (59%, 92%, 102%, 151%, and 510% higher, respectively) compared with "Never" users of sunscreen. Associations between exposure biomarkers and sunscreen use were stronger in women compared with men, and associations with mouthwash use were generally stronger in men compared with women. These results suggest that sunscreen and mouthwash may be important exposure sources for EDCs.
Project description:Physical activity and time spent outdoors may be important non-pharmacological approaches to improve sleep quality and duration (or sleep patterns) but there is little empirical research evaluating the two simultaneously. The current study assesses the role of physical activity and time outdoors in predicting sleep health by using objective measurement of the three variables. A convenience sample of 360 adult women (mean age = 55.38 ±9.89 years; mean body mass index = 27.74 ±6.12) was recruited from different regions of the U.S. Participants wore a Global Positioning System device and ActiGraph GT3X+ accelerometers on the hip for 7 days and on the wrist for 7 days and 7 nights to assess total time and time of day spent outdoors, total minutes in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity per day, and 4 measures of sleep health, respectively. A generalized mixed-effects model was used to assess temporal associations between moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, outdoor time, and sleep at the daily level (days = 1931) within individuals. There was a significant interaction (p = 0.04) between moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and time spent outdoors in predicting total sleep time but not for predicting sleep efficiency. Increasing time outdoors in the afternoon (versus morning) predicted lower sleep efficiency, but had no effect on total sleep time. Time spent outdoors and the time of day spent outdoors may be important moderators in assessing the relation between physical activity and sleep. More research is needed in larger populations using experimental designs.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Understanding important sources and pathways of exposure to common chemicals known or suspected to impact human health is critical to eliminate or reduce the exposure. This is particularly important in areas such as Puerto Rico, where residents have higher exposures to numerous chemicals, as well as higher rates of many adverse health outcomes, compared to the mainland US. OBJECTIVE:The aim of this study was to assess distributions, time trends, and predictors of urinary triclocarban, phenol, and paraben biomarkers measured at multiple times during pregnancy among women living in Northern Puerto Rico. METHODS:We recruited 1003 pregnant women between years 2010 and 2016 from prenatal clinics and collected urine samples and questionnaire data on personal care product use at up to three separate visits, between 16 and 28?weeks gestation. Urine samples were analyzed for triclocarban, seven phenols and four parabens: 2,4-dichlorophenol, 2,5-dichlorophenol, benzophenone-3, bisphenol A (BPA), bisphenol S (BPS), bisphenol F, triclosan, butylparaben, ethylparaben, methylparaben, and propylparaben. RESULTS:Detectable triclocarban, phenol and paraben concentrations among pregnant women were prevalent and tended to be higher than levels measured in women of reproductive age from the general US population, especially triclocarban, which had a median concentration 37 times higher in Puerto Rico participants (2.6 vs 0.07?ng/mL). A decreasing temporal trend was statistically significant for urine concentrations of BPA during the study period, while the BPA substitute BPS showed an increasing temporal trend. Significant and positive associations were found between biomarker concentrations with the products use in the past 48-h (soap, sunscreen, lotion, cosmetics). There was an increasing trend of triclocarban/triclosan urinary concentrations with increased concentrations of triclocarban/triclosan listed as the active ingredient in the bar soap/liquid soap products reported being used. CONCLUSION:Our results suggest several potential exposure sources to triclocarban, phenols, and parabens in this population and may help inform targeted approaches to reduce exposure.
Project description:Skin cancer studies depend on questionnaires to estimate exposure to ultraviolet light and subsequent risk but are limited by recall bias. We investigate the feasibility of developing a short checklist of categories comprising outdoor activities that can improve sun exposure questionnaires for use in epidemiologic studies. We recruited 124 working and retired U.S. radiologic technologists (52% women). Each subject was instructed to complete a daily activity diary, listing main indoor and outdoor activities between 9:00 A.M. and 5:00 P.M. during a 7 day period. A total of 4,697 entries were associated with 1408 h (21.1%) of the total 6,944 h spent outdoors. We were able to classify the activities into seven main activity categories: driving, yard work, home-maintenance, walking or performing errands, water activities, other recreational or sports activities and leisure activities or relaxing outside. These activities accounted for more than 94% of time spent outdoors both for working and retired men and women. Our data document the feasibility and guidance for developing a short checklist of outdoor activities for use in epidemiologic questionnaires for estimating sunlight exposures of working and retired indoor workers.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Subfertile women have higher risk of glucose intolerance during pregnancy. Studies suggest associations between several endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and pregnancy glucose levels. However, the association between benzophenone-3 (BP-3), an EDC widely found in sunscreen, and pregnancy glucose levels remains unclear. We aimed to assess the association between perinatal exposures to BP-3 and pregnancy glucose levels in subfertile women. METHODS:We evaluated 217 women from a prospective cohort based at a fertility clinic who had urinary BP-3 concentrations measured during 3-month preconception, first and/or second trimesters, and blood glucose measured at glucose load tests (GLTs) during late pregnancy. Multivariable linear and logistic regression models were used to assess associations between time-specific BP-3 in quartiles (Q1 - Q4) and mean glucose levels, as well as odds of abnormal GLT (glucose level???140?mg/dL), adjusting for potential confounders. Effect modification was assessed by age, season, BMI, infertility diagnosis, sex of fetus (es) and physical activity. RESULTS:Women with higher first trimester BP-3 concentrations had lower mean glucose levels [mean glucose (95% CI) for Q4 vs Q1?=?103.4 (95.0, 112.5) vs. 114.6 (105.8, 124.2) mg/dL]. Women with higher second trimester BP-3 concentrations had lower odds of abnormal GLT [OR (95% CI) for Q3 vs. Q1?=?0.12 (0.01, 0.94)]. The associations between BP-3 and glucose levels were modified by several factors: women with female-factor infertility, urine collected during summer, older age, lower BMI, or carried female fetus (es) had the strongest inverse associations between BP-3 and glucose levels, while no associations were observed in the remaining subgroups. CONCLUSIONS:Time-specific inverse associations between BP-3 and pregnancy glucose levels existed in subfertile women, and especially among certain subgroups of this high-risk-population.
Project description:New Zealand (NZ) has the highest melanoma incidence rate in the world. Primary prevention efforts focus on reducing sunburn incidence and increasing sun protective practices in the population. However, sunburn from excessive ultraviolet radiation (UVR) remains common. To reduce sunburn incidence, it is important to examine those individuals who experience unintended sunburn. This study aims to use data from the NZ Triennial Sun Protection Survey to describe respondents who were not intending to tan but were sunburnt after outdoor UVR exposure. Information on sociodemographics, concurrent weather conditions, sun protection attitudes and knowledge, and outdoor behaviour was also collected. The results showed 13.5% of respondents' experienced unintended sunburn during the survey weekend but had not attempted to obtain a tan that summer. Respondents who reported unintended sunburn were more likely than others to have been near water and in unshaded areas, used sunscreen, had higher SunSmart knowledge scores, had lower positive attitudes towards tanning, and were outdoors for a longer duration with less body coverage. As sunburn was unintended these respondents' outdoor sun protective behaviours may be amenable to change. Future public health initiatives should focus on increasing sun protection (clothing and shade) and reducing potential barriers to sun protection.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Australia and New Zealand have the highest skin cancer incidence rates worldwide, and sun exposure is the main risk factor for developing skin cancer. Sun exposure during childhood and adolescence is a critical factor in developing skin cancer later in life. OBJECTIVE:This study aims to test the effectiveness of wearable UV sensors to increase sun protection habits (SPH) and prevent sunburn in adolescents. METHODS:During the weeklong school leavers outdoor festival (November 2019) at the Gold Coast, Australia, registered attendees aged 15-19 years were recruited into the field study. Participants were provided with a wearable UV sensor and free sunscreen. The primary outcome was sun exposure practices using the SPH index. Secondary outcomes were self-reported sunburns, sunscreen use, and satisfaction with the wearable UV sensor. RESULTS:A total of 663 participants were enrolled in the study, and complete data were available for 188 participants (188/663, 28.4% response rate). Participants provided with a wearable UV sensor significantly improved their use of sunglasses (P=.004) and sunscreen use both on the face (P<.001) and on other parts of the body (P=.005). However, the use of long-sleeve shirts (P<.001) and the use of a hat (P<.001) decreased. During the study period, 31.4% (59/188) of the participants reported receiving one or more sunburns. Satisfaction with the wearable UV sensor was high, with 73.4% (138/188) of participants reporting the UV sensor was helpful to remind them to use sun protection. CONCLUSIONS:Devices that target health behaviors when outdoors, such as wearable UV sensors, may improve use of sunscreen and sunglasses in adolescents.
Project description:Praziquantel treatment of schistosomiasis during pregnancy was only recommended in 2002; hence the effects of treatment during pregnancy are not fully known. We have therefore evaluated the effects on infection intensity and the immunological effects of praziquantel treatment against Schistosoma mansoni during pregnancy, compared with treatment after delivery.A nested cohort of 387 Schistosoma mansoni infected women was recruited within a larger trial of de-worming during pregnancy. Women were randomised to receive praziquantel or placebo during pregnancy. All women were treated after delivery. Infection intensity after treatment was assessed by a single Kato-Katz examination of stool samples with duplicate slides and categorised as undetected, light (1-99 eggs per gram (epg)), moderate (100-399 epg) or heavy (>or=400 epg). Antibodies against S. mansoni worm and egg antigens were measured by ELISA. Results were compared between women first treated during pregnancy and women first treated after delivery.At enrollment, 252 (65.1%) of the women had light infection (median (IQR) epg: 35 (11, 59)), 75 (19.3%) moderate (median (IQR) epg: 179(131, 227)) and 60 (15.5%) had heavy infection (median (IQR) epg: 749 (521, 1169)) with S. mansoni. At six weeks after praziquantel treatment during pregnancy S. mansoni infection was not detectable in 81.9% of the women and prevalence and intensity had decreased to 11.8% light, 4.7% moderate and 1.6% heavy a similar reduction when compared with those first treated after delivery (undetected (88.5%), light (10.6%), moderate (0.9%) and heavy (0%), p = 0.16). Parasite specific antibody levels were lower during pregnancy than after delivery. Praziquantel treatment during pregnancy boosted anti-worm IgG isotypes and to a lesser extent IgE, but these boosts were less pronounced than in women whose treatment was delayed until after delivery. Praziquantel had limited effects on antibodies against egg antigens.S mansoni antigen-specific antibody levels and praziquantel-induced boosts in antibody levels were broadly suppressed during pregnancy, but this was not associated with major reduction in the efficacy of praziquantel. Long-term implications of these findings in relation to resistance to re-infection remain to be explored.