Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography for Diagnosis of Choroidal Neovascularization in Chronic Central Serous Chorioretinopathy after Photodynamic Therapy.
ABSTRACT: The authors evaluated the proportion of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) detected by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) in eyes with chronic central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) (more than 3 months) with previous treatment via half-dose photodynamic therapy (PDT). All patients were followed up with at least twelve months. Macular angiograms were obtained using spectral-domain OCT (SD-OCT, RTVue XR; Optovue). CNV was defined as flow in the outer retinal slab between the outer plexiform layer and Bruch's membrane. Clinical characteristics were compared between CNV and non-CNV groups. Seventy eyes of 61 patients (51 male and 10 female) were included. The average age was 46.2 years old. The average duration of symptom was 32.9 months. All patients were treated with half-dose PDT initially. Eleven eyes (15.7%) received more than one session of PDT. CNV was diagnosed in 32 of 70 eyes (45.7%) based on OCTA. Only 6 of the 32 eyes (18.8%) needed intravitreal anti- vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapy for the exudative activity of CNV. Older age (p = 0.059), larger PDT spot size (p = 0.024), and thinner subfoveal choroidal thickness (p = 0.008) were noted in CNV group. The authors conclude that OCTA reveals high rates of CNV associated with chronic CSC after PDT. Patients in the CNV group had older age, larger PDT spot size, and thinner subfoveal choroidal thickness. OCTA may be considered as a first step in identifying CNV in chronic CSC following PDT.
Project description:To evaluate the visual outcomes of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) secondary to pathological myopia in eyes treated with photodynamic therapy (PDT), and to determine the effect of lesion location and foveal involvement on visual prognosis.Interventional case series of 24 consecutive patients with myopic CNV treated with PDT. The main outcome measure was final LogMAR visual acuity (VA).Of 24 eyes, the CNV lesion was subfoveal in 11 and extrafoveal in 13. Overall, the mean LogMAR VA at 24 months was 0.72. Extrafoveal CNV lesions achieved significantly better final VA compared with subfoveal CNV (LogMAR 0.45 vs 1.05, P=0.012). Eyes with extrafoveal CNV lesions were subdivided into foveal-sparing PDT (where the PDT laser spot did not involve the foveal center) and foveal-involved PDT (where the PDT laser covered the fovea). At all time points, the group with foveal-sparing PDT had significantly better VA compared with the foveal-involved group. The final LogMAR VA for the foveal-sparing PDT group was 0.26 compared with 1.00 for the foveal-involved PDT group (P=0.003). At 24 months, 77.8% of foveal-sparing PDT cases achieved VA of ≥ 20/40, compared with 25% of foveal-involved PDT cases and 9.1% of subfoveal CNV lesions (P=0.006).For patients with myopic CNV, foveal-sparing PDT results in significantly better long-term visual outcomes compared with those with foveal-involved PDT. Foveal-sparing PDT may be of value for treatment of myopic CNV patients who are not suitable for treatment with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor injections.
Project description:PURPOSE: To evaluate the variability in subfoveal choroidal thickness measurements in patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and central serous chorioretinopathy using enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT). METHODS: One hundred and sixty eyes of 160 patients who were diagnosed with early AMD (N=40), exudative AMD (N=40), polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV, N=40), or central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC, N=40) were included in this retrospective observational study. In addition, we included 40 normal eyes of 40 subjects. Subfoveal choroidal thickness was measured manually by two masked observers based on EDI-OCT images. The correlation of choroidal thickness with the absolute value of the difference in the choroidal thickness measurement was estimated for all 200 eyes. Intraobserver and interobserver coefficients of repeatability (CRs) were calculated. RESULTS: There was a significant positive correlation between subfoveal choroidal thickness and both intraobserver (P<0.001) and interobserver (P<0.001) difference in choroidal thickness measurements. The mean intraobserver CRs in nonexudative AMD, exudative AMD, PCV, CSC, and normal eyes were ~15-21, 23-29, 24-35, 32-38, and 19-25 μm, respectively. The mean interobserver CRs were ~24-28, 30-36, 39-45, 46-57, and 26-35 μm, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Relatively great measurement variability should be considered when investigating eyes with pathologic conditions related to a thick choroid, including PCV or CSC.
Project description:To evaluate the long-term efficacy and factors involved in the recurrence and persistence of subretinal fluid (SRF) after half-dose photodynamic therapy (PDT) for chronic central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC).In this retrospective observational case series, 79 eyes (73 patients) with chronic CSC were treated with half-dose PDT and followed up for at least 3 years. They were divided into successful (64 eyes) and unsuccessful (15 eyes) groups based on SRF absorption and disease recurrence after one PDT session. Age, best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), central foveal thickness, neuroretinal thickness, height of SRF, subfoveal choroidal thickness, window defect area detected by fluorescein angiography, and PDT spot area were compared between the groups. Factors associated with PDT success and BCVA at 3 years were investigated.LogMAR BCVA improved from 0.21±0.24 to 0.08±0.16 (P<0.001) at 3 years after PDT. Compared with the unsuccessful group, the successful group had a significantly younger mean age (50.5±9.7 vs. 56.5±9.1 years, P = 0.032) and better baseline BCVA (0.18±0.23 vs. 0.32±0.25, P = 0.034). Other parameters were not significantly different. Multivariate analyses showed that unsuccessful PDT was significantly associated with lower baseline BCVA (P = 0.026) and older age (P = 0.029) and that BCVA at 3 years after PDT was positively associated with baseline BCVA (P<0.001).Half-dose PDT has a long-term efficacy in chronic CSC. Relatively early PDT may improve anatomic and functional outcomes of chronic CSC.
Project description:To compare choroidal thickness between patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and healthy controls measured using swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT).The sample comprised 157 eyes of 94 T2D patients, 48 eyes of which had diabetic macular edema (DME), and 71 normal eyes of 38 healthy patients. Subfoveal (SF) choroidal thickness, and choroidal thickness at 500-?m intervals up to 2500 ?m nasal and temporal from the fovea were measured using the SS-OCT. Choroidal thicknesses were compared between groups using Student's t-test. Additionally, Pearson correlations were calculated between diabetes duration, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels, and choroidal thickness.Mean diabetes duration was 16.6±9.5 years, while mean glycosylated hemoglobin was 7.7±1.3%. Overall, the choroid was significantly thinner in T2D patients. Individuals with DME had reduced choroidal thickness in all measurements, except at 2000 and 2500-?m nasal positions, compared to healthy controls. There was a moderate correlation between choroidal thickness and HbA1c levels in DME patients (SF: r = 0.342; p = 0.017). Diabetes duration did not correlate significantly with choroidal thickness.SS-OCT measurements revealed that the choroid was significantly thinner in T2D patients, moderate non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy patients, and DME patients than in healthy individuals. Further studies are needed to clarify the effect of diabetes on this layer and the relationship between choroidal thickness and DME.
Project description:PURPOSE:To describe treatment outcomes in a cohort of Caucasian patients with polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV). METHODS:Clinical charts from 48 eyes of 45 Caucasian patients with PCV were retrospectively reviewed. All cases were diagnosed with indocyanine green angiography. Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging were analyzed at baseline and final follow-up. RESULTS:Eyes were treated with a combination of verteporfin photodynamic therapy (PDT) and anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) (n = 24), or PDT monotherapy (n = 9), or anti-VEGF monotherapy (n = 8), or no treatment (n = 7). Aflibercept was the anti-VEGF agent in 30 out of 32 eyes. Sixteen out of 24 eyes in the combination treatment group received initial PDT at diagnosis. All treatments led to stabilization of BCVA at final visit with a trend for better visual acuity in the anti-VEGF monotherapy group. There was a substantial reduction in central retinal thickness associated with resolution of subfoveal fluid and improvement in retinal pigment epithelial detachment in all treatment groups. BCVA and OCT findings remained stable in eyes which received no treatment. The use of PDT was associated with 0.5 fewer intravitreal injections per annum, which was not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS:In the largest series of Caucasian patients with PCV presented to date, anti-VEGF monotherapy, PDT, or their combination preserved visual acuity and improved subfoveal exudative changes. Combination treatment was not superior to anti-VEGF monotherapy.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>To determine the structural changes in the choroid after half-dose photodynamic therapy (hPDT) in eyes with chronic central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC).<h4>Methods</h4>This was a retrospective interventional study of 29 eyes of 29 patients who underwent hPDT for chronic CSC with serous retinal detachment (SRD) and were followed for ?3 months. Enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomographic (EDI-OCT) images of the subfoveal choroid were converted to binary images. The central choroidal thickness (CCT), the cross sectional subfoveal choroidal area, the hyporeflective and hyperreflective areas of the inner, outer, and whole choroid were determined at the baseline, and at 1, 3, and 12 months after the hPDT.<h4>Results</h4>The SRDs were resolved in 26 (89.7%) eyes at 3 months after the hPDT. The mean CCT (P = 0.001), the total choroidal area (P = 0.001), and the hypo-reflective area (P = 0.003) of the whole choroid were significantly decreased from the baseline at 3 months. The hyperreflective area of whole choroid was not significantly changed during the study period (P = 0.083). The hyperreflective but not the hyporeflective area of the inner choroid was significantly decreased at 3 months (P = 0.001, P = 1.000, respectively). The hyporeflective but not the hyperreflective area of the outer choroid was significantly decreased at 3 months (P = 0.001, P = 1.000, respectively).<h4>Conclusions</h4>The hyperreflective area of the inner choroid and hyporeflective area of the outer choroid were significantly decreased after hPDT for chronic CSC. Because the hyperreflective and hyporeflective area correspond to the choroidal stroma and vessels, respectively, the decreased CCT and subfoveal choroidal area after hPDT may be attributed to a decrease in the exudative changes in the inner choroidal stroma and the reduction of the dilation of the outer choroidal vessels.
Project description:To compare visualization of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) secondary to age-related macular degeneration (AMD) using an ultrahigh-speed swept-source (SS) optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) prototype vs a spectral-domain (SD) OCTA device.Comparative analysis of diagnostic instruments.Patients were prospectively recruited to be imaged on SD OCT and SS OCT devices on the same day. The SD OCT device employed is the RTVue Avanti (Optovue, Inc, Fremont, California, USA), which operates at ?840 nm wavelength and 70 000 A-scans/second. The SS OCT device used is an ultrahigh-speed long-wavelength prototype that operates at ?1050 nm wavelength and 400 000 A-scans/second. Two observers independently measured the CNV area on OCTA en face images from the 2 devices. The nonparametric Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to compare area measurements and P values of <.05 were considered statistically significant.Fourteen eyes from 13 patients were enrolled. The CNV in 11 eyes (78.6%) were classified as type 1, 2 eyes (14.3%) as type 2, and 1 eye (7.1%) as mixed type. Total CNV area measured using SS OCT and SD OCT 3 mm × 3 mm OCTA were 0.949 ± 1.168 mm(2) and 0.340 ± 0.301 mm(2), respectively (P = .001). For the 6 mm × 6 mm OCTA the total CNV area using SS OCT and SD OCT were 1.218 ± 1.284 mm(2) and 0.604 ± 0.597 mm(2), respectively (P = .0019). The field of view did not significantly affect the measured CNV area (P = .19 and P = .18 for SS OCT and SD OCT, respectively).SS OCTA yielded significantly larger CNV areas than SD OCTA. It is possible that SS OCTA is better able to demarcate the full extent of CNV vasculature.
Project description:To evaluate the prevalence and clinical features of focal choroidal excavation (FCE) in patients presenting with central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC).This is a retrospective consecutive case series of consecutive patients with CSC who were referred for spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) between January 2010 and December 2011. Medical records were reviewed and clinical features including presence of FCE in SD-OCT, fluorescence angiography (FA), and indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) were studied.Among the 116 CSC patients assessed, FCE was found in 11 eyes of 7 (6.0%) patients. FCE was associated with subretinal fluid in six eyes of six patients and serous pigment epithelial detachment in three eyes of two patients. The mean central subfield retinal thickness of CSC eyes with FCE was 283.7 μm, compared with 377.5 μm for CSC eyes without FCE (Mann-Whitney U-test, P=0.020). Five FCE eyes of five patients had focal leakage on FA. Choroidal hyperpermeability on ICGA was found in seven CSC eyes with FCE, with four eyes showing hypofluorescent spot corresponding to the FCE. After a mean follow-up of 16 months, visual acuity of all 11 eyes with FCE remained stable or improved at the last follow-up.FCE is not an uncommon feature in patients with CSC and might be associated with choroidal hemodynamic disturbances.
Project description:The purpose of the study is to propose choroidal spatial distribution indexes (CSDIs) to represent choroidal topographic features, establish a normative database for CSDIs, and identify factors associated with CSDIs in healthy eyes. Retrospective data analysis of 363 healthy eyes from a single-center, prospective, cross-sectional, non-interventional study. Subjects were evaluated using spectral domain OCT with enhanced depth imaging. Choroidal volume and average thickness were measured with OCT in nine macular subfields defined by the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study. Vertical CSDI was defined as the natural logarithm of superior choroidal volume divided by inferior choroidal volume. Horizontal CSDI was defined as the natural logarithm of temporal choroidal volume divided by nasal choroidal volume. The overall distributions of vertical and horizontal CSDIs was analyzed. Linear regression analyses were used to identify ocular and systemic factors associated with vertical and horizontal CSDIs. The average vertical CSDI was 0.062?±?0.206, and average horizontal CSDI was 0.138?±?0.226. Both vertical and horizontal CSDIs followed normal distribution. Increasing age was significantly associated with greater vertical CSDI (choroidal volume distribution tilted toward the superior region), and longer axial length and thinner subfoveal choroidal thickness were significantly associated with greater horizontal CSDI (choroidal volume distribution tilted toward the temporal region).
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>To determine the structural changes of the choroid in eyes with central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) by enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT).<h4>Methods</h4>A retrospective comparative study was performed at two academic institutions. Forty eyes with CSC, their fellow eyes, and 40 eyes of age-matched controls were studied. Subfoveal cross sectional EDI-OCT images were recorded, and the hypo reflective and hyperreflective areas of the inner and outer choroid in the EDI-OCT images were separately measured. The images were analyzed by a binarization method to determine the sizes of the hyporeflective and hyperreflective areas.<h4>Results</h4>In the inner choroid, the hyperreflective area was significantly larger in the CSC eyes (35,640±10,229 ?m2) than the fellow eyes (22,908±8,522 ?m2) and the control eyes (20,630±8,128 ?m2; P<0.01 vs control for both, Wilcoxon signed-rank test). In the outer choroid, the hyporeflective area was significantly larger in the CSC eyes (446,549±121,214 ?m2) than the control eyes (235,680±97,352 ?m2, P<0.01). The average ratio of the hyporeflective area to the total choroidal area was smaller in the CSC eyes (67.0%) than the fellow eyes (76.5%) and the control eyes (76.7%) in the inner choroid (P<0.01, both). However, the ratio was larger in the CSC eyes (75.2%) and fellow eyes (71.7%) than in the control eyes (64.7%) in the outer choroid (P<0.01, both).<h4>Conclusions</h4>The larger hyperreflective area in the inner choroid is related to the inflammation and edema of the stroma of the choroid in the acute stage of CSC. The larger hyporeflective areas in the outer choroid is due to a dilatation of the vascular lumens of the larger blood vessels. These are the essential characteristics of eyes with CSC regardless of the onset.