Cytokines in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders: New data and an updated meta-analysis.
ABSTRACT: Few studies have been conducted examining cytokines in cerebrospinal fluid of patients compared to healthy volunteers. The goals of this study were: 1) to report original data detailing cytokine levels in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 10 patients with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder (SSD) diagnosis and 10 healthy controls and 2) to conduct a meta-analysis of the available data on cytokine levels in the CSF of patients with SSD compared to healthy controls, including our new data. Cytokine concentrations were measured using the Q-plex Human Cytokine Screen array in CSF of 10 patients with SSD and 10 healthy volunteers. For the meta-analysis, an electronic PubMed and Google Scholar search without restrictions was conducted for articles that reported on cytokine levels in CSF in patients with an SSD compared to healthy controls. Our original data revealed statistically significant increases in levels of interleukin-8 (IL-8) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1?) in the CSF of patients with an SSD compared to healthy volunteers. Our meta-analysis showed statistically significant increases in interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-8 in patients compared to healthy volunteers. Effect sizes between treated and untreated patients for IL-6 were of similar magnitude. However, IL-6 levels were higher in early stage schizophrenia patients compared to chronic schizophrenia patients. Studies with larger sample sizes, comprehensive assessments and ideally in the context of a randomized controlled intervention to minimize the impact of confounding factors are needed to fully understand the role of cytokines and inflammatory markers in the pathophysiology and treatment of schizophrenia.
Project description:Systemic inflammation has been associated with aggressive tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis. Here we performed a comprehensive analysis of 26 kinds of inflammatory cytokine expression patterns among 185 patients with breast cancer and 54 healthy volunteers followed by chemometric analysis. We identified the specific cytokine expression patterns of breast cancer patients compared to healthy volunteers with (1) VEGF, IL-9, GM-CSF, IL-13, IL-4, and IFNγ, (2) IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, IL-5, IL-7, IL-1α, GCSF, IL-1β, and TNFα and (3) IL-2, Eotaxin, MIP1β, MIP1α, IL-17, and bFGF. Among the patients with breast cancer, we identified the specific cytokine signature of metastatic patients compared to non-metastatic patients. We also established a mathematical model for distinguishing patients with breast cancer from healthy volunteers and metastatic patients from non-metastatic patients. This cytokine network analysis could provide new insights into early intervention and effective therapeutic strategy for patients with breast cancer.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder (MDD) have all been associated with immune system dysfunction, including aberrant cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of cytokines and tryptophan catabolites; however, the pattern of alterations has not been compared across disorders. We performed a meta-analysis of CSF cytokine and tryptophan catabolites in patients with these major psychiatric disorders. METHODS:Articles were identified by searching Pub Med, PsycInfo, and Web of Science, and the reference lists of these studies. RESULTS:Twenty-eight studies met the inclusion criteria (16 schizophrenia, 4 bipolar disorder, and 9 MDD). CSF levels of IL-1? and kynurenic acid were significantly increased in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder compared to healthy controls (P < .001). CSF levels of IL-6 and IL-8 were significantly increased in patients with schizophrenia and MDD compared to healthy controls (P ? .013). DISCUSSION:There is preliminary evidence for similarities in the pattern of CSF cytokine and tryptophan catabolite alterations across major psychiatric disorders, although findings must be interpreted with caution in light of small numbers of studies/subjects. Many CSF alterations are also concordant with those in the peripheral blood, particularly for schizophrenia. Findings have important implications for our understanding of the pathophysiology and treatment of major psychiatric disorders.
Project description:Infections and inflammatory processes have been associated with the development of schizophrenia and affective disorders; however, no study has yet systematically reviewed all available studies on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) immune alterations. We aimed to systematically review the CSF immunological findings in schizophrenia spectrum and affective disorders. We identified all studies investigating CSF inflammatory markers in persons with schizophrenia or affective disorders published prior to March 23, 2017 searching PubMed, CENTRAL, EMBASE, Psychinfo, and LILACS. Literature search, data extraction and bias assessment were performed by two independent reviewers. Meta-analyses with standardized mean difference (SMD) including 95% confidence intervals (CI) were performed on case-healthy control studies. We identified 112 CSF studies published between 1942-2016, and 32 case-healthy control studies could be included in meta-analyses. Studies varied regarding gender distribution, age, disease duration, treatment, investigated biomarkers, and whether recruitment happened consecutively or based on clinical indication. The CSF/serum albumin ratio was increased in schizophrenia (1 study [54 patients]; SMD?=?0.71; 95% CI 0.33-1.09) and affective disorders (4 studies [298 patients]; SMD?=?0.41; 95% CI 0.23-0.60, I2?=?0%), compared to healthy controls. Total CSF protein was elevated in both schizophrenia (3 studies [97 patients]; SMD?=?0.41; 95% CI 0.15-0.67, I2?=?0%) and affective disorders (2 studies [53 patients]; SMD?=?0.80; 95% CI 0.39-1.21, I2?=?0%). The IgG ratio was increased in schizophrenia (1 study [54 patients]; SMD?=?0.68; 95% CI 0.30-1.06), whereas the IgG Albumin ratio was decreased (1 study [32 patients]; SMD?=?-0.62; 95% CI -1.13 to -0.12). Interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels (7 studies [230 patients]; SMD?=?0.55; 95% CI 0.35-0.76; I2?=?1%) and IL-8 levels (3 studies [95 patients]; SMD?=?0.46; 95% CI 0.17-0.75, I2?=?0%) were increased in schizophrenia but not significantly increased in affective disorders. Most of the remaining inflammatory markers were not significantly different compared to healthy controls in the meta-analyses. However, in the studies which did not include healthy controls, CSF abnormalities were more common, and two studies found CSF dependent re-diagnosis in 3.2-6%. Current findings suggest that schizophrenia and affective disorders may have CSF abnormalities including signs of blood-brain barrier impairment and inflammation. However, the available evidence does not allow any firm conclusion since all studies showed at least some degree of bias and vastly lacked inclusion of confounding factors. Moreover, only few studies investigated the same parameters with healthy controls and high-quality longitudinal CSF studies are lacking, including impact of psychotropic medications, lifestyle factors and potential benefits of anti-inflammatory treatment in subgroups with CSF inflammation.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Over the past 30 years, evidence has been accumulating for an immunological component to schizophrenia etiology, including genetic links to the major histocompatibility complex, microglia activation, and dysregulated cytokine profiles. However, the degree of similarity in cytokine profiles for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, as well as the relationship between cytokine levels and brain structure, is less well understood. METHODS:To address this, we recruited 69 first-episode schizophrenia-spectrum patients, 16 first-episode bipolar patients with psychotic features, and 53 healthy controls, from the UC Davis EDAPT clinic. Blood plasma was collected and analyzed for all participants with a subset of participants that also underwent structural MRI on a 1.5T GE scanner. RESULTS:Plasma levels of interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-2, IL-6, and interferon (IFN)-? were elevated in schizophrenia patients compared to those in controls. Patients with bipolar disorder had elevated plasma IL-10 levels compared to controls, and the two patient groups did not differ significantly on any immunological measure. Percent whole-brain gray matter was inversely correlated with IFN-? and IL-12 levels in patients with schizophrenia, with a trend relationship between IFN-? and IL-12 and prefrontal cortical thickness. Furthermore, psychotic symptoms were positively related to IL-1? levels in individuals with schizophrenia. CONCLUSIONS:These data suggest a partially overlapping pattern of elevated blood cytokine levels in patients with first-episode schizophrenia and bipolar disorder with psychotic features. Furthermore, our findings suggest that elevated pro-inflammatory cytokines may be particularly involved in schizophrenia etiology, given evidence of cytokine-related decreases in total gray matter.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Since the inflammatory process has been implicated in the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorder, an important issue emerging is to assess the test-retest reliability of cytokine measurement in healthy individuals and patients with schizophrenia. The objective of the present study was to investigate the test-retest reliability of bead-based multiplex immunoassay technology (BMIT) for cytokine measurement by using a Bland-Altman plot (BAP). METHODS:Twenty healthy individuals and twenty patients with schizophrenia were enrolled, and a 17-plex cytokine assay was used to measure inflammatory biomarkers at baseline and two weeks later. The test-retest reliability was examined by BAP, 95% limits of agreement (LOA), intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), and coefficient of repeatability (CoR). RESULTS:In the healthy controls, only interleukin (IL)-2, IL-13, IL-10, IL-17, and macrophage inflammatory protein-1β showed excellent ICC. The BAP with 95% LOA determined that 13 cytokines showed acceptable 95% LOA for a 2-week test-retest reliability, and only IL-1β, IL-12 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α had significant test-retest bias. The CoR of cytokines varied significantly, ranging from 1.72 to 218.1. Compared with healthy controls, patients with schizophrenia showed significantly higher levels of IL-5, IL-13, and TNF-α and significantly lower levels of IL-4, IL-12, and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ). Of these six cytokines, IL-12 and TNF-α were considered suboptimal reliability. CONCLUSION:The findings from ICC and CoR implied that the test-retest reliability of BMIT for cytokine measurement were suboptimal. However, the BAP with 95% LOA confirmed that BMIT can reliably distinguish schizophrenia from healthy individuals in cytokine measurement, while significant within-subject variation and between-group overlapping were evident in cytokine expression.
Project description:Several lines of evidence suggest aberrant immune response in schizophrenia, including elevated levels of cytokines. These cytokines are thought to be produced by activated microglia, the innate immune cells of the central nervous system. However, increase in translocator protein 18?kDa (TSPO), a marker of activated glia, has not been found in patients with chronic schizophrenia using second-generation radiotracers and positron emission tomography (PET)-based neuroimaging. In this study we focused on patients with recent onset of schizophrenia (within 5 years of diagnosis). Quantified levels of TSPO in the cortical and subcortical brain regions using the PET-based radiotracer [(11)C]DPA-713 were compared between the patients and healthy controls. Markers of inflammation, including interleukin 6 (IL-6), were assessed in the plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in these participants. We observed no significant change in the binding of [(11)C]DPA-713 to TSPO in 12 patients with recent onset of schizophrenia compared with 14 controls. Nevertheless, the patients with recent onset of schizophrenia showed a significant increase in IL-6 in both plasma (P<0.001) and CSF (P=0.02). The CSF levels of IL-6 were significantly correlated with the levels of IL-6 in plasma within the total study population (P<0.001) and in patients with recent onset of schizophrenia alone (P=0.03). Our results suggest that increased levels of IL-6 may occur in the absence of changed TSPO PET signal in the brains of medicated patients with recent onset of schizophrenia. Future development of PET-based radiotracers targeting alternative markers of glial activation and immune response may be needed to capture the inflammatory signature present in the brains of patients with early-stage disease.
Project description:Previous studies on schizophrenia have detected elevated cytokines in both brain and blood, suggesting neuroinflammation may contribute to the pathophysiology in some cases. We aimed to determine the extent to which elevated peripheral cytokine messenger RNA (mRNA) expression: (1) characterizes a subgroup of people with schizophrenia and (2) shows a relationship to cognition, brain volume and/or symptoms. Forty-three outpatients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and matched healthy controls were assessed for peripheral cytokine mRNAs (interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-18), intelligence quotient, memory and verbal fluency, symptom severity and cortical brain volumes integral to language (that is, Broca's and Wernicke's areas). IL-1? mRNA levels were 28% increased in schizophrenia compared with controls (t(82)=2.64, P<0.01). Using a two-step clustering procedure, we identified a subgroup of people displaying relatively elevated cytokine mRNA levels (17/43 people with schizophrenia and 9/42 controls). Individuals with schizophrenia in the elevated cytokine subgroup performed significantly worse than the low-cytokine subgroup on verbal fluency (F(1,40)=15.7, P<0.001). There was a 17% volume reduction of the left pars opercularis (POp) (Broca's area) in patients with elevated cytokines compared with patients with lower cytokines (F(1,29)=9.41, P=0.005). Negative linear relationships between IL-1? mRNA levels and both verbal fluency and left POp volume were found in schizophrenia. This study is among the first to link blood biomarkers of inflammation with both cognitive deficits and brain volume reductions in people with schizophrenia, supporting that those with elevated cytokines represent a neurobiologically meaningful subgroup. These findings raise the possibility that targeted anti-inflammatory treatments may ameliorate cognitive and brain morphological abnormalities in some people with schizophrenia.
Project description:Schizophrenia is characterized by a multiplicity of symptoms arising from almost all domains of mental function. ?-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain and is increasingly recognized to have a significant role in the pathophysiology of the disorder. In the present study, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of GABA were analyzed in 41 first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients and 21 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers by high-performance liquid chromatography. We found lower CSF GABA concentration in FEP patients compared with that in the healthy volunteers, a condition that was unrelated to antipsychotic and/or anxiolytic medication. Moreover, lower CSF GABA levels were associated with total and general score of Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, illness severity and probably with a poor performance in a test of attention. This study offers clinical in vivo evidence for a potential role of GABA in early-stage schizophrenia.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To evaluate proinflammatory cytokines and leukocyte subpopulations in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood of patients with neonatal-onset multisystem inflammatory disease (NOMID) after treatment, and to compare inflammatory cytokines in the CSF and blood in 6 patients treated with 2 interleukin-1 (IL-1) blockers-anakinra and canakinumab. METHODS:During routine follow-up visits between December 2011 and October 2013, we immunophenotyped the CSF of 17 pediatric NOMID patients who were treated with anakinra, and analyzed CSF cytokine levels in samples obtained at baseline and at 3-5-year follow-up visits and compared them to samples from healthy controls. RESULTS:CSF levels of IL-6, interferon-?-inducible 10-kd protein (IP-10/CXCL10), and IL-18 and monocyte and granulocyte counts significantly decreased with anakinra treatment but did not normalize to levels in the controls, even in patients fulfilling criteria for clinical remission. CSF IL-6 and IL-18 levels significantly correlated with measures of blood-brain barrier function, specifically CSF protein (r?=?0.75 and r?=?0.81, respectively) and albumin quotient (r?=?0.79 and r?=?0.68, respectively). When patients were treated with canakinumab versus anakinra, median CSF white blood cell counts and IL-6 levels were significantly higher with canakinumab treatment (10.2 cells/mm3 versus 3.7 cells/mm3 and 150.7 pg/ml versus 28.5 pg/ml, respectively) despite similar serum cytokine levels. CONCLUSION:CSF leukocyte subpopulations and cytokine levels significantly improve with optimized IL-1 blocking treatment, but do not normalize. The correlation of CSF IL-6, IP-10/CXCL10, and IL-18 levels with clinical laboratory measures of inflammation and blood-brain barrier function suggests that they may have a role as biomarkers in central nervous system (CNS) inflammation. The difference in inhibition of CSF biomarkers between 2 IL-1 blocking agents, anakinra and canakinumab, suggests differences in efficacy in the intrathecal compartment, with anakinra being more effective. Our data indicate that intrathecal immune responses shape CNS inflammation and should be assessed in addition to blood markers.
Project description:Background: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder. The contribution of the immune system to its pathogenesis remains incompletely understood. Methods: In this study, we performed comprehensive immune cell profiling in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and peripheral blood (PB) of PD patients. Ten PD patients were diagnosed according to brain bank criteria and underwent detailed clinical examination, magnetic resonance imaging, PB and CSF immune cell profiling by multiparameter flow cytometry, and cytokine and chemokine measurements by bead-based arrays. Thirteen healthy elderly volunteers served as control population. Results: The proportions of activated T-lymphocytes and non-classical monocytes in the CSF were increased in patients with PD compared to the control group. In accordance, we found increased levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-2, IL-6 and TNF? and of the monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) in the CSF of the included PD patients. Conclusions: Our data provide novel evidence for a response of the innate and adaptive immune system in the central nervous system of patients with PD.