A Flexible and Highly Sensitive Inductive Pressure Sensor Array Based on Ferrite Films.
ABSTRACT: There is a rapid growing demand for highly sensitive, easy adaptive and low-cost pressure sensing solutions in the fields of health monitoring, wearable electronics and home care. Here, we report a novel flexible inductive pressure sensor array with ultrahigh sensitivity and a simple construction, for large-area contact pressure measurements. In general, the device consists of three layers: a planar spiral inductor layer and ferrite film units attached on a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) membrane, which are separated by an array of elastic pillars. Importantly, by introducing the ferrite film with an excellent magnetic permeability, the effective permeability around the inductor is greatly influenced by the separation distance between the inductor and the ferrite film. As a result, the value of the inductance changes largely as the separation distance varies as an external load applies. Our device has achieved an ultrahigh sensitivity of 1.60 kPa-1 with a resolution of 13.61 Pa in the pressure range of 0-0.18 kPa, which is comparable to the current state-of-the-art flexible pressure sensors. More remarkably, our device shows an outstanding stability when exposed to environmental interferences, e.g., electrical noises from skin surfaces (within 0.08% variations) and a constant pressure load for more than 32 h (within 0.3% variations). In addition, the device exhibits a fast response time of 111 ms and a good repeatability under cyclic pressures varying from 38.45 to 177.82 Pa. To demonstrate its practical usage, we have successfully developed a 4 × 4 inductive pressure sensor array into a wearable keyboard for a smart electronic calendar application.
Project description:Abstract Fabricating flexible pressure sensors with high sensitivity in a broad pressure range is still a challenge. Herein, a flexible pressure sensor with engineered microstructures on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) film is designed. The high performance of the sensor derives from its unique pyramid?wall?grid microstructure (PWGM). A square array of dome?topped pyramids and crossed strengthening walls on the film forms a multiheight hierarchical microstructure. Two pieces of PWGM flexible PDMS film, stacked face?to?face, form a piezoresistive sensor endowed with ultrahigh sensitivity across a very broad pressure range. The sensitivity of the device is as high as 383 665.9 and 269 662.9 kPa?1 in the pressure ranges 0–1.6 and 1.6–6 kPa, respectively. In the higher pressure range of 6.1–11 kPa, the sensitivity is 48 689.1 kPa?1, and even in the very high pressure range of 11–56 kPa, it stays at 1266.8 kPa?1. The pressure sensor possesses excellent bending and torsional strain detection properties, is mechanically durable, and has potential applications in wearable biosensing for healthcare. In addition, 2 × 2 and 4 × 4 sensor arrays are prepared and characterized, suggesting the possibility of manufacturing a flexible tactile sensor. A flexible piezoresistive pressure sensor with hierarchical microstructures on its interlocked polydimethylsiloxane sensing films is fabricated by using a specially designed silicon template with the unique pyramid?wall grid microstructures of different height and a four?step mold?casting process. The sensor has ultrahigh sensitivity in a very wide pressure range, yielding better performance than most flexible pressure sensor in literature.
Project description:Flexible pressure sensors have attracted increasing attention due to their potential applications in wearable human health monitoring and care systems. Herein, we present a facile approach for fabricating all-textile-based piezoresistive pressure sensor with integrated Ag nanowire-coated fabrics. It fully takes advantage of the synergistic effect of the fiber/yarn/fabric multi-level contacts, leading to the ultrahigh sensitivity of 3.24 × 105?kPa-1 at 0-10?kPa and 2.16 × 104?kPa-1 at 10-100?kPa, respectively. Furthermore, the device achieved a fast response/relaxation time (32/24?ms) and a high stability (> 1000 loading/unloading cycles). Thus, such all-textile pressure sensor with high performance is expected to be applicable in the fields of smart cloths, activity monitoring, and healthcare device.
Project description:Wearable pressure sensors have attracted widespread attention in recent years because of their great potential in human healthcare applications such as physiological signals monitoring. A desirable pressure sensor should possess the advantages of high sensitivity, a simple manufacturing process, and good stability. Here, we present a highly sensitive, simply fabricated wearable resistive pressure sensor based on three-dimensional microstructured carbon nanowalls (CNWs) embedded in a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrate. The method of using unpolished silicon wafers as templates provides an easy approach to fabricate the irregular microstructure of CNWs/PDMS electrodes, which plays a significant role in increasing the sensitivity and stability of resistive pressure sensors. The sensitivity of the CNWs/PDMS pressure sensor with irregular microstructures is as high as 6.64 kPa-1 in the low-pressure regime, and remains fairly high (0.15 kPa-1) in the high-pressure regime (~10 kPa). Both the relatively short response time of ~30 ms and good reproducibility over 1000 cycles of pressure loading and unloading tests illustrate the high performance of the proposed device. Our pressure sensor exhibits a superior minimal limit of detection of 0.6 Pa, which shows promising potential in detecting human physiological signals such as heart rate. Moreover, it can be turned into an 8 × 8 pixels array to map spatial pressure distribution and realize array sensing imaging.
Project description:The ability to image pressure distribution over complex three-dimensional surfaces would significantly augment the potential applications of electronic skin. However, existing methods show poor spatial and temporal fidelity due to their limited pixel density, low sensitivity, or low conformability. Here, we report an ultraflexible and transparent electroluminescent skin that autonomously displays super-resolution images of pressure distribution in real time. The device comprises a transparent pressure-sensing film with a solution-processable cellulose/nanowire nanohybrid network featuring ultrahigh sensor sensitivity (>5000 kPa-1) and a fast response time (<1?ms), and a quantum dot-based electroluminescent film. The two ultrathin films conform to each contact object and transduce spatial pressure into conductivity distribution in a continuous domain, resulting in super-resolution (>1000 dpi) pressure imaging without the need for pixel structures. Our approach provides a new framework for visualizing accurate stimulus distribution with potential applications in skin prosthesis, robotics, and advanced human-machine interfaces.
Project description:The rational design of high-performance flexible pressure sensors with both high sensitivity and wide linear range attracts great attention because of their potential applications in wearable electronics and human-machine interfaces. Here, polyaniline nanofiber wrapped nonwoven fabric was used as the active material to construct high performance, flexible, all fabric pressure sensors with a bottom interdigitated textile electrode. Due to the unique hierarchical structures, large surface roughness of the polyaniline coated fabric and high conductivity of the interdigitated textile electrodes, the obtained pressure sensor shows superior performance, including ultrahigh sensitivity of 46.48 kPa-1 in a wide linear range (<4.5 kPa), rapid response/relaxation time (7/16 ms) and low detection limit (0.46 Pa). Based on these merits, the practical applications in monitoring human physiological signals and detecting spatial distribution of subtle pressure are demonstrated, showing its potential for health monitoring as wearable electronics.
Project description:Sweat-based wearable devices have attracted increasing attention by providing abundant physiological information and continuous measurement through noninvasive healthcare monitoring. Sweat pressure generated via sweat glands to the skin surface associated with osmotic effects may help to elucidate such parameters as physiological conditions and psychological factors. This study introduces a wearable device for measuring secretion sweat pressure through noninvasive, continuous monitoring. Secretion pressure is detected by a microfluidic chip that shows the resistance variance from a paired electrode pattern and transfers digital signals to a smartphone for real-time display. A human study demonstrates this measurement with different exercise activities, showing the pressure ranges from 1.3 to 2.5 kPa. This device is user-friendly and applicable to exercise training and personal health care. The convenience and easy-to-wear characteristics of this device may establish a foundation for future research investigating sweat physiology and personal health care.
Project description:Electronic skin is driving the next generation of cutting-edge wearable electronic products due to its good wearability and high accuracy of information acquisition. However, it remains a challenge to fulfill the requirements on detecting full-range human activities with existing flexible strain sensors. Herein, highly stretchable, sensitive, and multifunctional flexible strain sensors based on MXene- (Ti3C2T x -) composited poly(vinyl alcohol)/polyvinyl pyrrolidone double-network hydrogels were prepared. The uniformly distributed hydrophilic MXene nanosheets formed a three-dimensional conductive network throughout the hydrogel, endowing the flexible sensor with high sensitivity. The strong interaction between the double-network hydrogel matrix and MXene greatly improved the mechanical properties of the hydrogels. The resulting nanocomposited hydrogels featured great tensile performance (2400%), toughness, and resilience. Particularly, the as-prepared flexible pressure sensor revealed ultrahigh sensitivity (10.75?kPa-1) with a wide response range (0-61.5?kPa), fast response (33.5?ms), and low limit of detection (0.87?Pa). Moreover, the hydrogel-based flexible sensors, with high sensitivity and durability, could be employed to monitor full-range human motions and assembled into some aligned devices for subtle pressure detection, providing enormous potential in facial expression and phonation recognition, handwriting verification, healthy diagnosis, and wearable electronics.
Project description:A device, with MEMS sensors at its core, has been fabricated and tested for measuring low fluid pressure and slow flow rates. The motivation was to measure clinically relevant ranges of slow-moving fluids in living systems, such as the cerebrospinal fluid in the brain. For potential clinical utility, the device can be read transcutaneously by inductive coupling to MEMS capacitive sensors in circuits with resonance frequencies in the MHz range. Signal shifts for flow rates in the range of 0-42 mL/h and differential pressure levels between 0.1 and 2 kPa have been measured, because the sensitivity in the capacitance gap measurement is about 1 Å. The sensors have been used successfully to monitor simulated cerebrospinal fluid dynamics. The device does not utilize any internal power, since it is powered externally via the inductive coupling.
Project description:Development of conformal n-channel organic phototransistor (OPT) array is urgent for future applications of organic complementary circuits in portable and wearable electronics and optoelectronics. In this work, the ultrathin conformal OPT array based on air-stable n-type PTCDI-C13H27 was fabricated. The OPT array shows excellent electrical and photoelectrical performance, good device uniformity, and remains stable in electron mobility by 83% after 90 days compared to the initial values. Eventhough mobility, on-state current, off-state current, and photocurrent of PTCDI-C13H27 thin film phototransistor show slight decrease with the decreased bending radius, the device still remains the stable photosensitivity as high as 104 when the device is freely adhered on the 2D surfaces and 3D hemispherical sphere, which is in a class with the highest photosensitivity for perylene diimide derivatives. These results present the promising application potential of our conformable air-stable n-type PTCDI-C13H27 OPTs as the photodetection system of curved artificial compound eyes in wearable and portable electronics and optoelectronics.
Project description:MnZn ferrite thin films were deposited on p-Si substrate and used as the dielectric layer in the graphene field effect transistor for infrared and terahertz device applications. The conditions for MnZn ferrite thin film deposition were optimized before device fabrication. The infrared properties and terahertz wave modulation were studied at different gate voltage. The resistive and magnetic MnZn ferrite thin films are highly transparent for THz wave, which make it possible to magnetically modulate the transmitted THz wave via the large magnetoresistance of graphene monolayer.