Rapid ultrasensitive detection platform for antimicrobial susceptibility testing.
ABSTRACT: Rapid detection and phenotyping of pathogenic microbes is critical for administration of effective antibiotic therapies and for impeding the spread of antibiotic resistance. Here, we present a novel platform, rapid ultrasensitive detector (RUSD), that utilizes the high reflectance coefficient at high incidence angles when light travels from low- to high-refractive-index media. RUSD leverages a principle that does not require complex manufacturing, labeling, or processing steps. Utilizing RUSD, we can detect extremely low cell densities (optical density [OD] ? 5 × 10-7) that correspond to approximately 20 bacterial cells or a single fungal cell in the detection volume, which is nearly 4 orders of magnitude more sensitive than standard OD methods. RUSD can measure minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of commonly used antibiotics against gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, including Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli, within 2 to 4 h. Here, we demonstrate that antibiotic susceptibility tests for several pathogens can rapidly be performed with RUSD using both small inoculum sizes (500 cells/mL) and larger inoculum sizes (5 × 105 cells/mL) used in standard antibiotic susceptibility tests. We anticipate that the RUSD system will be particularly useful for the cases in which antibiotic susceptibility tests have to be done with a limited number of bacterial cells that are available. Its compatibility with standard antibiotic susceptibility tests, simplicity, and low cost can make RUSD a viable and rapidly deployed diagnostic tool.
Project description:(1) Objective: The objective of this study was to screen amoxicillin (AMX)-degrading bacterial strains in pig manure and optimize the fermentation conditions for these strains to achieve high fermentation rate, which can provide an effective way for the practical application of bacterial strains as antibiotic-degrading bacterial in treating livestock waste for antibiotic residues. (2) Methods: Antibiotic susceptibility tests and high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) were employed to screen AMX-degrading bacterial strains in pig manure. The culture conditions were optimized for AMX-degrading bacterial strains using Plackeet-Burman design (PBD), the steepest ascent design, and the response surface methods, coupled with the Box-Behnken design (BBD). The effects of culture time, temperature, rotator (mixing) speed, inoculum level, and initial pH value on the growth of AMX-degrading strains were investigated. Experimental data obtained from BBD were utilized to generate a second-order polynomial regression model for evaluating the effects of the tested variables on the optical density at 600 nm (OD600) of culture solutions as the growth indicator for the screened AMX-degrading strains. (3) Results: The initial pH, culture time, and the inoculum level had significant effects on the OD600 value (growth) of the screened AMX-degrading strains. The initial pH value was found to be the most critical factor influencing the growth of bacteria. The optimized culture condition for the bacterial growth determined by the response surface methodology was: the initial pH of 6.9, culture time of 52 h, and inoculum level of 2%. The average OD value of 12 different fermentation conditions in the initial fermentation tests in this study was 1.72 and the optimization resulted in an OD value of 3.00. The verification experiment resulted in an OD value of 2.94, which confirmed the adequacy of the optimization model for the determining the optimal culture condition. (4) Conclusions: The growth of the screened strain of AMX-degrading bacteria could be optimized by changing the fermentation conditions. The optimization could be achieved by using the Box-Behnken response surface method and Plackett-Burman experimental design.
Project description:Introduction: Infections due to antibiotic resistant bacteria have increased alarmingly in both developed and developing countries. Unrestrained and rapidly spreading bacterial growth has turned the management of wound infections into a serious challenge. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of different bacterial pathogens and their antibiotic susceptibility in various types of wound infections. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted to collect 105 wound swabs. All isolated bacteria were identified based on colony characteristics, gram stain and standard biochemical tests, and antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST) with the disc diffusion method. Descriptive statistics were used to present the study findings, and all analyses were performed using Stata Version 13. Results: The rate of isolation of bacteria was 92.3%. Staphylococcus aureus was found to be the most frequent isolate (55.7%), followed by Escherichia coli (23.7%), Pseudomonas spp. (8.2%), and Streptococcus pyogenes (7.2%). Gram-positive bacteria were mostly (60%) found sensitive to vancomycin, azithromycin, gentamicin, imipenem, cefixime, and ceftriaxone in this study. Among the Gram-negative bacteria, Escherichia coli (>60%) showed sensitivity to cefixime, azithromycin, cefuroxime, ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, gentamycin, and ceftazidime. Conclusions: The diversity of isolated bacteria and their susceptibility patterns signify a need to implement a proper infection control strategy, which can be achieved by carrying out antibiotic sensitivity tests of the isolates.
Project description:For the timely treatment of patients with infections in bloodstream and cerebrospinal fluid, a rapid antimicrobial susceptibility test (AST) is urgently needed. Here, we describe a direct and rapid antimicrobial susceptibility testing (dRAST) system, which can determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of bacteria from a positive blood culture bottle (PBCB) in six hours. The positive blood culture sample is directly mixed with agarose and inoculated into a micropatterned plastic microchip with lyophilized antibiotic agents. Using microscopic detection of bacterial colony formation in agarose, the total time to result from a PBCB for dRAST was only six hours for a wide range of bacterial concentrations in PBCBs. The results from the dRAST system were consistent with the results from a standard AST, broth microdilution test. In tests of clinical isolates (n?=?206) composed of 16 Gram-negative species and seven Gram-positive species, the dRAST system was accurate compared to the standard broth microdilution test, with rates of 91.11% (2613/2868) categorical agreement, 6.69% (192/2868) minor error, 2.72% (50/1837) major error and 1.45% (13/896) very major error. Thus, the dRAST system can be used to rapidly identify appropriate antimicrobial agents for the treatment of blood stream infection (BSI) and antibiotic-resistant strain infections.
Project description:Bacteremia is a life-threatening condition for which antibiotics must be prescribed within hours of clinical diagnosis. Since the current gold standard for bacteremia diagnosis is based on conventional methods developed in the mid-1800s-growth on agar or in broth-identification and susceptibility profiling for both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial species requires at least 48-72 h. Recent advancements in accelerated phenotypic antibiotic susceptibility testing have centered on the microscopic growth analysis of small bacterial populations. These approaches are still inherently limited by the bacterial growth rate. Our approach is fundamentally different. By applying environmental stress to bacteria in a microfluidic platform, we can correctly assign antibiotic susceptibility profiles of clinically relevant Gram-negative bacteria within two hours of antibiotic introduction rather than 8-24 h. The substantial expansion to include a number of clinical isolates of important Gram-negative species-Enterobacter cloacae, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa-reported here underscores the broad utility of our approach, complementing the method's proven utility for Gram-positive bacteria. We also demonstrate that the platform is compatible with antibiotics that have varying mechanisms of action-meropenem, gentamicin, and ceftazidime-highlighting the versatility of this platform.
Project description:Hospital-acquired infections, particularly in the critical care setting, have become increasingly common during the last decade, with Gram-negative bacterial infections presenting the highest incidence among them. Multi-drug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative infections are associated with high morbidity and mortality with significant direct and indirect costs resulting from long hospitalization due to antibiotic failure. Time is critical to identifying bacteria and their resistance to antibiotics due to the critical health status of patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). As common antibiotic resistance tests require more than 24 h after the sample is collected to determine sensitivity in specific antibiotics, we suggest applying machine learning (ML) techniques to assist the clinician in determining whether bacteria are resistant to individual antimicrobials by knowing only a sample's Gram stain, site of infection, and patient demographics. In our single center study, we compared the performance of eight machine learning algorithms to assess antibiotic susceptibility predictions. The demographic characteristics of the patients are considered for this study, as well as data from cultures and susceptibility testing. Applying machine learning algorithms to patient antimicrobial susceptibility data, readily available, solely from the Microbiology Laboratory without any of the patient's clinical data, even in resource-limited hospital settings, can provide informative antibiotic susceptibility predictions to aid clinicians in selecting appropriate empirical antibiotic therapy. These strategies, when used as a decision support tool, have the potential to improve empiric therapy selection and reduce the antimicrobial resistance burden.
Project description:Tigecycline, a broad-spectrum antibiotic for parenteral use, was introduced in Germany in May 2006. In the G-TEST-II trial, the susceptibility of isolates, recovered in 2007 from hospitalised patients in 15 centres, was assessed against tigecycline and comparators. Susceptibility tests were performed by the microdilution procedure. This study reports on the susceptibility of the isolates of 16 bacterial species and compares the results with those of a trial (G-TEST I) conducted prior to the introduction of tigecycline. Between 2005 and 2007, tigecycline retained activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms. By contrast, the rate of vancomycin-resistant strains among Enterococcus faecium isolates almost doubled. Moreover, an increase in resistance to broad-spectrum beta-lactams and fluoroquinolones was observed for members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. Against a background of a steadily rising number of pathogens that are resistant to various antibiotic classes, tigecycline represents an important treatment option.
Project description:The rise in carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) infections has created a global health emergency, underlining the critical need to develop faster diagnostics to treat swiftly and correctly. Although rapid pathogen-identification (ID) tests are being developed, gold-standard antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST) remains unacceptably slow (1-2 d), and innovative approaches for rapid phenotypic ASTs for CREs are urgently needed. Motivated by this need, in this manuscript we tested the hypothesis that upon treatment with ?-lactam antibiotics, susceptible Enterobacteriaceae isolates would become sufficiently permeabilized, making some of their DNA accessible to added polymerase and primers. Further, we hypothesized that this accessible DNA would be detectable directly by isothermal amplification methods that do not fully lyse bacterial cells. We build on these results to develop the polymerase-accessibility AST (pol-aAST), a new phenotypic approach for ?-lactams, the major antibiotic class for gram-negative infections. We test isolates of the 3 causative pathogens of CRE infections using ceftriaxone (CRO), ertapenem (ETP), and meropenem (MEM) and demonstrate agreement with gold-standard AST. Importantly, pol-aAST correctly categorized resistant isolates that are undetectable by current genotypic methods (negative for ?-lactamase genes or lacking predictive genotypes). We also test contrived and clinical urine samples. We show that the pol-aAST can be performed in 30 min sample-to-answer using contrived urine samples and has the potential to be performed directly on clinical urine specimens.
Project description:We tested 190 Klebsiella pneumoniae bloodstream isolates recovered from 189 patients in 30 U.S. hospitals in 23 states to determine the occurrence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) and AmpC beta-lactamase producers. Based on growth inhibition by clavulanic acid by disk and MIC test methods, 18 (9.5%) of the isolates produced ESBLs. Although the disk diffusion method with standard breakpoints identified 28 cefoxitin-nonsusceptible isolates, only 5 (18%) of these were confirmed as AmpC producers. Of two AmpC confirmatory tests, the three-dimensional extract test was easier to perform than was the double-disk approximation test using a novel inhibitor, Syn2190. Three of the five AmpC producers carried the bla(FOX-5) gene, while the other two isolates harbored the bla(ACT-1) gene. All AmpC genes were transferable. In vitro susceptibility testing with standard inocula showed that all five AmpC-producing strains were susceptible to cefepime, imipenem, and ertapenem but that with a high inoculum, more of these strains were susceptible to the carbapenems than to cefepime. All but 1 of 14 screen-positive AmpC nonproducers (and ESBL nonproducers) were susceptible to ceftriaxone and cefepime at the standard inoculum as were 6 of 6 isolates that were randomly selected and tested with a high inoculum. These results indicate that (i). a significant number of K. pneumoniae bloodstream isolates harbor ESBL or AmpC beta-lactamases, (ii). confirmatory tests are necessary to identify true AmpC producers, and (iii). in vitro, carbapenems are active against AmpC-producing strains of K. pneumoniae.
Project description:Standard antimicrobial susceptibility tests used to determine bacterial susceptibility to antibiotics are growth dependent and time consuming. The long incubation time required for standard tests may render susceptibility results irrelevant, particularly for patients infected with lethal bacteria that are slow growing on agar but progress rapidly in vivo, such as Yersinia pestis. Here, we present an alternative approach for the rapid determination of antimicrobial susceptibility, based on the quantification of the changes in the expression levels of specific marker genes following exposure to growth-inhibiting concentrations of the antibiotic, using Y. pestis and ciprofloxacin as a model. The marker genes were identified by transcriptomic DNA microarray analysis of the virulent Y. pestis Kimberley53 strain after exposure to specific concentrations of ciprofloxacin for various time periods. We identified several marker genes that were induced following exposure to growth-inhibitory concentrations of ciprofloxacin, and we confirmed the marker expression profiles at additional ciprofloxacin concentrations using quantitative RT-PCR. Eleven candidate marker transcripts were identified, of which four mRNA markers were selected for a rapid quantitative RT-PCR susceptibility test that correctly determined the Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) values and the categories of susceptibility of several Y. pestis strains and isolates harboring various ciprofloxacin MIC values. The novel molecular susceptibility test requires just 2 h of antibiotic exposure in a 7-h overall test time, in contrast to the 24 h of antibiotic exposure required for a standard microdilution test.
Project description:Cation adjusted-Mueller Hinton Broth (CA-MHB) is the standard bacteriological medium utilized in the clinic for the determination of antibiotic susceptibility. However, a growing number of literature has demonstrated that media conditions can cause a substantial difference in the efficacy of antibiotics and antimicrobials. Recent studies have also shown that minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) tests performed in standard cell culture media (e.g. RPMI and DMEM) are more indicative of in vivo antibiotic efficacy, presumably because they are a better proxy for the human host's physiological conditions. The basis for the bacterial media dependent susceptibility to antibiotics remains undefined. To address this question, we characterized the physiological response of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) during exposure to sub-inhibitory concentrations of the beta-lactam antibiotic nafcillin in either CA-MHB or RPMI?+?10% LB (R10LB). Here, we present high quality transcriptomic, exo-metabolomic and morphological data paired with growth and susceptibility results for MRSA cultured in either standard bacteriologic or more physiologic relevant medium.