Rice Genome Resequencing Reveals a Major Quantitative Trait Locus for Resistance to Bakanae Disease Caused by Fusarium fujikuroi.
ABSTRACT: Bakanae disease (BD), caused by the fungal pathogen Fusarium fujikuroi, has become a serious threat in rice-cultivating regions worldwide. In the present study, quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping was performed using F2 and F3 plants derived after crossing a BD-resistant and a BD-susceptible Korean japonica rice variety, 'Samgwang' and 'Junam', respectively. Resequencing of 'Junam' and 'Samgwang' genomes revealed 151,916 DNA polymorphisms between the two varieties. After genotyping 188 F2 plants, we constructed a genetic map comprising 184 markers, including 175 kompetitive allele-specific PCR markers, eight cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) markers, and a derived CAPS (dCAPS) marker. The degree of BD susceptibility of each F2 plant was evaluated on the basis of the mortality rate measured with corresponding F3 progeny seedlings by in vitro screening. Consequently, qFfR9, a major QTL, was discovered at 30.1 centimorgan (cM) on chromosome 9 with a logarithm of the odds score of 60.3. For the QTL interval, 95% probability lay within a 7.24-7.56 Mbp interval. In this interval, we found that eight genes exhibited non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) by comparing the 'Junam' and 'Samgwang' genome sequence data, and are possibly candidate genes for qFfR9; therefore, qFfR9 could be utilized as a valuable resource for breeding BD-resistant rice varieties.
Project description:Rice hoja blanca (white leaf) disease can cause severe yield losses in rice in the Americas. The disease is caused by the rice hoja blanca virus (RHBV), which is transmitted by the planthopper vector Tagosodes orizicolus. Because classical breeding schemes for this disease rely on expensive, time-consuming screenings, there is a need for alternatives such as marker-aided selection. The varieties Fedearroz 2000 and Fedearroz 50, which are resistant to RHBV and to the feeding damage caused by T. orizicolus, were crossed with the susceptible line WC366 to produce segregating F2:3 populations. The F3 families were scored for their resistance level to RHBV and T. orizicolus. The F2:3 lines of both crosses were genotyped using microsatellite markers. One major QTL on the short arm of chromosome 4 was identified for resistance to RHBV in the two populations. Two major QTL on chromosomes 5 and 7 were identified for resistance to T. orizicolus in the Fd2000 × WC366 and Fd50 × WC366 crosses, respectively. This comparative study using two distinct rice populations allowed for a better understanding of how the resistance to RHBV and its vector are controlled genetically. Simple marker-aided breeding schemes based on QTL information can be designed to improve rice germplasm to reduce losses caused by this important disease.
Project description:Drought and low nitrogen are the most common abiotic stresses limiting rice productivity in the rainfed rice areas of Asia and Africa. Development and adoption of green super rice (GSR) varieties with greatly improved drought tolerance (DT) and low nitrogen tolerance (LNT) are the most efficient way to resolve this problem. In this study, using three sets of trait-specific introgression lines (ILs) in a Xian (indica) variety Huanghuazhan (HHZ) background, we identified nine DT-QTL and seven LNT-QTL by a segregation distortion approach and a genome-wide association study, respectively. Based on performances of DT and LNT and genotypes at the detected QTL, two ILs M79 and M387 with DT and LNT were selected for cross-making to validate the identified QTL and to develop DT and LNT rice lines by pyramiding two DT-QTL (qDT3.9 and qDT6.3) and two LNT-QTL (qGY1 and qSF8). Using four pairs of kompetitive allele specific PCR (KASP) SNP markers, we selected 66 F2 individuals with different combinations of the target DT- and LNT-QTL favorable alleles and they showed expected improvement in DT and/or LNT, which were further validated by the significant improvement in DT and/or LNT of their F3 progeny testing. Based on evaluation of pyramiding lines in F3 lines under drought, low nitrogen (LN) and normal conditions, four promising pyramiding lines having different QTL favorable alleles were selected, which showed significantly improved tolerances to drought and/or LN than HHZ and their IL parents. Our results demonstrated that trait-specific ILs could effectively connect QTL mapping and QTL pyramiding breeding, and designed QTL pyramiding (DQP) using ILs could be more effective in molecular rice breeding for complex quantitative traits.
Project description:Bacterial wilt, caused by the Ralstonia pseudosolanacearum species complex, is an important vascular disease that limits tomato production in tropical and subtropical regions. Two major quantitative trait loci (QTL) of bacterial wilt resistance on chromosome 6 (Bwr-6) and 12 (Bwr-12) were previously identified in Solanum lycopersicum 'Hawaii 7996'; however, marker-assisted breeding for bacterial wilt resistance is not well established. To dissect the QTL, six cleaved amplified polymorphic sites (CAPS) and derived CAPS (dCAPS) markers within the Bwr-6 region and one dCAPS marker near Bwr-12 were developed, and resistance levels in 117 tomato cultivars were evaluated. Two markers, RsR6-5 on chromosome 6 and RsR12-1 on chromosome 12, were selected based on the genotypic and phenotypic analysis. The combination of RsR6-5 and RsR12-1 effectively distinguishes resistant and susceptible cultivars. Furthermore, the efficiency of the two markers was validated in the F3 generation derived from the F2 population between E6203 (susceptible) and Hawaii 7998 (resistant). Resistant alleles at both loci led to the resistance to bacterial wilt. These markers will facilitate marker-assisted breeding of tomato resistant to bacterial wilt.
Project description:Transgressive segregation produces hybrid progeny phenotypes that exceed the parental phenotypes. Unlike heterosis, extreme phenotypes caused by transgressive segregation are heritably stable. We examined transgressive phenotypes of flowering time in rice, and revealed transgressive segregation in F2 populations derived from a cross between parents with similar (proximal) days to heading (DTH). The DTH phenotypes of the A58 × Kitaake F2 progenies were frequently more extreme than those of either parent. These transgressive phenotypes were maintained in the F3 and F4 populations. Both A58 and Kitaake are japonica rice cultivars adapted to Hokkaido, Japan, which is a high-latitude region, and have a short DTH. Among the four known loci required for a short DTH, three loci had common alleles in A58 and Kitaake, implying there is a similar genetic basis for DTH between the two varieties. A genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis based on the F4 population identified five new quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with transgressive DTH phenotypes. Each of these QTL had different degrees of additive effects on DTH, and two QTL had an epistatic effect on each other. Thus, a genome-wide SNP analysis facilitated the detection of genetic loci associated with extreme DTH phenotypes, and revealed that the transgressive phenotypes were produced by exchanging the complementary alleles of a few minor QTL in the similar parental phenotypes.
Project description:Low-temperature germinability (LTG) is an important agronomic trait that can affect the planting time, planting area, and grain yield of staple crops, such as rice. However, the genetic mechanism of LTG is still unclear. In this study, a multi-parental permanent population with 208 single segment substitution lines (SSSLs) was used to conduct a genetic dissection for LTG across four cropping seasons. LTG was a typical quantitative trait with a high combined broad-sense heritability of 0.71. By comparison with the recipient parent, Huajingxian74, 24 SSSLs were identified as carrying LTG QTLs, which were further merged into integrated QTLs with shorter genetic distances by substitution mapping. Finally, 14 LTG QTLs were mapped on ten chromosomes, including seven positive-effect and seven negative-effect QTLs, with additive effect contributions ranging from 19.2 to 39.9%. qLTG3a, a main-effect and novel QTL, was confirmed by bulk segregant analysis using an F2 segregating population, and five key recombinants were selected to develop F3 populations for progeny testing. Marker-trait association analysis fine mapped qLTG3a to a 332.7-kb physical region between markers M6026 and M6341. Within this interval, 40 annotated genes were revealed, and three genes (Os03g0213300, Os03g0214400, and Os03g0214600) were considered as pivotal candidate genes for qLTG3a based on their sequence variations and expression patterns. Besides low temperature, qLTG3a can also enhance seed germination under standard temperature and osmotic stress. In summary, this study identified some genetic factors regulating LTG and opened a new window for breeding elite direct-seeded rice varieties. It will help reduce the climate risk in the production process of rice, which is of great significance to ensuring food security.
Project description:Host plant resistance has been widely used for controlling the major rice pest brown planthopper (BPH, Nilaparvata lugens). However, adaptation of the wild BPH population to resistance limits the effective use of resistant rice varieties. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis was conducted to identify resistance-breaking genes against the anti-feeding mechanism mediated by the rice resistance gene Bph1. QTL analysis in iso-female BPH lines with single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers detected a single region on the 10th linkage group responsible for the virulence. The QTL explained from 57 to 84% of the total phenotypic variation. Bulked segregant analysis with next-generation sequencing in F2 progenies identified five SNPs genetically linked to the virulence. These analyses showed that virulence to Bph1 was controlled by a single recessive gene. In contrast to previous studies, the gene-for-gene relationship between the major resistance gene Bph1 and virulence gene of BPH was confirmed. Identified markers are available for map-based cloning of the major gene controlling BPH virulence to rice resistance.
Project description:Grain shape strongly influences the economic value and grain yield of rice. Thus, identifying quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for grain shape has been a longstanding goal in rice genetic research and breeding programs. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers are ubiquitous in the rice genome and are more abundant and evenly distributed on the 12 rice chromosomes than traditional markers. An F2 population was genotyped using the RICE6K SNP array to elucidate the mechanisms governing grain shape. Thirty-five QTLs for grain shape were detected on 11 of 12 chromosomes over 2 years. The major QTL cluster qGS7 was detected in both years and displayed strong genetic effects on grain length and width, showing consistency with GL7/GW7. Some minor QTLs were also detected, and the effects of four QTLs on seed size were then validated using BC1F6 populations with residual heterozygous lines in each QTL region. Our findings provide insights into the molecular basis of grain shape as well as additional resources and approaches for producing hybrid high-yield rice varieties.
Project description:An intraspecific genetic map for watermelon was constructed using an F2 population derived from 'Arka Manik' × 'TS34' and transcript sequence variants and quantitative trait loci (QTL) for resistance to powdery mildew (PMR), seed size (SS), and fruit shape (FS) were analyzed. The map consists of 14 linkage groups (LGs) defined by 174 cleaved amplified polymorphic sequences (CAPS), 2 derived-cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence markers, 20 sequence-characterized amplified regions, and 8 expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeat markers spanning 1,404.3 cM, with a mean marker interval of 6.9 cM and an average of 14.6 markers per LG. Genetic inheritance and QTL analyses indicated that each of the PMR, SS, and FS traits is controlled by an incompletely dominant effect of major QTLs designated as pmr2.1, ss2.1, and fsi3.1, respectively. The pmr2.1, detected on chromosome 2 (Chr02), explained 80.0% of the phenotypic variation (LOD = 30.76). This QTL was flanked by two CAPS markers, wsb2-24 (4.00 cM) and wsb2-39 (13.97 cM). The ss2.1, located close to pmr2.1 and CAPS marker wsb2-13 (1.00 cM) on Chr02, explained 92.3% of the phenotypic variation (LOD = 68.78). The fsi3.1, detected on Chr03, explained 79.7% of the phenotypic variation (LOD = 31.37) and was flanked by two CAPS, wsb3-24 (1.91 cM) and wsb3-9 (7.00 cM). Candidate gene-based CAPS markers were developed from the disease resistance and fruit shape gene homologs located on Chr.02 and Chr03 and were mapped on the intraspecific map. Colocalization of these markers with the major QTLs indicated that watermelon orthologs of a nucleotide-binding site-leucine-rich repeat class gene containing an RPW8 domain and a member of SUN containing the IQ67 domain are candidate genes for pmr2.1 and fsi3.1, respectively. The results presented herein provide useful information for marker-assisted breeding and gene cloning for PMR and fruit-related traits.
Project description:Drought stress is a constant threat to rice production worldwide. Most modern rice cultivars are sensitive to drought, and the effect is severe at the reproductive stage. Conventional breeding for drought resistant (DR) rice varieties is slow and limited due to the quantitative nature of the DR traits. Identification of genes (QTLs)/markers associated with DR traits is a prerequisite for marker-assisted breeding. Grain yield is the most important trait and to this end drought yield QTLs have been identified under field conditions. The present study reports identification of drought yield QTLs under controlled conditions without confounding effects of other factors prevalent under natural conditions. A linkage map covering 1,781.5 cM with an average resolution of 9.76 cM was constructed using an F2 population from a cross between two Japonica cultivars, Cocodrie (drought sensitive) and Vandana (drought tolerant) with 213 markers distributed over 12 rice chromosomes. A subset of 59 markers (22 genic SSRs and 37 SNPs) derived from the transcriptome of the parents were also placed in the map. Single marker analysis using 187 F2 : 3 progeny identified 6 markers distributed on chromosomes 1, 5, and 8 to be associated with grain yield under drought (GYD). Composite interval mapping identified six genomic regions/quantitative trait loci (QTL) on chromosome 1, 5, 8, and 9 to be associated with GYD. QTLs located on chromosome 1 (qGYD1.2, qGYD1.3), chromosome 5 (qGYD5.1) and chromosome 8 (qGYD8.1) were contributed by Vandana alleles, whereas the QTLs, qGYD1.1 and qQYD9.1 were contributed by Cocodrie alelles. The additive positive phenotypic variance explained by the QTLs ranged from 30.0 to 34.0%. Candidate genes annotation within QTLs suggested the role of transcription factors and genes involved in osmotic potential regulation through catalytic/metabolic pathways in drought tolerance mechanism contributing to yield.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Bakanae or foot rot disease is a prominent disease of rice caused by Gibberella fujikuroi. This disease may infect rice plants from the pre-emergence stage to the mature stage. In recent years, raising rice seedlings in seed boxes for mechanical transplanting has increased the incidence of many seedling diseases; only a few rice varieties have been reported to exhibit resistance to bakanae disease. In this study, we attempted to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) conferring bakanae disease resistance from the highly resistant japonica variety Wonseadaesoo. RESULTS:A primary QTL study using the genotypes/phenotypes of the recombinant inbred lines (RILs) indicated that the locus qBK1 WD conferring resistance to bakanae disease from Wonseadaesoo was located in a 1.59 Mb interval delimited on the physical map between chr01_13542347 (13.54 Mb) and chr01_15132528 (15.13 Mb). The log of odds (LOD) score of qBK1 WD was 8.29, accounting for 20.2% of the total phenotypic variation. We further identified a gene pyramiding effect of two QTLs, qBK WD and previously developed qBK1. The mean proportion of healthy plant for 31 F4 RILs that had no resistance genes was 35.3%, which was similar to that of the susceptible check variety Ilpum. The proportion of healthy plants for the lines with only qBK WD or qBK1 was 66.1% and 55.5%, respectively, which was significantly higher than that of the lines without resistance genes and that of Ilpum. The mean proportion of the healthy plant for 15 F4 RILs harboring both qBK WD and qBK1 was 80.2%, which was significantly higher than that of the lines with only qBK WD or qBK1. CONCLUSION:Introducing qBK WD or pyramiding the QTLs qBK WD and qBK1 could provide effective tools for breeding rice with bakanae disease resistance. To our knowledge, this is the first report on a gene pyramiding effect that provides higher resistance against bakanae disease.