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Type III collagen (COL3A1): Gene and protein structure, tissue distribution, and associated diseases.


ABSTRACT: Collagen alpha-1(III) chain, also known as the alpha 1 chain of type III collagen, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the COL3A1 gene. Three alpha 1 chains are required to form the type III collagen molecule which has a long triple-helical domain. Type III collagen, an extracellular matrix protein, is synthesized by cells as a pre-procollagen. It is found as a major structural component in hollow organs such as large blood vessels, uterus and bowel. Other functions of type III collagen include interaction with platelets in the blood clotting cascade and it is also an important signaling molecule in wound healing. Mutations in the COL3A1 gene cause the vascular type of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (vEDS; OMIM 130050). It is the most serious form of EDS, since patients often die suddenly due to a rupture of large arteries. Inactivation of the murine Col3a1 gene leads to a shorter life span in homozygous mutant mice. The mice die prematurely from a rupture of major arteries mimicking the human vEDS phenotype. The biochemical and cellular effects of COL3A1 mutations have been studied extensively. Most of the glycine mutations lead to the synthesis of type III collagen with reduced thermal stability, which is more susceptible for proteinases. Intracellular accumulation of this normally secreted protein is also found. Ultrastructural analyses have demonstrated dilated rough endoplasmic reticulum and changes in the diameter of collagen fibers. Other clinical conditions associated with type III collagen are several types of fibroses in which increased amounts of type III collagen accumulate in the target organs.

SUBMITTER: Kuivaniemi H 

PROVIDER: S-EPMC6579750 | BioStudies | 2019-01-01

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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